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All three statins inhibited proliferation of stimulated PBMC in a dose-dependent manner, with simvastatin being the most potent, followed by lovastatin and mevastatin. IFN beta-1b showed a similar effect; statins and IFN beta-1b together added their inhibitory potentials. Furthermore, statins reduced the expression of activation-induced adhesion molecules on T cells, modified the T helper 1/T helper 2 cytokine balance, reduced MMP-9, and downregulated chemokine receptors on both B and T cells. Besides strong anti-inflammatory properties, statins also exhibited some proinflammatory effects.
The authors reviewed adverse events (AEs) reported to the United States Food and Drug Administration to determine the percentage of statin-associated AE reports with concurrent amiodarone use for simvastatin, atorvastatin, and pravastatin. AEs affecting the following organ systems were analyzed: muscle, liver, pancreas, and bone marrow. The percentage of simvastatin reports with concurrent amiodarone use was 1.0%, compared with 0.7% of the atorvastatin-associated reports (p = not significant). The percentage of pravastatin reports with concurrent amiodarone use was 0.4% (p < 0.05 for pravastatin vs. simvastatin). Muscle toxicity was the most commonly reported statin-amiodarone AE, accounting for 77% of the reports. AEs tended to occur in older male patients (mean age, 76 years), who were on multiple other medications (mean number of other medications, five). Clinicians should be vigilant about muscle-related complaints in patients concomitantly taking amiodarone, especially in elderly patients on multiple medications. Use of a statin not metabolized through the cytochrome P450-3A4 system may be appropriate in this setting.
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Animals treated with simvastatin exhibited significantly greater morphological and structural skeletal muscle damage in comparison to the control group and injured animals without treatment.
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Statin therapy is beneficial in reducing cardiovascular events and mortalities in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Yet, there have been concerns of increased risk of diabetes with statin use. This study was aimed to evaluate the association between statins and new onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) utilizing the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service claims database. Among adult patients with preexisting IHD, new statin users and matched nonstatin users were identified on a 1:1 ratio using proportionate stratified random sampling by sex and age. They were subsequently propensity score matched further with age and comorbidities to reduce the selection bias. Overall incidence rates, cumulative rates and hazard ratios (HRs) between statin use and occurrence of NODM were estimated. The subgroup analyses were performed according to sex, age groups, and the individual agents and intensities of statins. A total of 156,360 patients (94,370 in the statin users and 61,990 in the nonstatin users) were included in the analysis. The incidence rates of NODM were 7.8% and 4.8% in the statin users and nonstatin users, respectively. The risk of NODM was higher among statin users (crude HR 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.93-2.10; adjusted HR 1.84, 95% CI 1.63-2.09). Pravastatin had the lowest risk (adjusted HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.32-1.81) while those who were exposed to more than one statin were at the highest risk of NODM (adjusted HR 2.17, 95% CI 1.93-2.37). It has been concluded that all statins are associated with the risk of NODM in patients with IHD, and it is believed that our study would contribute to a better understanding of statin and NODM association by analyzing statin use in the real-world setting. Periodic screening and monitoring for diabetes are warranted during prolonged statin therapy in patients with IHD.
Some patients with coronary artery disease experience continued progression of one or more coronary lesions despite treatment with drugs that inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity and markedly lower plasma cholesterol levels. We examined relationships between the progression of coronary artery lesions and plasma lipoproteins, in particular intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL) and its composition, in 38 patients with coronary artery disease who had been treated with simvastatin for 2 years. Patients were given lipid-lowering dietary advice; 3 months later they were started on simvastatin therapy (10 mg/d) for 1 month, and after review of their plasma cholesterol levels, the dose was increased to 20 mg/d and later to 40 mg/d if the target level of plasma cholesterol had not been attained. Progression of lesions was determined by serial quantitative coronary angiography (variability of 5.5%) and was defined as an increase in percent diameter stenosis (%S)> or =10%; regression was defined as a decrease in %S > or =10%. The proportions of cholesteryl esters (CEs) and free cholesterol decreased significantly (P<.001), and proportions of protein and triglycerides increased significantly (P<.001) in IDL during simvastatin therapy. The CE content of IDL decreased significantly (-7.2 weight [wt]%, n=20, P<.001) in nonprogressors (patients who did not show progression of any lesions) and did not change significantly (-1.8 wt%, n=14, P=.36) in progressors (patients who showed progression of one or more lesions without regression of any lesion). This decrease in IDL CE content in nonprogressors was significantly (P=.01) different compared with the corresponding change in patients classified as progressors. Mean plasma cholesterol concentration tended to increase in progressors (0.47 mmol/L) and tended to decrease in nonprogressors (-0.39 mmol/L) during the initial 3-month diet period, and these changes were significantly different (P=.02). Furthermore, this change in plasma cholesterol level during the initial diet period was correlated significantly with the change in IDL CE content during the entire study (r=.348, n=38, P=.03). These data suggest that IDL CE content may be a determinant of progression of coronary lesions and may be influenced by compliance with or metabolic response to lipid-lowering dietary advice in patients with coronary artery disease during simvastatin treatment.
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Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal gynecological cancer and often is not detected until late stages when cancer cells transcoelomically metastasize to the abdomen and typically become resistant to therapy resulting in very low survival rates. We utilize an orthotopic, syngeneic mouse model to study late stage disease and have discovered that the tumor cells within the abdominal ascites are irreversibly re-programmed, with an increased tumorigenicity and resistance to apoptosis. The goal of this study was to characterize the reprogramming that occurred in the aggressive ascites-derived cells (28-2 cells) compared to the original cell line used for tumor induction (ID8 cells). Microarray experiments showed that the majority of genes upregulated in the 28-2 cells belonged to the mevalonate pathway, which is involved in cholesterol biosynthesis, protein prenylation, and activation of small GTPases. Upregulation of mevalonate appeared to be associated with the acquisition of a p53 mutation in the ascites-derived cells. Treatment with simvastatin to inhibit HMG CoA reductase, the rate limiting enzyme of this pathway, induced apoptosis in the 28-2 cell line. Rescue experiments revealed that mevalonate, but not cholesterol, could inhibit the simvastatin-mediated effects. In vivo, daily intraperitoneal simvastatin treatment significantly regressed advanced stage disease and induced death of metastatic tumor cells. These data suggest that ovarian cancer cells become reprogrammed, with genetic mutations, and upregulation of the mevalonate pathway, which facilitates the development of advanced stage disease. The use of statins to inhibit HMGCR may provide novel therapeutic opportunities for the treatment of advanced stage EOC.
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Seventeen patients with type 2 diabetes, free of cardiovascular disease and no other cardiovascular risk factors, except for dyslipidemia, were studied together with ten healthy volunteers. The effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine, as an endothelium-dependent vasodilator, and sodium nitroprusside, as an endothelium-independent vasodilator, on the forearm blood flow was measured using venous occlusion plethysmography.
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We analyzed longitudinal plasma samples from two large multicenter clinical trials: (1) donezepil and vitamin E in mild cognitive impairment (n = 405, 24 months) and (2) simvastatin in mild to moderate AD (n = 225, 18 months).
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Fibrates are effective for modifying atherogenic dyslipidaemia, and particularly for lowering serum triglycerides. However, evidence that fibrates reduce mortality and morbidity associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), or overall mortality and morbidity, in the primary prevention of CVD is lacking.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between bilirubin levels and hyperlipidemia in patients with glucocorticoid-resistant nephritic syndrome (NS).
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We investigated the clinical and biological effects of cholesterol-lowering treatment with a statin in 19 patients with Alzheimer's disease. They received simvastatin 20 mg/day for 12 weeks in an open trial. Primary efficacy parameters were the changes after 12 weeks in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of beta-amyloid(42) (Abeta(42)), alpha-secretase-cleaved amyloid precursor protein (alpha-sAPP), beta-secretase-cleaved APP (beta-sAPP), tau, phospho-tau and the plasma levels of Abeta(42). A secondary efficacy parameter was the change in the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognition (ADAS-cog) score. After 12 weeks, CSF alpha-sAPP and CSF beta-sAPP were significantly reduced (p < 0.001), but the CSF levels of tau, phospho-tau, Abeta(42) and the plasma levels of Abeta(42) were unchanged. The ADAS-cog score was slightly increased (p < 0.05). The results suggest that simvastatin acts directly on the processing of APP by inhibiting both the alpha- and the beta-secretase pathways.
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The effect of simvastatin, a potent inhibitor of 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) was evaluated in an experimental model of myointimal hyperplasia in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Myointimal hyperplasia was induced by an air-drying injury of the left carotid artery followed by a 2%-cholesterol diet for 14 days. A 2-week oral treatment with simvastatin (6 mg/kg/day, p.o.) significantly lowered the circulating levels of cholesterol and triglycerides (41% and 49% inhibition respectively) as well as the low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Simvastatin also strongly affected the uptake of cholesterol in the arteries occurring as a consequence of vascular injury (44% inhibition, P < 0.001). Morphometric analysis revealed that both the intima and the media areas increased substantially 2 weeks after the lesion and showed a considerable smooth muscle cell accumulation in the neointima together with the presence of numerous foam cells. A 16-day oral treatment with simvastatin strongly reduced smooth muscle cells hyperplasia occurring in both the media and the intima following deendothelialization (19% and 60% inhibition respectively) suggesting that simvastatin may be a useful inhibitor of restenosis which occurs following vascular injury.
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The Hippo pathway has emerged as a fundamental regulator in tissue growth, organ size and stem cell functions, and tumorigenesis when deregulated. However, its roles and associated molecular mechanisms underlying oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) initiation and progression remain largely unknown. Here, we identified TAZ, the downstream effector of Hippo signaling, as a novel bona fide oncogene by promoting cell proliferation, migration/invasion and chemoresistance in OSCC. TAZ promoted epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and also was involved in TGF-β1-induced EMT in oral cancer cells. Furthermore, enriched TAZ sustained self-renewal, maintenance, tumor-seeding potential of oral cancer stem cells (CSCs). Remarkably, enforced TAZ overexpression conferred CSCs-like properties on differentiated non-CSCs and fueled phenotypic transition from non-CSCs to CSCs-like cells. Mechanistically, TAZ-TEADs binding and subsequent transcriptional activation of EMT mediators and pluripotency factors are presumably responsible for TAZ-mediated EMT and non-CSCs-to-CSCs conversion. Importantly, aberrant TAZ overexpression was found to be associated with tumor size, pathological grade and cervical lymph node metastasis, as well as unfavorable prognosis. Pharmacological repression of TAZ by simvastatin resulted in potent anti-cancer effects against OSCC. Taken together, our findings have revealed critical links between TAZ, EMT and CSCs in OSCC initiation and progression, and also established TAZ as a novel cancer biomarker and viable druggable target for OSCC therapeutics.
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We studied the tuberculocidal activity of simvastatin alone and in combination with first-line anti-TB drugs in J774 macrophages and during chronic TB infection.
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Statin-induced inhibition of expression of CD54 and CD18/CD11a in PBMCs and HUVECs with consecutive loss of adhesive function may contribute to the anti-inflammatory effects of these drugs and some of their beneficial clinical activities.
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The aim of this study was to assess whether diets enriched in cholesterol, sodium cholate and drugs known to modify liver cholesterol biosynthesis can modulate hepatic lipase (H-TGL) expression and activity in vivo. Female lean Zucker rats, known to be good responders to cholesterol, were fed for 7 days with a control C diet or the C diet supplemented (w/w) with either 2% cholesterol, 0.5% sodium cholate, 2% cholestyramine or simvastatin (0.1%) added to the cholestyramine diet or given by gavage (10 mg/rat) for 3 days. H-TGL activity decreased by 34% with cholesterol, and by 27% when both cholesterol and cholate were administered to the rats. Under these conditions, H-TGL mRNA decreased by 34% and 87%, respectively. The sharp decrease in H-TGL expression was associated with a strong increase in cholesteryl ester in total liver and in the liver microsome fraction. H-TGL activity decreased by 33% with cholestyramine and the mRNA level decreased by 47%. Simvastatin lowered H-TGL activity by 55% when added to the cholestyramine diet, probably because of a reduction in food intake. When administrated by gavage, simvastatin increased both the H-TGL activity (by 28%) and mRNA (by 23%). These variations may be linked to the availability of mevalonate-derived sterol and non-sterol products.
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This was a prospective non-interventional registry with a 1 year follow-up which enrolled consecutive patients with known DM and/or any vascular disease on simvastatin 40 mg monotherapy, to document lipid target achievement in clinical practice in Germany according to existing guidelines. Drug use (maintenance, add-on, switch, discontinuation) and other components of care were upon the discretion of the treating physician.
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To evaluate the effects of simvastatin combined with omega-3 fatty acids on high sensitive C-reactive protein (HsCRP), lipidemia, and fibrinolysis in coronary heart disease (CHD) and CHD risk equivalent patients with mixed dyslipidemia.