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Ventolin (Albuterol)

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Ventolin is a high-effective medication which is indicated for the relief and prevention of airway obstruction (bronchospasm) in patients with asthma and in patients with exercise-induced asthma. Ventolin can also be used in treating patients with emphysema and chronic bronchitis when their symptoms are related to reversible airway obstruction.

Other names for this medication:

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Also known as:  Albuterol.


Ventolin belongs to a class of drugs known as bronchodilators. Ventolin is indicated for the relief and prevention of airway obstruction (bronchospasm) in patients with asthma and in patients with exercise-induced asthma. Ventolin can also be used in treating patients with emphysema and chronic bronchitis when their symptoms are related to reversible airway obstruction.

Albuterol, the active ingredient in Ventolin is a selective beta-adrenergic bronchodilator used to treat severe acute asthma and chronic bronchospasm caused by other pulmonary obstructive disorders that have not responded to other forms of therapy.

Generic names of Ventolin are Albuterol, Salbutamol.

Ventolin is also known as Albuterol, Salbutamol, Ventorlin, Asthalin, Proventil, ProAir, Salamol, Aerolin.


Follow the directions for using this medicine provided by your doctor. Use Ventolin exactly as directed.

Take this medication by mouth as directed by your doctor.

Do not crush or chew it. Swallow the pill whole. Crushing or chewing Ventolin will negate the delayed release mechanism of the medication.

-The usual effective dose is 4mg, three or four times per day.

-If adequate bronchodilation is not obtained, each single dose may be gradually increased to as much as 8mg.

-Some patients obtain adequate relief with 2 mg three or four times daily.

2 - 6 years: The minimum starting dose is 1mg three times daily. This may be increased to 2mg (1 tablet), three or four times daily.

6 - 12 years: The minimum starting dose is 2mg three times daily. This may be increased to four times daily.

Over 12 years: The minimum starting dose is 2mg three times daily. This may be increased to 4mg (2 tablets), three or four times daily.

In elderly patients or in those known to be usually sensitive to beta-adrenergic stimulant drugs, it is advisable to initiate treatment with 2 mg salbutamol three or four times per day.


If you overdose Ventolin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at a room temperature not exceeding 30 degrees C (86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Throw away the after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Ventolin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Ventolin if you are allergic to Ventolin components.

It is not known whether Ventolin will harm an unborn baby. Do not use this medicine without your doctor's advice if you are pregnant or breast-feeding.

Be careful with Ventolin if you have diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure (hypertension), hyperthyroidism, irregular heart beats (arrhythmias).

Ventolin may make you dizzy. Do not drive, use machinery, or do any activity that requires alertness until you are sure you can perform such activities safely.

Do not stop treatment, even if you are feeling better, unless your doctor tells you to. It may take 2 weeks or longer before you feel the full benefit of the medication.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Ventolin suddenly.

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Short-term treatment with extended release albuterol may increase lean body mass, decrease fat mass, and improve functional measures in patients with dystrophinopathies. However, the significant change in strength of specific muscle groups found in the pilot study was not observed in the present study. These findings may be attributed to differences in the drug release and kinetics between Repetab and Volmax formulations as they affect the concentration of available beta-2 receptors on the muscle cell surface differently.

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Treatment with salmeterol, 50 micro g bid, does not increase the risk of cardiovascular AEs in this population of COPD patients compared with placebo.

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This method was found to be simple, rapid, sensitive and accurate for determination of salbutamol in human plasma.

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Inhalation of a single dose of the long-acting beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist salmeterol protects against methacholine-induced airway obstruction and other bronchoconstricting stimuli for at least 12 hours. Hypothetically, twice daily dosing of salmeterol may result in continuous protection.

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Acute pulmonary injury can occur after a short exposure to an inhaled hydrocarbon and associated symptoms appear to respond to supportive measures, including oxygen, corticosteroids, and bronchodilators.

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Baseline measurements (mean +/- SD) were as follows: FEV1, 1.89 +/- 0.87 L; FVC, 3.02 +/- 0.99 L; respiratory resistance at 5 Hz (Rrs5), 10.3 +/- 3.85 cm H2O . s/L; and mean respiratory resistance at 5 to 20 Hz, 7.56 +/- 1.92 cm H2O/L/s. Mean baseline serum BNP level was 27 +/- 27 pg/mL. After 180 min of nesiritide infusion, the following measurements showed significant changes: FEV1 increased to 2.41 +/- 0.78 L (mean increase, 520 mL), p = 0.012; FVC increased to 3.65 +/- 1.05 L (mean increase, 630 mL), p = 0.017; and Rrs5 decreased to 8.24 +/- 4.02 cm H2O/L/s, p = 0.017. After albuterol, there were no further significant changes in these measurements.

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We examined 63 subjects with COPD (mean age: 71.7 years). Reversibility was measured by the change in FEV1 and FVC after the inhalation of salbutamol (300 microg), and we investigated the relationship between the reversibility and the parameters of HRQoL, which included St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), Visual analogue scale-8 (VAS-8), Short-Form 36-Item Health Study, Basic activities of daily living, Instrumental activities of daily living, and the Oxygen cost diagram.

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A dose-ranging study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a new long-acting, selective beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist, salmeterol.

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The relative systemic availabilities of budesonide and fluticasone between patients with severe COPD and healthy subjects were similar. In patients with COPD, a larger fraction of fluticasone was expectorated in the sputum as compared with budesonide.

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Asthma is an inflammatory disease involving the airways. E-series prostaglandins have potent anti-inflammatory effects on neutrophils and T lymphocytes. Accordingly, we tested the acute (i.e., 6 h) and chronic (i.e., 1 week) effects of oral misoprostol 200 &mgr;g in five stable asthmatics. A double-blind, randomized, crossover design was used. Airway function was assessed from measurements of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)). The number of puffs of the inhaled beta-adrenergic agonist bronchodilator, albuterol, taken for symptomatic rescue, was assessed by diary. FEV(1) measured serially for 6 h after 200 &mgr;g misoprostol was similar on misoprostol and placebo days in all subjects. In contrast, three of the five subjects showed appreciable increases in FEV(1) during a week of misoprostol compared to either baseline or placebo week. Two subjects showed no change in the FEV(1) with 1 week of misoprostol. All three of the subjects who kept a diary decreased the number of puffs of albuterol during the misoprostol compared to placebo period. Of note, in these three subjects, airway function improved (n = 1) or remained the same (n = 2) despite a diminution in the number of puffs of a beta-agonist administered. None of the subjects administered the 200-&mgr;g oral dose QID reported any significant symptoms or adverse reaction. In conclusion, several inferences can be drawn from this early preliminary study. These data suggest that a trial involving a large number of subjects, a longer period of treatment, and a more objective method of assessing inhaler use may be useful in evaluating the chronic effects of misoprostol in asthma.

ventolin nebulizer medication

One hundred twenty patients were randomized. The groups were comparable in terms of age, gender, asthma severity, previous treatments, and use of inhaled steroids. There was no significant difference between treatments in the change in PIS, length of stay, admission to hospital, or relapse rate. The epinephrine-treated group had significantly more minor side effects (such as excess or brownish nasal discharge).

ventolin daily dosage

Inhaled formoterol is a long-acting selective beta2-adrenoceptor agonist, with an onset of action of 5 minutes postdose and a bronchodilator effect that lasts for at least 12 hours. Statistically significant and clinically relevant (>120 ml) improvements in lung function [assessed using standardized/normalized area under the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) versus time curve (AUC FEV1)] were observed with inhaled formoterol 12 microg twice daily (the approved dosage in the US) compared with placebo in 12-week and 12-month, randomized, double-blind trials in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The bronchodilator efficacy of formoterol 12 microg twice daily was greater than that of oral slow-release theophylline (individualized dosages) in a 12-month trial or inhaled ipratropium bromide 40 microg four times daily in a 12-week trial. Improvement in AUC FEV1 with formoterol, but not theophylline, compared with placebo was observed in patients with irreversible or poorly-reversible airflow obstruction. Formoterol also significantly improved health-related quality of life compared with ipratropium bromide or placebo and significantly reduced symptoms compared with placebo. Combination therapy with formoterol 12 microg twice daily plus ipratropium bromide 40 microg four times daily was significantly more effective than albuterol (salbutamol) 200 microg four times daily plus the same dosage of ipratropium bromide in a 3-week, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, crossover trial. Inhaled formoterol was well tolerated in clinical trials. The incidence of investigator-determined drug-related adverse events with inhaled formoterol 12 microg twice daily was similar to that with placebo and inhaled ipratropium bromide 40 microg four times daily but lower than that with oral slow-release theophylline (individualized dosages). Importantly, there were no significant differences between formoterol and placebo or comparator drugs in cardiovascular adverse events in patients with COPD and corrected QT interval values within the normal range. In conclusion, inhaled formoterol improved lung function and health-related quality of life and reduced symptoms relative to placebo in clinical trials in patients with COPD. The drug had greater bronchodilator efficacy than oral slow-release theophylline or inhaled ipratropium bromide and showed efficacy in combination with ipratropium bromide. The adverse events profile (including cardiovascular adverse events) with formoterol was similar to that with placebo. Thus, inhaled formoterol may be considered as a first-line option for the management of bronchoconstriction in patients with COPD who require regular bronchodilator therapy for the management of symptoms.

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This study compared the protection provided by salbutamol and salmeterol against exercise-induced asthma. Asthmatic patients (n = 12) with exercise-induced asthma were exercised submaximally for 6 min on a treadmill 1, 6 and 12 h after inhalation of 200 micrograms salbutamol or 50 micrograms salmeterol. Each patient also took baseline exercise 1 h after two puffs of placebo. Two days later the drugs were administered in a double-blind trial of crossover design with an interval of 48 h between the two treatments. The main parameters measured were: air flow with a Wright flowmeter and mediator concentrations (histamine, leucotriene and prostaglandin D2 measured by radioimmunoassay) in venous blood, which was withdrawn before and 4 min after each exercise period. The maximum percentage bronchoconstriction recorded following placebo was 29 +/- 4% and following salbutamol inhalation it was 4 +/- 4%, 20 +/- 13%, 27 +/- 10%, respectively, for the exercise periods performed 1, 6 and 12 h after inhalation of the drug. Following salmeterol, the corresponding figures were 3 +/- 4%, 3 +/- 3% and 11 +/- 9%. The concentrations of mediator in plasma were significantly increased after exercise. Salbutamol and salmeterol intake reduced these concentrations both when the patients were at rest and following the exercise period. This effect of both drugs on the mediators corresponded with the protection they provided against exercise-induced asthma and was maintained for 12 h after salmeterol inhalation and for 6 h after salbutamol inhalation.

ventolin drug classification

Twenty-six established asthma investigators, who are part of the National Institutes of Health-supported Inner City Asthma Consortium, participated in a modified Delphi consensus process to identify and weight the dimensions of asthma. Factor analysis was performed to identify independent domains of asthma by using the Asthma Control Evaluation trial. CASI was validated by using the Inner City Anti-IgE Therapy for Asthma trial.

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ventolin tablets buy 2017-08-11

Central corticosteroid receptors play an important role in the regulation of the secretion of corticosterone. Although these receptors are thought to be regulated by circulating levels of corticosterone, there is evidence for direct neural control. For example, it has been shown that noradrenergic lesions can both increase and decrease corticosteroid receptors depending on the brain structure involved. In the present study, we investigated the role of different noradrenergic receptors in the rat, by examining the effect ventolin buy of the acute administration of agonists and antagonists of beta and alpha 1 noradrenergic receptors on hippocampal type I and type II corticosteroid receptor levels. The effects of these drugs were studied in adrenalectomized animals whose plasma levels of corticosterone were maintained in the physiological range by implantation of coritcosterone pellets. Our results show that the beta receptor agonist salbutamol (5 mg/kg) increased the number of type I and type II hippocampal corticosteroid receptors. This effect was blocked by the beta receptor antagonist propranolol (5 mg/kg), which had no effect on its own. In contrast, the alpha 1 receptor agonist phenylephrine (100 micrograms) reduced the number of type I and type II corticosteroid receptors, whereas the alpha 1 receptor antagonist prazosin (0.5 mg/kg) increased type I receptors. The effect of prazosin was attributed to an increase in the relative beta tonus resulting from blockade of alpha 1 receptors. Its effect was reversed by the simultaneous injection of the beta receptor antagonist propranolol. In conclusion, our results show that noradrenergic transmission can have both a facilitatory and an inhibitory action on central corticosteroid receptors by acting respectively on beta and alpha 1 noradrenergic receptors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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1. The airway and metabolic responses to an intravenous beta 2-agonist salbutamol have been investigated in normal subjects before and after chronic administration of inhaled salbutamol, 1600 micrograms daily for ventolin buy 2 weeks. 2. Before chronic inhalation of salbutamol there was a dose-dependent increase in specific airway conductance after intravenous salbutamol in cumulative doses from 25 to 300 micrograms. 3. Measurement of concentrations of blood glucose, lactate, pyruvate, glycerol, ketone bodies, non-esterified fatty acids, insulin, plasma cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP were made after each increment of salbutamol and all showed an increase apart from cyclic GMP. 4. After chronic inhalation of salbutamol there was a decrease in the airway, metabolic and insulin response to intravenous salbutamol. The cyclic AMP response showed little change. 5. This study confirms the development of adrenergic resistance in the airways of normal subjects after large does of inhaled salbutamol and shows that this is associated with widespread metabolic adrenergic resistance.

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Inhaled and oral salbutamol were compared in 12 asthmatic patients for prophylaxis in antigen-induced asthma. The patients were pretreated with 0.2- and 1.0-mg doses of inhaled salbutamol and with the standard oral 4- and 8-mg slow-release (SR) salbutamol preparations. Bronchodilatation was monitored over the ensuing 3 h and protection against antigen challenge at the end of the period. On each study day the degree of baseline airway hyperreactivity was Viagra Cheap Online determined by histamine challenge. Precautions were taken during the antigen challenge to ensure a reproducible response. Blood levels of salbutamol were monitored at hourly intervals for the 3 h after treatment and during the asthmatic reaction subsequent to challenge. Both the 0.2- and 1.0-mg inhalations caused immediate bronchodilation as compared to a placebo (p less than 0.05), but only the 1.0-mg dose protected subjects against antigen challenge (p less than 0.05). In comparison to the placebo, no bronchodilatation was achieved with the standard 4-mg oral preparation in spite of measurable blood levels, nor were the patients protected against antigen challenge at 3 h after pretreatment. However, the 8-mg SR salbutamol caused significant bronchodilatation within 2 h and suppressed antigen challenge responses as compared to placebo (p less than 0.05). It can be concluded that doses of inhaled salbutamol higher than the conventional 0.2- or the standard 4-mg oral preparations are required to protect asthmatics against inadvertent antigen exposure. In patients who are unable to use inhalers effectively, the SR preparation can be considered as an alternative.

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Minimal demineralisation occurred with sucrose, both pump and one powder inhaler. The remaining powder was associated Generic Allegra with remineralisation (p = 0.29). Overall, mean lesion depth increased (p = 0.12).

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Salmeterol (42 microg) or two puffs of placebo every 12 h in addition Zetia Renal Dosing to standard therapy (short-acting beta-agonists, corticosteroids, and anticholinergic agents).

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We studied the role of the guinea pig tracheal epithelium in modulating tracheal smooth muscle responses to the relaxant agonists albuterol, sodium nitroprusside, and theophylline. We used an in vitro preparation that allowed separation of the fluids bathing the luminal (internal) and serosal (external) surfaces of the trachea, and bronchodilators were administered to either surface of carbachol-contracted tracheae. All three drugs produced dose-dependent relaxation. However, albuterol and nitroprusside were less potent (concentration that produced half-maximal effect increased by 100- and 32-fold, respectively) when given Antabuse Cost Australia to the epithelial side with the epithelium intact compared with the epithelium denuded or compared with serosal administration with the epithelium intact. These differences were not observed for theophylline, where smooth muscle responses were independent of either the side of stimulation or of the presence or absence of the epithelium. Direct measurements of the diffusion of theophylline across the tracheal wall in the presence or absence of epithelium showed that after 5 h of incubation with a fixed luminal concentration of theophylline, only 1.7% had diffused across the tracheal wall with the epithelium intact. This increased to only approximately 3.3% when the epithelium was denuded. These results suggest that the epithelial is a relatively weak barrier for lipophilic agents but has a major role as a diffusion barrier to hydrophilic substances.

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The aim of the study was to compare the accumulation of β-adrenergic agonist residues clenbuterol (CLB) and salbutamol (SAL) in internal tissues, non-pigmented eyes and hair of laboratory animals repeatedly administered with CLB and SAL during 7 days. Experimental albino guinea pigs (n = 20) were treated with CLB (n = 10) and SAL ( Nolvadex Buy Usa n = 10) in anabolic doses of 0.25 and 2.5 mg/kg, whereas the control animal group (n = 10) was left untreated. Methodology validation showed that the ELISA assay to be suitable for β-agonists' semiquantitative determination. The results revealed a significantly higher (P < 0.05) accumulation potential of CLB in comparison with SAL in all investigated tissues. Despite of their lack of pigmentation and the applied dose, the highest residual CLB concentrations were determined in the eyes of the studied animals, followed by their hair, liver, lungs, kidney, heart and adipose and muscle tissue, whereas residual SAL concentrations found in the eyes and hair of the administered animals did not significantly differ (P > 0.05) from those obtained in their internal tissues.

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Although active transport of potassium into human platelets has been demonstrated previously, there is hitherto no evidence that human platelets have an ouabain-inhibitable Na-K ATPase in their membrane. The present study demonstrates active rubidium (used as an index of potassium influx), 86Rb(K), influx into platelets, inhibitable by ouabain, and also demonstrates the presence of specific [3H] Zyrtec D Medication ouabain binding by the human platelet. This 86Rb(K) influx was stimulated by adrenaline, isoprenaline, and salbutamol, but noradrenaline caused a mild inhibition. Active 86Rb(K) influx by platelets was inhibited markedly by timolol, mildly by atenolol, but not by phentolamine. Therefore, active 86Rb(K) influx in human platelets is enhanced by stimulation of beta adrenoceptors of the beta 2 subtype. The platelet may therefore replace the leukocyte in future studies of Na-K ATPase activity. This would be a considerable advantage in view of the ease and rapidity of preparation of platelets.

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1. The application of high-voltage paper electrophoresis (h.v.p.e.) to the identification of drug metabolites in urine and bile has been investigated. 2. The major urinary metabolite of [3H]salbutamol in man had an electrophoretic mobility indicative of a sulphate ester. 3. A metabolite of [14C]ranitidine present in rat bile was shown to contain an ionized group with a pKa corresponding to a carboxylic acid. 4. The electrophoretic mobility-pH Is Sustiva Generic profile of a metabolite of radiolabelled N"-cyano-N-[2-[5-(dimethylaminomethyl)-2-furanylmethylthio]ethyl]-N-methylguanidine (14C-AH 18801) excreted in dog urine suggested that oxidation of the tertiary amine group of the compound had occurred. 5. H.v.p.e. provided valuable information on the structure of both phases I and phase II metabolites at a stage when the material was insufficiently pure for identification by other techniques.

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Adult Wistar male rats underwent immobilization stress (IS) during forty minutes. PRL secretion presented a remarkable increase after 5 minutes, and it was higher than pre-stress values during the entire duration of the experiment. The blockade of beta-1 adrenoceptors by icv injections of practolol did not modify IS-induced PRL release. IPS 339, a selective antagonist of beta-2 adrenoceptors, also injected icv, reduced PRL secretion during stress in a dose dependent fashion. The blockade of PRL secretion due to IPS 339 was reverted by a previous icv administration of salbutamol, a classical beta-2 agonist. The data presented here suggest that central beta-2 adrenoceptors activation is an important step in the control of Cialis Generic Tadalafil stress-induced PRL secretion.

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The capacity to increase skeletal interstitial glycerol concentrations during direct beta2-adrenergic stimulation is impaired in obese subjects with normal intramyocellular concentrations, suggesting that this may be an early event in the process of triglyceride accumulation.

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This was a retrospective medical record review at six pediatric emergency departments (EDs) of otherwise healthy children 2 to 17 years of age discharged with acute asthma. Data were extracted on history, disease severity, and pharmacotherapy used in the ED and at discharge. The primary outcome was the proportion of children prescribed "comprehensive therapy," i.e., albuterol via metered dose inhaler (MDI) with oral and ICS.

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Respiratory care laboratory of a university teaching hospital.

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If inhaled corticosteroids by themselves or in combination with a long-acting beta2-adrenoceptor agonist could repress systemic inflammation, they might greatly improve clinical prognosis by reducing various complications in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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ECP in serum and sputum in asthmatic patients is higher then in normal patients. Salmeterol improved lung function tests, decreased bronchial responsiveness, decreased hypodense eosinophils number and ECP concentration in serum and sputum.

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The effects of full lung inflation on respiratory conductance (Grs) and reactance (Xrs) were measured in 15 subjects with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and 11 matched healthy control subjects. Airway distensibility was estimated from the ratio of the difference of Grs between functional residual capacity and total lung capacity to the relevant changes in lung volume (ΔGrs/ΔVl) or transpulmonary pressure (ΔGrs/ΔPtp). Similar analysis was applied to Xrs to estimate lung volume recruitment (ΔXrs/ΔVl or ΔXrs/ΔPtp). The extent of emphysema in COPD subjects was estimated from the percentage of low attenuation area (LAA) at high-resolution computed tomography. At baseline, ΔGrs/ΔVl and ΔXrs/ΔVl were significantly less in COPD than control subjects, indicating less distensibility and volume recruitment in the former. In COPD, ΔGrs/ΔPtp and ΔXrs/ΔPtp were uncorrelated with LAA but correlated with 1-s forced expiratory volume and with each other. After albuterol, both ΔGrs/ΔPtp and ΔGrs/ΔVl became significantly and negatively correlated with LAA, while ΔXrs/ΔPtp and ΔXrs/ΔVl decreased significantly independently of LAA. Moreover, ΔGrs/ΔPtp and ΔXrs/ΔPtp with lung inflation were no longer correlated with each other, suggesting that airway distensibility and volume recruitment were affected differently by airway smooth muscle tone. Assuming that Grs mainly reflects airway caliber and Xrs the number of ventilated lung units, we conclude that airway smooth muscle contributes to airway stiffness and ventilation inhomogeneities in COPD subjects with prevailing bronchitis but only to the latter in those with more emphysema. We suggest that changes of airway distensibility and volume recruitment with a bronchodilator may be useful for disease phenotyping.

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The most efficient position was that of a nebulizer placed upstream from the humidification chamber (inhalable mass ranging from 26% to 32% of the nebulizer charge). Using a mesh nebulizer, we observed a respirable mass ranging from 2% to 10% of the nebulizer charge. Higher HFT flow rates and open mouth breathing were associated with a lower efficiency. Simulating respiratory distress (i.e., increasing the simulated patient inspiratory flow) did not hamper drug delivery as compared to a quiet breathing pattern.

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Predictors of improvement in asthma control and lung function to step 3 therapy in children with persistent asthma have not been identified despite reported heterogeneity in responsiveness.

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The purpose of this study was to examine lung function and bronchodilator responsiveness in infants with a history of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), using the raised volume rapid thoracoabdominal compression technique as well as with whole-body plethysmography. Spirometric measurements were obtained in 28 infants with a history of BPD, defined as preterm birth with O2 requirement at 36 weeks postmenstrual age (gestational age at birth, 26.4 +/- 2.1 weeks, mean +/- SD; birthweight, 898 +/- 353 g; age at study, 68.0 +/- 35.6 weeks). Fractional lung volumes were measured in 27 subjects. Values were expressed as percentage of predicted normal values. Compared to normal infants, those with a history of BPD exhibited decreases in forced expiratory flows including forced expiratory volume in 0.5 sec (76.3 +/- 19.6%), forced expiratory flow at 75% of expired forced vital capacity (FEF75; 59.5 +/- 30.7%), and FEF(25-75) (74.0 +/- 26.8%; P<0.01 for all). Functional residual capacity (107.9 +/- 25.3%), residual volume (RV, 124.5 +/- 42.7%), and RV/total lung capacity (RV/TLC, 128.2 +/- 35.3%) were increased in infants with a history of BPD (P<0.05 for each). There was no difference in TLC between groups. Seventeen infants were studied both pre- and postalbuterol, and 6 (35%) demonstrated significant bronchodilator responsiveness. Infants with recurrent wheezing showed greater expiratory flow limitation, hyperinflation, and airways responsiveness, whereas those without wheezing showed only modest airway dysfunction. We conclude that infants with a history of BPD have pulmonary function abnormalities characterized by mild to moderate airflow obstruction and air trapping.

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This effect seems more related to the peculiar protection against lipid peroxidation rather than to the scavenging activity, which proves equal to that of NAC. E provides a sort of indirect bronchodilation through 're-sensitisation' of beta( 2)-adrenoceptors. Once confirmed in further controlled studies, it may be useful in long-term treatment of COPD.

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Patients were tested in random order on 2 subsequent days after using an MCD or a sham MCD. A bronchodilator (four puffs; each puff delivering 20 microg of ipratropium bromide and 120 microg of salbutamol sulfate) was administered by metered-dose inhaler with a holding chamber after use of the MCD or sham MCD. Spirometry was performed before and after use of the MCD or sham MCD, and at 30 min, 60 min, and 120 min after the bronchodilator. Six-minute walk distance was tested between 30 min and 60 min; oxygen saturation, pulse, and a dyspnea score were recorded before and after walking.

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In this group of children a single intramuscular injection of dexamethasone acetate was as effective as a 5-day course of PO Pred for the management of mild-moderate outpatient asthma exacerbations.

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Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disorder caused by mutations of the SMN1 gene. Based on severity, three forms of SMA are recognised (types I-III). All patients usually have 2-4 copies of a highly homologous gene (SMN2) which produces insufficient levels of functional survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. Recently, evidence has been provided that SMN2 expression can be enhanced in vitro by salbutamol, a β2-adrenergic agonist. This compound has also been shown to improve motor function of SMA patients in two different pilot trials.

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Acute bronchiolitis is the most frequent lower respiratory tract infection in infants, yet there are no effective therapies available. Current evidence is unclear about the role of hypertonic saline (HS) for the acute treatment of bronchiolitis.

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A rapid, selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay method was developed for simultaneous determination of ambroxol and salbutamol in human plasma using citalopram hydrobromide as internal standard (IS). The sample was alkalinized with ammonia water (33:67, v/v) and extracted by single liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. Separation was achieved on Waters Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column using a gradient program at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. Detection was performed using electrospray ionization in positive ion multiple reaction monitoring mode by monitoring the ion transitions m/z 378.9 → 263.6 (ambroxol), m/z 240.2 → 147.7 (salbutamol) and m/z 325.0 → 261.7 (IS). The total analytical run time was relatively short (3 min). Calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 0.5-100.0 ng/mL for ambroxol and 0.2-20.0 ng/mL for salbutamol, with intra- and inter-run precision (relative standard deviation) <15% and accuracy (relative error) ranging from 97.7 to 112.1% for ambroxol and from 94.5 to 104.1% for salbutamol. The method was successfully applied in a clinical pharmacokinetic study of the compound ambroxol and salbutamol tablets.

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There is increasing interest in the use of so-called 'extrafine' aerosols to target the small airways in the management of asthma and COPD. Using previously presented deposition data, we assessed whether submicron (<1μm) particles can improve central and deep lung deposition. Our data show instead that particles in the range 1-3μm are much more relevant in this respect. Based on this finding the Symbicort Turbuhaler, Seretide Diskus, Rolenium Elpenhaler and Foster (Fostair) NEXThaler ICS/LABA combination DPIs were tested in vitro as a function of the pressure drop (2, 4 and 6kPa) across the inhaler. Obtained fine particle fractions (FPFs) <5μm (as percent of label claim) were divided into subfractions <1, 1-3 and 3-5μm. Differences of up to a factor of 4 were found between the best (Turbuhaler) and worst performing DPI (Elpenhaler), particularly for the FPF in the size range 1-3μm. The NEXThaler, described as delivering 'extrafine' particles, did not appear to be superior in this size range. The marked differences in amount and size distribution of the aerosols between the devices in this study must cause significant differences in the total lung dose and drug distribution over the airways.