Generic Zofran is used for preventing nausea and vomiting due to cancer chemotherapy or surgery. It may also be used for other conditions.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Ondansetron.
Generic Zofran is used for preventing nausea and vomiting due to cancer chemotherapy or surgery. It may also be used for other conditions.
Generic Zofran is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor blocker. It works by blocking a chemical thought to be a cause of nausea and vomiting in certain situations (e.g., chemotherapy).
Zofran is also known as Ondansetron, Vomiof, Danzetron, Ondaz.
Generic name of Generic Zofran is Ondansetron.
Brand name of Generic Zofran is Zofran.
Take each dose with a full glass of water.
Take Generic Zofran with food or an antacid to lessen stomach discomfort.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Zofran suddenly.
If you overdose Generic Zofran and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store at temperature between 2 and 30 degrees C (36 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Zofran are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Generic Zofran if you are allergic to Generic Zofran components.
Be careful with Generic Zofran if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.
Generic Zofran should be used with extreme caution in children younger than 4 months old. Safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.
Do not stop taking Generic Zofran suddenly.
Ondansetron, a potent and highly selective antagonist of serotonin at the 5-HT3 (subtype 3)-receptor, possesses potent antiemetic effects. It has not been associated with the extrapyramidal adverse effects seen with traditional antiemetics. The occurrence of extrapyramidal reactions may limit the usefulness of conventional antiemetics in neurosurgical patients because such agents interfere with serial mental status examinations and lower the seizure threshold. Therefore, ondansetron may be preferable in this patient population. Two patients with head trauma and projectile vomiting were treated successfully with ondansetron following treatment failure with prochlorperazine. These represent the first reported cases of efficacious treatment with ondansetron in neurosurgical trauma patients.
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The management of chemotherapy induced emesis presents a major difficulty in the paediatric population. Ondansetron is a 5-HT3 antagonist and its antiemetic properties have been established in adults receiving chemotherapy. Experience in the treatment of children, however, is limited. There is no standard comparative antiemetic in paediatric practice, so this European, multi-centred study aimed to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of ondansetron in a large cohort of children receiving a range of emetogenic chemotherapy regimens for malignant disease. Two hundred patients were entered into the study, of whom 183 fulfilled entry criteria. Forty per cent (10/25) of patients receiving cisplatin, 68% (27/40) receiving ifosfamide and 70% (83/118) receiving other drugs had less than 3 emetic episodes (vomit or retch) during their worst 24 hours of chemotherapy. The number of days without vomiting or retching during and shortly after receiving chemotherapy was also related to the emetic potential of the agents in the regimen: cisplatin 82/182 (45%), ifosfamide 137/213 (64%) and other agents 430/566 (76%). The control of nausea appeared better than that of emesis in each of the sub-groups analysed. Ondansetron was safe, well tolerated and effective in the prevention of vomiting in children receiving a wide variety of chemotherapy regimens.
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No differences occurred in the time to discharge, rate of unanticipated admission, or time to return to normal activity between the prophylaxis and treatment groups. The reported level of satisfaction with control of PONV was 93% in the treatment arm and 97% in the prophylaxis arm, which fall within the limits defined a priori as clinically equivalent. Female patients with a history of motion sickness or PONV who were undergoing highly emetogenic procedures had a higher reported level of satisfaction with prophylaxis than with treatment (100% vs. 90%, P = 0.043); however, the level of satisfaction with the overall outpatient surgical experience was not different.
Elevated plasma histamine levels are considered to play a part in the pathophysiology of hemodialysis-related pruritus. However, antihistaminic therapy often fails to provide sufficient relief. Elevated serotonin levels in patients on dialysis therapy have also been described but the effects of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists on hemodialysis-related pruritus remain controversial.
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A single oral dose of ondansetron, given before starting ORT to children <5 years of age with acute diarrhea and vomiting results in better oral rehydration.
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Postoperative nausea and vomiting is a common side effect of general anesthesia. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis on the efficacy and safety of ramosetron versus ondansetron in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting using the most recently published randomized controlled clinical studies.
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The combined intraoperative use of ondansetron and dexamethasone appears to be superior to no antiemetic or ondansetron alone in reducing the incidence of vomiting in children undergoing adenotonsillar surgery.
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In a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study, 130 patients (mean age 5.7 +/- 3.4 yr) received placebo, 10, 50, or 100 micrograms/kg ondansetron during a standardized anesthetic. Episodes of postoperative vomiting or retching were recorded.
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There is evidence that 5-HT3 antagonists enhance learning and memory; however, their mechanisms of action are unknown. The aim of the present work was to investigate further the role of 5-HT3 receptors involved in learning, using the specific 5-HT3 agonist 1-(m-chlorophenyl)-biguanide (mCPBG) and the 5-HT3 antagonists ondansetron and tropisetron. p-Chloroamphetamine (PCA) pretreatment was used to determine whether pre- or postsynaptic 5-HT3 receptors are involved in learning. The posttraining intraperitoneal (IP) injection of each drug was analyzed on a lever-press response on autoshaping, which is an associative learning task. The results showed that mCPBG impaired retention of the conditioned response (CR), whereas tropisetron and ondansetron improved it. In other animals, PCA alone did not affect CR but was able to block the effects of the 5-HT3 ligands. The present data suggest that the actions of 5-HT3 compounds could be due to their interaction with presynaptic 5-HT3 receptors.
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Samples of human myometrium were taken from parturients undergoing elective cesarean delivery. Effects of ondansetron, granisetron and tropisetron (over a range of 1-10(4)ng/mL) on spontaneous contraction (ratios of amplitude, interval, and duration of the contraction) were examined and compared to saline controls (n=6 for each agent).
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Seventy-eight gynecologic-cancer patients receiving 353 cycles of chemotherapy were evaluated in this study. Completed control of acute vomiting and nausea were 68% and 57.2% respectively. Complete control of acute vomiting and nausea were 56.9% and 45.4% in patients of < or = 45 years compared to 78.8% and 68.7% in those with > 45 years. Complete control of acute vomiting and nausea were 59.2% and 48.7% in those receiving cisplatin-containing regimens compared to 86.7% and 75.2% in non-cisplatin containing regimens. Univariable and multivariable analysis showed that younger patients and those who received cisplatin-containing regimens had significant lower rates of complete control of both nausea and emesis. Patients receiving the first three courses of chemotherapy had significantly higher rate of complete control of nausea but not emesis as compared to those receiving chemotherapy after the third course.
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We compared the antiemetic efficacy of ondansentron versus ondansentron and corticosteroids in cisplatin-induced emesis. None of our patients had received prior chemotherapy. All patients received chemotherapy including cisplatin 100 mg/m2. Forty patients received ondansentron alone (Group A) and 40 the combination of ondansentron and methylprednisolone (Group B). Ondansentron was given at a dose of 8 mg in 100 mL N/S over 10 min by intravenous infusion. The initial dose was administered before the cisplatin and was followed by 8 mg orally in the afternoon and before sleeping the first day of chemotherapy. During the next 2 days, the patients received 8 mg orally 3 times daily. Methylprednisolone was given as an intravenous bolus of 40 mg before chemotherapy and then together with each dose of ondansentron at a dose of 16 mg orally. Group A had significantly longer duration of nausea after chemotherapy than group B (117 +/- 111 min, 62 +/- 71 min, P < 0.013). The response on emesis was also improved in group B, especially the day of chemotherapy [treatment failure: group A: 13 patients (30%) versus group B: 5 patients (11.6%), P < 0.03] and the next day [complete response: group A: 17 patients (39.5%) versus group B: 30 patients (69.7%), P < 0.005]. Patients in group B presented more sedative effects (P < 0.001) and better appetite (P < 0.02) than patients in group A. There were no other significant differences in side effects (activity, headache, constipation, etc). We conclude that corticosteroids improve the antiemetic efficacy of ondansentron in cisplatin-induced chemotherapy, and should be included in antiemetic regimens.
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The analyses included 50 patients in each group. Decreases in systolic blood pressure were reduced among patients receiving ondansetron at all time points (P<0.05) and diastolic blood pressure did not differ between the groups (P>0.05). Among patients who received ondansetron, mean arterial pressure was higher immediately and 30minutes after spinal anesthesia (P<0.05), higher heart rates were recorded immediately, 20minutes, and 50minutes after anesthesia (P<0.05), and the incidence of nausea (P=0.020) and vomiting (P=0.031) were lower.
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There are no clinically relevant differences in efficacy and safety among the available 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists for prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced and postoperative nausea and vomiting. As a class, they have well-defined electrophysiologic activity. Changes in ECG parameters (PR, QRS, QT, QTc, JT intervals) are small, reversible, clinically insignificant, and independent of the patient population studied, and patients are asymptomatic during these changes. ECG changes are most prominent 1-2 hours after a dose of dolasetron, ondansetron, and granisetron and return to baseline within 24 hours. Clinically important adverse cardiovascular events associated with these changes are rare. No serious cardiac events (including torsade de pointes) arising from ECG interval changes have been attributed to 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist use.
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Erythromycin exhibits prokinetic properties. The drug enhances esophageal and gastric motility by acting as a motilin agonist and promoting acetylocholine release. 5-HT3 receptors are involved in the spontaneously occurring migrating motor complex and the effect of erythromycin on antral motility in dogs. The aim of the study was to investigate the hypothesis that 5-HT3 receptors are also involved in the action of erythromycin on the human esophagus.
All microspheres were spherical in shape with smooth surface and positively charged. Microspheres had also high encapsulation efficiency and the suitable particle size for nasal administration. In vitro studies indicated that all crosslinked microspheres had a significant burst effect, and sustained drug release pattern was observed until 24 hours following burst drug release. Nasal absorption of OND from crosslinked chitosan microspheres was evaluated in rats, and pharmacokinetic parameters of OND calculated from nasal microsphere administration were compared with those of both nasal and parenteral administration of aqueous solutions of OND. In vivo data also supported that OND-loaded microspheres were also able to attain a sustained plasma profile and significantly larger area under the curve values with respect to nasal aqueous solution of OND.
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Studies were carried out on 20 male adult rats to investigate how the action of the selective 5-HT3-receptor antagonists, granisetron and ondansetron, influence gastrointestinal transit under control conditions and when stomach-to-caecum transit was delayed by ileal infusion of lipid. Stomach-to-caecum transit time (SCTT) was measured using environmental hydrogen analysis. Subcutaneous administration of granisetron (BRL 43694, 40, 80 or 150 micrograms kg-1) significantly delayed the passage of the head of the baked bean meal through the stomach and the small intestine under control conditions (P < 0.05). Similarly, subcutaneous administration of ondansetron (GR 38032F, 80 or 150 micrograms kg-1) delayed control SCTT of the head of the meal but this did not reach statistical significance. In contrast, granisetron significantly reversed the delay in SCTT induced by ileal infusion of lipid at 40 (P < 0.001), 80 (P < 0.01) and 150 micrograms kg-1 (P < 0.05). Ondansetron also reversed the lipid-induced delay at 40 (P < 0.01), 80 (P < 0.001) and 150 micrograms kg-1 (P < 0.001). These apparently conflicting results may be rationalized by postulating the presence of 5-HT3 receptors on afferent nerves which, when inhibited by the specific antagonists, initiate reflexes that both accelerate and delay transit.
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Two trials involving 181 participants were included. Although no data were available for the precise time to cessation of vomiting (the primary outcome specified in the protocol for this review), one trial reported that the proportion of patients without vomiting over a 24 hour period was higher in the ondansetron and metoclopramide groups than placebo. In the second trial, ondansetron ensured complete anti-emesis for 8/12 (67%) patients within the first 4 hours and in 7/12 (58%) patients in the first 24 hr period. A few secondary outcomes were reported in the included trials.
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We have compared the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting up to 48 h after day-case gynaecological laparoscopy after oral premedication with ondansetron 4 mg, metoclopramide 10 mg or a placebo allocated randomly and assessed blindly. Emetic symptoms (nausea or vomiting) occurred in 26% of patients who received ondansetron, 42% of those who received metoclopramide and 50% of those given placebo.
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Tonsillectomy is a very common procedure, but with risks or challenges, both for the surgeon and anesthesiologist. Many places have considerable experience and expertise with this procedure, and a lot of clinical studies are continuously being presented.
A total of 74 patients were enrolled; 37 were randomly assigned to receive scopolamine, and 37 received placebo. Although the overall level of nausea after UAE was low (mean score of 2.6 out of 10), there was a lower level of nausea with those treated with scopolamine compared with placebo during the first 24 hours after embolization; the difference was statistically significant (1.8 vs 3.4, P = .03). Adverse events were more common with the patch, with two patients experiencing episodes of profound disorientation and 71% reporting substantial dry mouth. The only predictor of greater nausea was the increasing severity of pain.
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Subcutaneous ondansetron + rHuPH20 was generally well-tolerated. Subcutaneous dosing resulted in an extent of systemic exposure similar to that with intramuscular or intravenous dosing and greater than that with oral administration, and may be an option for clinical administration of ondansetron. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01572012.
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Pruritus associated with hepatic or renal failure can be a troublesome symptom, refractory to treatment and associated with significant physical and emotional distress and a reduction in quality of life for patients already burdened with chronic disease. Serotonin has been implicated as a possible pathological mediator, and, therefore, 5HT(3) antagonists have been suggested as a possible therapeutic intervention.
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