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Among patients with high cardiovascular risk, most initiated on moderate-dose statins with infrequent uptitration. In light of the recent American College of Cardiology-American Heart Association guidelines, statin initiation practices will need to change to ensure appropriate therapy for high-risk patients.
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AIM-HIGH was designed to determine whether treating residual dyslipidemia with niacin further reduces cardiovascular events in patients with CV disease on a statin at target levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
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Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 is a sterol sensing domain-containing transmembrane protein that is highly expressed on the apical surface of absorptive enterocytes. Previous studies proved that this protein facilitates the movement of free cholesterol from the gut lumen into enterocytes. Biochemical studies showed that Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 is the target of ezetimibe, a potent cholesterol absorption inhibitor. Recent studies show that genetic variation in Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 may be responsible for the inter-individual variability observed in the rates of intestinal cholesterol absorption and the response to ezetimibe.
The small intestine is a unique organ providing dietary and reabsorbed biliary cholesterol to the body. However, the molecular mechanisms whereby cholesterol is absorbed have not yet been fully understood. Recent research suggests that the newly identified Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 protein (NPC1L1) is expressed at the apical surface of enterocytes and plays a critical role in the absorption of intestinal cholesterol. Furthermore, adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCG5 and ABCG8 represent apical sterol export pumps that promote active efflux of cholesterol and plant sterols from enterocytes back into the intestinal lumen for excretion. This provides an explanation why cholesterol absorption is a selective process, with plant sterols and other noncholesterol sterols being absorbed poorly or not at all. These findings strongly support the concept that cholesterol absorption is a multistep process, which is regulated by multiple genes at the enterocyte level. The absorption efficiency of cholesterol is most likely determined by the net effect between influx and efflux of intraluminal cholesterol molecules across the brush border of the enterocyte. Combination therapy using a novel, specific, and potent cholesterol absorption (NPC1L1) inhibitor (ezetimibe) and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) offers an efficacious new approach to the prevention and treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
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Ezetimibe reduces plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by inhibiting Niemann-Pick C1-like protein 1 (NPC1L1). A recent study demonstrated that NPC1L1 plays an important role in absorption of fat-soluble vitamins including vitamin K. We evaluated whether the add-on treatment of ezetimibe affects anticoagulation in patients taking warfarin. Between October 2007 and March 2015, the administration of ezetimibe was started to a total of 101 outpatients who were already on oral anticoagulation with warfarin. We retrospectively analyzed blood lipid levels, prothrombin time international normalized ratio (PT-INR) and time in therapeutic INR range (TTR). Seventy-one patients (70 %) showed increase in PT-INR after ezetimibe treatment (1.96 ± 0.45 to 2.20 ± 0.61, p < 0.001). It was necessary to reduce the warfarin dose in 9 of 101 patients for clinical indication. There was a significant positive correlation between change in PT-INR and statin usage at baseline (p = 0.03). The mean value of changes in PT-INR of patients with taking statin was significantly larger than that of patients without taking statin (0.34 ± 0.54 vs. 0.06 ± 0.36, p = 0.03). There was an increase in the TTR (52 ± 26 to 61 ± 23 %, p < 0.0001) and a decrease in the frequency to change the dose of warfarin after the ezetimibe treatment [45 times of 735 examination days (6 %) to 20 times of 695 examination days (3 %), p = 0.02]. Our data suggest possible drug interaction between warfarin and ezetimibe. Ezetimibe may increase and stabilize the anticoagulant effect of warfarin, especially in patients taking statins.
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To investigate whether ezetimibe ameliorates hepatic steatosis and induces autophagy in a rat model of obesity and type 2 diabetes.
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Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) is a frequent familial lipid disorder associated with insulin resistance, low HDL cholesterol, high triglycerides and cholesterol levels with variable phenotypes within the same family. FCH is linked to a high risk for cardiovascular diseases. Treatment goals for lipid abnormalities are changing in recent years. Lowering elevated levels of LDL e Non HDL-cholesterol levels are primary targets of therapy. Lower LDL-C than 70 mg/dL seems to be useful to lower cardiovascular risk in patients with very high risk. Many statins are available, with different potencies and drug interactions. Combination therapy of statins and bile acid sequestrants or ezitimibe may be necessary to further decrease LDL cholesterol levels in order to meet guideline goals. High triglycerides and low HDL cholesterol are also important goals in the treatment of these patients, and frequently statins alone are insufficient to normalize the lipid profile. Combination therapy with fibrates will further lower triglycerides and increase HDL cholesterol levels; this combination is also associated with higher incidence of myopathy and liver toxicity; appropriate evaluation of patients' risk and benefits is necessary. Association of statin/niacin seems be very useful in patients with FCH, especially as niacin is the best drug to increase HDL cholesterol; this association is not linked to a higher frequency of myopathy. Niacin causes flushing, that can in part be managed with use of aspirin and extended release forms (Niaspan); niacin also may increase plasma glucose and uric acid levels. Evaluation of risks and benefits for each patient is needed.
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Eighty-six patients were randomized (45 colesevelam, 41 placebo), of whom 84 (44 colesevelam, 40 placebo) were included in the primary analysis. The mean (SD) age of the participants was 52.8 (10.8) years, and 51 (59%) were men. The difference (95% CI) in LDL-C between colesevelam and placebo after 6 weeks was -18.5% (-25.3 to -11.8). Between-group differences in LDL-C, TC, HDL-C, Tg, and apoB/apoA-I ratio after 12 weeks were -12.0% (-17.8 to -6.3), -7.3% (-12.0 to -2.6), +3.3% (-2.4 to +9.0), +2.8% (-10.4 to +15.9), and -12.2% (-20.2 to -4.2), respectively. Colesevelam was generally well tolerated, with gastrointestinal adverse events in 12 of 45 patients (27%) versus 7 of 40 (18%) in the placebo group (P = NS).
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Long-term intensive lipid therapy significantly reduced total and cardiovascular mortality in Familial Atherosclerosis Treatment Study-Observational Study. These results support the importance of lifetime risk management to improve long-term outcome.
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Even though it is firmly established that statins are the cornerstone of management of dyslipidemias, several controversies still exist in this area. In the present review, the most pertinent controversies in lipid management are discussed and the current evidence is summarized. Treatment with statins increases the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) but this increase appears to be small and outweighed by the benefits of statins on cardiovascular disease prevention. Accordingly, statin treatment-associated T2DM should not affect management decisions. In patients who cannot achieve low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets despite treatment with the maximum tolerated dose of a potent statin, adding ezetimibe appears to be the treatment of choice. Finally, patients who achieved LDL-C targets with a statin but have elevated triglyceride levels appear to have increased cardiovascular risk and adding fenofibrate appears to reduce this risk. Even though additional large randomized controlled trials are unlikely to be performed with the existing lipid-lowering agents, mechanistic, genetic and epidemiological studies, as well as careful analyses of the existing trials will provide further insights in these controversial issues and will allow the optimization of the management of dyslipidemia aiming at further reductions in cardiovascular morbidity.
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Because hospitalizations for an increase in serum creatinine level were underestimated, absolute differences may be misleading. Most patients (91%) were prescribed fenofibrate. Serum creatinine levels were measured as part of routine care and were not available for everyone or at predefined times.
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In confirmation of diet formulation and compound delivery, both the PS and EZ treatments lowered (p < 0.05) intestinal cholesterol absorption (24 and 31%, respectively), blood non-HDL cholesterol (61 and 66%, respectively), and hepatic cholesterol (45 and 55%, respectively) compared with the HF-fed animals. Blood TG concentrations were lower (p < 0.05) in the PS (49%) and EZ (68%)-treated animals compared with the HF group. The TG-lowering response in the PS-supplemented group was associated with reduced (p < 0.05) intestinal SREBP1c mRNA (0.45 fold of HF), hepatic PPARα mRNA (0.73 fold of HF), hepatic FAS protein abundance (0.68 fold of HD), and de novo lipogenesis (44%) compared with the HF group. Similarly, lipogenesis was lower in the EZ-treated animals, albeit through a reduction in the hepatic protein abundance of ACC (0.47 fold of HF).
Overall, NMD were prescribed to 7.3% of the study population. The use of NMD increased with increasing educational level (6.9% for the lowest educated elderly and 8.1% for the highest educated elderly), and education was associated with NMD [odds ratio (OR) 0.82; 95% confidence interval (CI)] 0.80-0.88 for <9 compared with > or =13 years of education) after adjustment for age, sex, type of residential area and number of dispensed drugs. Decreasing educational level was associated with a lower probability of using most of the NMD, especially oseltamivir (adjusted OR 0.16; 95% CI 0.12-0.22 for <9 years of education compared with > or =13 years of education) and ezetimibe.
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In patients at high cardiovascular risk with inadequately controlled LDL-C, alirocumab achieved significantly greater reductions in LDL-C compared with ezetimibe, with a similar safety profile.
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At all doses and across doses, ezetimibe/simvastatin reduced LDL-C levels significantly more (52-61%) than rosuvastatin (46-57%; p < or = 0.001). Significantly greater percentages of all patients (p < 0.001) and high risk patients (p < or = 0.005) attained LDL-C levels < 70 mg/dL (1.8 mmol/L) following ezetimibe/simvastatin treatment compared with rosuvastatin at the prespecified doses and across doses. Ezetimibe/simvastatin also produced significantly greater reductions in total cholesterol (p < 0.001), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.001), lipid ratios (p < or = 0.003), and apolipoprotein B (p < 0.05). Reductions in triglycerides were significantly greater with ezetimibe/simvastatin than rosuvastatin at the usual starting (p = 0.004) and next highest (p = 0.006) doses, and across all doses (p < 0.001). Increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and decreases in high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) were similar between treatment groups. Safety profiles were comparable for both treatments; however, the percent of patients with proteinuria was significantly higher following rosuvastatin treatment than ezetimibe/simvastatin, respectively at 10 mg versus 10/20 mg/day (p = 0.004) and 40 mg versus 10/80 mg/day (p < 0.001).
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This post hoc analysis compared ezetimibe 10 mg (ezetimibe) added to atorvastatin vs. doubling the atorvastatin dose on achievement of the 2009 Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) and the 2007 Joint European Prevention Guidelines primary and optional secondary lipid targets and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels.
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In the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) guidelines, the emphasis of lipid-lowering therapy is placed on reaching target plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in order to reduce the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). Although therapeutic lifestyle changes can have a positive effect on LDL-C levels, the ATP III recognizes that a majority of patients with dyslipidemia will also require drug therapy to achieve lipid targets. Currently, only a small percentage of patients, including those with CHD, are reaching goal. Early aggressive use of the effective lipid-lowering agents currently available is critical to achieve target lipid levels in a greater number of patients. Use of drug combinations further enhances the likelihood of achieving target lipid levels. Ideally, the combination of therapeutic modalities used both the endogenous and exogenous pathways of cholesterol synthesis to reduce the amount produced in the body, as well as the amount absorbed from the diet. This article reviews the pharmacotherapeutic effects of combination therapy, summarizes the strengths and weaknesses of current lipid-lowering drug combinations, and identifies the potential impact of the novel cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe on the LDL-C treatment algorithm.
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Atherosclerosis, the condition underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD), often begins in childhood. Therefore, strategies to prevent CVD should be implemented at an early age, especially in populations at high risk for CVD. In addition to lifestyle interventions, these strategies include pharmacological treatment of dyslipidemia, a well-established risk factor for CVD in adults. Several lipid-lowering agents have been evaluated in children; however, long-term safety and efficacy data are lacking. As in adults, statins are the preferred pharmacological agents in pediatric practice due to excellent efficacy and tolerability, with few adverse safety outcomes observed to date. Nevertheless, more studies are needed to confirm the lifelong benefit of lipid-lowering therapy initiated in childhood.
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Correlations of change in LDL and CRP in individuals are lowered by their measurement variability. By using average changes in LDL and CRP in study groups, meta-analysis reduces this variability to better assess their correlation.
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Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in diabetes mellitus can be followed by endothelial dysfunction, impaired vascular compliance and increased cardiovascular complications. So focus on better control of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia is as important as controlling fasting triglyceride level in type 2 DM.
This paper summarizes key clinical trials during 2014 and should be of practical interest to clinicians and cardiology researchers.
Alirocumab demonstrated significantly greater LDL-C lowering versus ezetimibe after 24 weeks with the lower 75 mg Q2W dose sufficient to provide ≥ 50% LDL-C reduction in the majority of the patients. Adverse events were comparable between groups.
We tabulated all adverse event reports listing "cancer" or "malignancy" filed with the FDA (July 2004 to March 2008) of patients taking ezetimibe or E/S, and compared those to reports of patients taking simvastatin, atorvastatin, or rosuvastatin. We calculated rates for such reports per million prescriptions. A secondary analysis examined cancer reports as a proportion of all reported adverse events for each medication.
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Coronary heart disease (CHD) risk increases with age; yet lipid-lowering therapies are significantly under-utilized in patients > 65 years. The objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of lipid-lowering therapies in older patients treated with atorvastatin 10 mg + ezetimibe 10 mg (EZ/Atorva) vs. increasing the atorvastatin dose to 40 mg.