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Vasotec (Enalapril)

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Vasotec is an effective strong preparation which is taken in treatment of diabetes symptoms as hypertension diseases, kidney problems, and congestive heart failure. Vasotec can be also helpful for patients after heart attack. Vasotec operates by reducing blood pressure and regulating blood provision to the heart.

Other names for this medication:

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Also known as:  Enalapril.


Vasotec is created by pharmacy specialists to combat not also diabetes symptoms as hypertension diseases, kidney problems, and congestive heart failure but it can be helpful for patients after heart attack.

Target of Vasotec is to control and decrease level of blood pressure.

Vasotec is also known as Enalapril, Renitec, BQL, Benalipril, Amprace, Alphapril, Converten, Enalagamma, Enatec, Envas, Invoril, Xanef.

Vasotec operates by reducing blood pressure and regulating blood provision to the heart.

Vasotec can be used in combination with medicines for heart failure treatment.

Vasotec is ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitor.

Generic name of Vasotec is Enalapril.

Brand name of Vasotec is Vasotec.


You should take it by mouth with water.

It is better to take Vasotec once or twice a day at the same time with meals or without it.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Vasotec suddenly.


If you overdose Vasotec and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Vasotec overdosage: fainting, dizziness.


Store at room temperature below 30 degrees C (86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Vasotec if you are allergic to Vasotec components.

Be very careful with Vasotec if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Be careful with Vasotec usage in case of having angioedema, throat, heart disease, diabetes, hands, kidney disease, lower legs, lupus, scleroderma.

Be careful with Vasotec usage in case of taking diuretics; aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs) as indomethacin (Indocin); potassium supplements; lithium (such as Eskalith, Lithobid).

Nimotop can be not safety for elderly people.

Avoid dehydration.

Be careful with great care in case you want to undergo an operation (dental or any other).

Do not use potassium supplements or salt substitutes.

If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Vasotec suddenly.

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Twenty years ago it was demonstrated that angiotensin II (Ang II) acts on the brain, which results in an elevation of blood pressure. Ten years later, reninlike activity was discovered in the brain of the rat and dog, which gave rise to the concept of an endogenous brain renin-angiotensin system. In the periphery, the kidney, liver, and lungs work in unison to produce Ang II. Evidence for brain renin, substrate, converting enzyme, and angiotensins is reviewed. New data indicate that the enzyme system for the synthesis of Ang II within the brain may in fact be contained in the cell. All the components for a renin-angiotensin system have now been found in neuroblastoma/glioma cell lines and Ang II is present in primary cell culture of rat brain neurons. The significance of angiotensin in the brain for hypertension is that it may be a stimulus for vasopressin release and sympathetic activation, which can maintain high blood pressure. In the spontaneously hypertensive rat, there is evidence of increased brain angiotensin. Also, experiments with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors show that blockade of brain angiotensin production leads to a long-lasting lowering of blood pressure. The activity of the inhibitors in part appears to be directly on the brain.

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We conclude that rtPA used in vitro at a therapeutic concentration has the capacity to generate significant quantities of kinins from human plasma. This kinin-forming activity depends on the activation of the fibrinolytic pathway. These data suggest that angioedema associated with rtPA treatment of ischemic stroke results directly from plasmin-mediated release of BK.

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The treatment and control groups were comparable in patient age, concurrent therapy and type and site of infarction. At 1 month, for all patients, mean total work performed was 34.9 +/- 20.9 kJ in the enalapril group (n = 169) versus 28.5 +/- 20.6 kJ in the placebo group (n = 158) (difference = 18.4%, p < 0.01). This between-group difference in favor of enalapril was greatest in patients > 70 years old (difference = 41.4%, p < 0.01, n = 105) and those with clinical evidence of heart failure (difference = 33.0%, p < 0.01, n = 122). At 6 months for all patients, mean total work performed was 35.4 +/- 23.8 kJ in the enalapril group versus 34.0 +/- 23.9 kJ in the placebo group (difference = 4.1%, NS).

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Bosentan produces an additional hypotensive effect to that of ACEI, which opens new therapeutic perspectives.

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1. In order to determine whether the renin-angiotensin system is involved in myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury, we investigated and compared the effects on infarct size of two different drugs which interfere with this system, i.e., an angiotensin II (AT1) antagonist, EXP3174, and an angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), enalaprilat in a canine model of ischaemia-reperfusion. 2. EXP3174 (0.1 mg kg-1, i.v. followed by 0.02 mg kg-1 h-1 for 5.5 h) and enalaprilate (0.3 mg kg-1, i.v. followed by 0.06 mg kg-1 h-1 for 5.5 h) were used in doses inducing a similar level of inhibition (87 +/- 4 and 91 +/- 3%, respectively) of the pressor responses to angiotensin I. Control animals received saline. 3. Infarct size and area at risk were quantified by ex vivo dual coronary perfusion with triphenyltetrazolium chloride and monastral blue dye. Regional myocardial blood flows (ischaemic and nonischaemic, endocardial, epicardial) were assessed by the radioactive microsphere technique. 4. Both EXP3174 and enalaprilat induced a decrease in mean arterial blood pressure. However, non significant changes in regional myocardial blood flows, whether ischaemic or nonischaemic, were observed after administration of either the ACEI or the AT1 antagonist. 5. The size of the area at risk was similar in the three groups. By direct comparison, there were no significant differences between infarct sizes in the three groups. Furthermore, there was a close inverse relationship between infarct size and transmural mean collateral blood flow in controls, and none of the treatments altered this correlation. Thus, neither EXP3174 nor enalaprilat limited infarct size. 6. These results indicate that activation of the renin-angiotensin system does not contribute to myocyte death in this canine ischaemia/reperfusion model.

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The short term effects of the novel diuretic MK 447 were examined in both normotensive and hypertensive (ACTH treated) conscious sheep. The drug had profound diuretic, natriuretic and kaliuretic effects in both groups. Plasma sodium was unchanged but plasma potassium fell and haematocrit increased. Plasma renin concentration increased with MK 447 in the normotensive but not the hypertensive sheep. In the normotensive sheep cardiac output fell, peripheral resistance increased and blood pressure was unchanged. In the hypertensive ACTH treated sheep cardiac output and blood pressure fell but resistance was unchanged.

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The limited antifibrotic effect of therapeutic angiotensin blockade, the fact that angiotensin blockade dramatically elevates renin levels, and recent evidence that renin has an angiotensin-independent, receptor-mediated profibrotic action led us to hypothesize that combining renin receptor inhibition and ANG II blockade would increase the antifibrotic effect of angiotensin blockade alone. Using cultured nephritic glomeruli from rats with anti-Thy-1-induced glomerulonephritis, the maximally effective dose of enalaprilate was determined to be 10(-4) M, which reduced mRNAs for transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, fibronectin (FN), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) by 49, 65, and 56% and production of TGF-β1 and FN proteins by 60 and 49%, respectively. Disease alone caused 6.8-fold increases in ANG II levels that were reduced 64% with enalaprilate. In contrast, two- and threefold disease-induced increases in renin mRNA and activity were further increased 2- and 3.7-fold with 10(-4) M enalaprilate treatment. Depressing the renin receptor by 80% with small interfering (si) RNA alone reduced fibrotic markers in a manner remarkably similar to enalaprilate alone but had no effect on glomerular renin expression. Enalaprilate and siRNA combination therapy further reduced disease markers. Notably, elevated TGF-β1 and FN production was reduced by 73 and 81%, respectively. These results support the notion of a receptor-mediated profibrotic action of renin, suggest that the limited effectiveness of ANG II blockade may be due, at least in part, to the elevated renin they induce, and support our hypothesis that adding renin receptor inhibitor to ANG II blockade in patients may have therapeutic potential.

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Distribution between well-stirred compartments is the classical paradigm in pharmacokinetics. Also in capillary-issue exchange modeling a barrier-limited approach is mostly adopted. As a consequence of tissue binding, however, drug distribution cannot be regarded as instantaneous even at the cellular level and the distribution process consists of at least two components: transmembrane exchange and cytoplasmic transport. Two concepts have been proposed for the cytoplasmic distribution process of hydrophobic or amphipathic molecules, (i) slowing of diffusion due to instantaneous binding to immobile cellular structures and (ii) slow binding after instantaneous distribution throughout the cytosol. The purpose of this study was to develop a general approach for comparing both models using a stochastic model of intra- and extravascular drug distribution. Criteria for model discrimination are developed using the first three central moments (mean, variance, and skewness) of the cellular residence time and organ transit time distribution, respectively. After matching the models for the relative dispersion the remaining differences in relative skewness are predicted, discussing the relative roles of membrane permeability, cellular binding and cytoplasmic transport. It is shown under which conditions the models are indistinguishable on the basis of venous organ outflow concentration-time curves. The relative dispersion of cellular residence times is introduced as a model-independent measure of cytoplasmic equilibration kinetics, which indicates whether diffusion through the cytoplasm is rate limiting. If differences in outflow curve shapes (their relative skewness) cannot be detected, independent information on binding and/or diffusion kinetics is necessary to avoid model misspecification. The method is applied to previously published hepatic outflow data of enalaprilat, triiodothyronine, and diclofenac. It provides a general framework for the modeling of cellular pharmacokinetics.

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Haemodynamic comparison of three vasodilation regimens [intravenous (i.v.) hydralazine and isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) combined, i.v. doxazosin, and i.v. enalaprilat] was undertaken in 36 patients with acute left ventricular (LV) failure due to recent myocardial infarction. Each regimen achieved similar reductions in pulmonary artery occluded pressure (PAOP, preload) and systemic arterial pressures (afterload), with increased cardiac and stroke volume (SV) indexes (p less than 0.01). Only the hydralazine and isosorbide combination induced resting tachycardia. Balanced vasodilatation after selective alpha-adrenoceptor blockade (doxazosin) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition (enalaprilat) without increase in heart rate (HR) suggests that these therapies may have definite haemodynamic advantages over the hydralazine/ISDN combination.

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The rate of decrease in oxygen concentration was expressed as a percentage of baseline. Results of the highest dose of drug are shown. Decrease in MVO2 was greater in LVAD hearts (n = 8) compared with heart failure controls (n = 18) in response to the following drugs: bradykinin (-34+/-3% vs. -24+/-5%), enalaprilat (-37+/-5% vs. -23+/-5%) and amlodipine (-43+/-13% vs. -16+/-5%; p<0.05 from controls). The decrease in MVO2 in LVAD hearts was not significantly different from controls in response to diltiazem (-22+/-5% in both groups) and exogenous NO donor, nitroglycerin (-33+/-7% vs. -30+/-3%). N(w)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, inhibitor of NO synthase, attenuated the response to bradykinin, enalaprilat and amlodipine. Reductions in MVO2 in response to diltiazem and nitroglycerin were not altered by inhibiting NO.

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The aim of the present study was to determine whether the new ACE inhibitor trandolapril was able to inhibit brain ACE activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Therefore, we have measured ex vivo ACE activity in discrete brain areas of SHRs after a 2-week oral treatment with trandolapril (0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg/kg/day). The effects of trandolapril were compared to those of enalapril (10 mg/kg/day), used as a reference compound. Enalapril induced a decrease in ACE activity in brain areas not protected by the blood brain barrier (subfornical organ and median eminence) and in cerebral cortex. Conversely, trandolapril at a dose of 0.01 mg/kg/day and above induced a dose-dependent inhibition of ACE activity in all brain areas assayed, including the supraoptic and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei, septum, amygdala, hippocampus, cerebellar and cerebral cortex, nucleus of the tractus solitary and caudate nucleus. The inhibition was roughly similar in all brain areas studied. These data suggest that after chronic oral administration in SHRs, trandolapril or its metabolite, in contrast to enalapril or enalaprilat, was able to reach all brain areas of SHRs, including those protected by the blood brain barrier.

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urapidil reduces blood pressure without altering heart rate. The oral formulation is an effective choice in patients with hypertension and concomitant dyslipidaemia or type 2 diabetes mellitus, in whom the drug does not adversely affect and may improve lipid profiles and glucose metabolism. The intravenous formulation is effective in controlling various hypertensive crises and hypertension associated with pregnancy or surgery and is similar to or better than other first-line agents used in these conditions. Thus, urapidil may be a useful alternative to currently available antihypertensive agents.

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Three hundred twenty-seven men (mean age 63.3 +/- 10.9 years) with documented acute myocardial infarction were randomized to treatment with enalapril or placebo on a double-blind basis. Intravenous enalaprilat or placebo therapy was initiated within 24 h after the onset of symptoms. Oral therapy was continued at a target dose of 20 mg/day. Patients exercised maximally at 1 month and 6 months after infarction to symptom-limited end points on a cycle ergometer with a 20 W/min incremental protocol.

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Cocaine abuse can cause cardiovascular damage leading to hypertension, myocardial ischaemia and infarction. This might be partly due to the effects of cocaine on the microcirculation about which little is known, although its effects on the macrovessels are well documented. Accordingly, we used in vivo videomicroscopy to study the vasoconstrictive effect of cocaine on arterioles of different diameter. They were classified into three orders (A2, A3, A4) according to their position in the microvascular network and their diameter. Since calcium antagonists have been reported to exert a protective effect against the cardiovascular disorders induced by cocaine, we tested the hypothesis that this protective action occurs in the microcirculation. We found that intra-arterial administration of the calcium antagonist Nitrendipine greatly inhibited the vasoconstriction induced by cocaine in all three arteriole orders. The degree of inhibition ranged from 44 to 56%. Combined administration of benzodiazepine and an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor has also been reported to protect rats against cocaine-induced hypertension and to increase survival rates after a toxic dose of cocaine. Since the mechanisms of this protection are not yet clear, we also studied the effect of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor Enalaprilat on cocaine-induced vasoconstriction. Intra-arterial administration of Enalaprilat inhibited this vasoconstriction slightly but significantly in arteriole orders 2 and 3 by 27 and 24% respectively, but not in order 4. We concluded that Nitrendipine is a powerful inhibitor of cocaine-induced vasoconstriction in the microcirculation. The small but significant inhibition found with Enalaprilat for the larger arterioles suggests that the local angiotensin II level may affect the response to cocaine. However, since the Enalaprilat-induced inhibition was very limited, we conclude that mechanisms other than those occurring in the peripheral microcirculation account for the protection afforded by Enalaprilat against the harmful effects of cocaine.

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vasotec buy online 2016-12-28

We compared the effects of enalaprilat (0.3 mg/kg per min for 5 min bolus, 1 mg/kg per h infusion), losartan (DuP753; 4 mg/kg bolus, 2 mg/kg per h infusion) and vehicle administration on the MAP response to infusions of phenylephrine that were increased incrementally (2.5, vasotec buy 5 and 10 micrograms/kg per min).

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We found intravenous enalaprilat effective and safe vasotec buy in lowering postoperative hypertension following neurosurgery as assessed by it's effects on central haemodynamics and systemic oxygenation.

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The relationship between serum concentrations of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, enalaprilat, and its antihypertensive action was investigated using integrated pharmacokinetic-dynamic modelling techniques. The model was parameterized in terms of slope "m", describing the sensitivity to the fall of blood pressure, and an intercept term "i". A linear pharmacodynamic model: E = m. ce(t) + i, adequately characterized Levitra 5mg Tablets the concentration-effect relationship in most of the young (aged 22-30 years) and elderly normotensive subjects (aged 65-73 years). However, no age-related differences were seen, indicating that angiotensin II vasoconstrictor action is unaltered by senescence.

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Angiotensin I converting enzyme (kininase II; ACE) inhibitors are important therapeutic agents widely used for treatment in cardiovascular and renal diseases. They inhibit angiotensin II release and bradykinin inactivation; these actions do not explain completely the clinical benefits. We found that enalaprilat and other ACE inhibitors in nanomolar concentrations activate human bradykinin B(1) receptors directly in the absence of ACE and the B(1) agonist des-Arg(10)-Lys(1)-bradykinin. These inhibitors activate at the Zn(2+)-binding consensus sequence HEXXH (195-199) in B(1), which is present also in ACE but not in the B(2) receptor. Activation elevates [Ca(2+)](i) and releases NO from endothelial or transfected cells expressing the B(1) receptor but is blocked by Ca-EDTA, a B(1) Priligy 80 Mg receptor antagonist, the synthetic undecapeptide sequence (192-202) of B(1), and the mutagenesis of His(195) to Ala(195). Except for the B(1) antagonist, these agents and manipulations did not block activation by a peptide ligand. Thus, Zn(2+) is essential for B(1) receptor activation by ACE inhibitors at the zinc-binding consensus sequence. Ischemia or cytokines induce abundant B(1) receptor expression. B(1) receptor activation by ACE inhibitors, a novel mode of action reported here first, can contribute to their therapeutic effects by releasing NO in the heart and to some side effects.

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Our purpose was Avodart Drug to explore the effects of NOS inhibition and NOS donation on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) success after cardiac arrest of variable duration. We used the non-selective NOS inhibitor L-NNA and the selective neuronal NOS inhibitor ARR-17477, the NOS donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) and the vasodilator Enalaprilat, which lowers arterial pressure via a non-NO mechanism.

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We examined possible interactions between intrarenal angiotensin II (ANG II) formation and norepinephrine (NE) release during renal sympathetic nerve stimulation (RNS) in anesthetized dogs. During 10 min of continuous RNS (1.5-2 Hz), the ANG II formation rates (ANG II-FR) and NE secretion rates (NE-SR) were determined at 1 and 10 min. Under control conditions, almost the same extent of increase in the NE-SR was observed at 1 and 10 Elavil Brand Name min of RNS, whereas a significant increase in ANG II-FR was observed at 10 min but not at 1 min. During intrarenal arterial infusion of enalaprilat or losartan, the increase in NE-SR and reduction in renal blood flow at 10 min of RNS were suppressed, whereas the NE release and vasoconstriction responses at 1 min remained unaffected. The RNS-induced increases in ANG II-FR were completely abolished during infusion of enalaprilat. These results suggest that NE release on continuous RNS is enhanced by concomitantly formed ANG II, and this interaction depends on the time-related changes in intrarenal ANG II formation during RNS in the canine kidney.

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The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) participates in the regulation of vascular tone; its effects were studied in human internal mammary artery (IMA) and saphenous vein (SV) suspended in organ chambers for isometric tension recording. The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor enalaprilat (10(-7) M) markedly augmented endothelium-dependent relaxations to bradykinin in SV (concentration shift: 10-fold; n = Zovirax Acyclovir Medication 6; p < 0.005), but not in IMA; in both blood vessels, it had no effect on endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine. The contractions to angiotensin I (Ang I; 10(-7) M) were markedly inhibited by enalaprilat (10(-7) M) in SV (control: 34 +/- 6% of 100 mM KCl; treatment: 18 +/- 6%; n = 7; p < 0.05) but not in IMA (control: 33 +/- 4%; treatment: 30 +/- 6%; n = 7; NS) and abolished by the Ang II receptor antagonist DuP 753 (10(-7) M) in both blood vessels. Ang II (10(-7) M) induced more pronounced contractions than Ang I in IMA (63 +/- 4%) and SV (63 +/- 5%; n = 5-6; p < 0.05 vs. Ang I), which was markedly inhibited by DuP 753 (10(-7) M; IMA: 21 +/- 5%; SV: 32 +/- 5%; p < 0.05). Thus, in SV but not IMA, ACE inactivates bradykinin and thereby blunts endothelium-dependent relaxations to the peptide and converts Ang I to Ang II.

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Translocation and activation of PKC could be demonstrated for the first time in the myocardium remote from the infarcted area. This activation was conserved both in pigs and in rats. All major Cymbalta Anxiety Dosage cardiac isozymes of PKC were involved. Whereas bradykinin-receptor blockade had no effect, both angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor could effectively block this activation process of PKC.

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The appropriate dose of intravenous enalaprilat to be used in the treatment of hypertensive crisis is controversial. There has been no comparative study of the efficacy and safety of different dosages of enalaprilat in hypertensive patients Viagra Canada Cheap .

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An estimated 500,000 people in the United States experience a hypertensive crisis annually. Hypertensive emergency is associated with significant morbidity in the form of end-organ damage. Rapid controlled reduction of blood pressure (BP) may be necessary to prevent or minimize end-organ damage. I.V. antihypertensive agents available for the treatment of hypertensive emergencies are, in general, characterized by a short onset and offset of action and predictable responses during dosage adjustments to reach BP goals, without excessive adjustment or extreme fluctuations in BP. Nicardipine, nitroprusside, fenoldopam, nitroglycerin, enalaprilat, hydralazine, labetalol, esmolol, and phentolamine are i.v. antihypertensive agents recommended for use in hypertensive emergency by the seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Since the publication of these recommendations, another i.v. antihypertensive agent, clevidipine, became commercially available. The Cialis Normal Dose selection of a specific agent should be based on the agent's pharmacology and patient-specific factors, such as comorbidity and the presence of end-organ damage.

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Phase I human studies can be used to differentiate a novel agent from existing drugs that influence the same pathway (eg, angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE] inhibitors). Human forearm vasculature provides a useful experimental model for such studies because antagonism of local effects of agonists on resistance vasculature can be quantified, unconfounded by reflex cardiovascular responses to systemically applied agonists. In this model, inhibition of ACE with enalapril (given orally) or its active metabolite enalaprilat (given into the brachial artery) influences responses to some, but not all, vasoactive peptides that are substrates of ACE in vitro. Vasoconstrictor responses to angiotensin I (A I) are antagonized, while vasodilator responses to bradykinin are potentiated. Responses to vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), substance P (SP), and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) are unaltered by ACE inhibition. Vasodilator responses to bradykinin are antagonized by the B2-receptor icatibant and are blunted (but not abolished) by inhibition of the L-arginine/NO pathway with L-NG-monomethyl arginine. In contrast to inhibition of ACE with enalapril, blockade of the AT1 receptor with losartan results in similar inhibition of vasoconstrictor responses to both A I and angiotensin II but has no significant effect on the vasodilator action of bradykinin. The implication is that losartan provides more specific blockade of the renin-angiotensin pathway than does inhibition of ACE. The in vivo methods described in the study confirm the mechanistically relevant differentiation between AT1-receptor antagonism and ACE inhibition in humans.

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Long-term administration of angiotensin-converting--enzyme (ACE) inhibitors has been shown to improve survival in patients with symptomatic left ventricular failure and to attenuate left ventricular dilatation in patients with myocardial infarction. We studied whether mortality could be reduced during the 6 months after an acute myocardial infarction with use of the ACE inhibitor enalapril.

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Pharmacological interruption or genetic disruption of the renin-angiotensin system before completion of nephrogenesis produces papillary atrophy and an impaired urinary concentrating ability. The mechanisms involved are yet to be elucidated, but renal hypoperfusion and subsequent ischemia, particularly to the immature renal medulla, may be hypothesized. The acute intrarenal responses to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition in the newborn piglet were thus investigated by means of regional blood flow distribution, renal interstitial hydrostatic pressure (RIHP), and medullary oxygen tension (PO2) in the anesthetised 4- to 5-day-old piglet. Moreover, the calcium antagonist nifedipine and the nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor L-NAME were also given in order to reduce renal blood flow by other means. The drugs were given intravenously in equipotent pressor doses, mimicking intraperitoneal injections in neonatal rats. Enalaprilat (200 microg/kg) reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP) by 14+/-10% (mean+/-SD, P=0.006) and RIHP by 18+/-18% (P=0.001), whereas total renal blood flow and medullary PO2 remained unchanged. In contrast, nifedipine (0.5 mg/kg) reduced MAP and RIHP by 39+/-8% and 38+/-14%, respectively, total and regional blood flows by 30%-60%, and medullary PO, by 46+/-29% (P=0.001). Acute administration of L-NAME (15 mg/kg) increased MAP by 27+/-10% (P=0.0005), whereas RIHP and renal blood flow decreased by 20%-50%, resulting in a reduction of the medullary PO2 by 10+/-12% (P=0.05). We conclude that the renal abnormalities observed after neonatal ACE inhibition are not likely to be caused by renal ischemia.

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Bosentan produces an additional hypotensive effect to that of ACEI, which opens new therapeutic perspectives.

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The present study aimed to determine the role of nitric oxide (NO) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in bradykinin (BK)-induced dilation of human coronary arteries in vivo.

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The influence of kinins and angiotensin II on the regulation of renal cortical and papillary blood flow and sodium and water excretion was examined in rats. Superficial cortical and papillary blood flows were measured using a laser-Doppler flowmeter. Papillary blood flow increased 50% after enalaprilat (60 micrograms/kg) and phosphoramidon (5.5 were given along with 0.3 M sodium bicarbonate solution to inhibit degradation of kinins and enhance urinary kallikrein activity. Infusion of a kinin antagonist, D-Arg-Hyp-Thi-D-Phe-bradykinin (5 micrograms/min), returned papillary blood flow to control levels. Urine flow and sodium excretion increased after the administration of the kininase inhibitors and sodium bicarbonate, while glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and outer cortical blood flow were unaltered. The kinin antagonist did not alter sodium and water excretion in rats receiving the kininase inhibitors and bicarbonate. Administration of the kinin antagonist alone lowered papillary blood flow by 20%, without affecting outer cortical blood flow or GFR. Urine flow decreased and urine osmolality increased after the rats received the kinin antagonist, but sodium excretion remained unaltered. To assess the role of angiotensin II in the control of papillary blood flow, kinin receptors were blocked by infusion of an antagonist, and the effects of enalaprilat and saralasin were studied. Papillary blood flow increased after blockade of the angiotensin II system in rats receiving the kinin antagonist. These results indicate that the kallikrein-kinin and renin-angiotensin systems participate in the regulation of papillary blood flow.

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Smokers had impaired venodilation to bradykinin compared with nonsmokers (P < .01). Apparent maximal relaxation induced by bradykinin was 78%+/-9% in the control group and 48%+/-9% in smokers (mean +/- SD). ACE inhibition shifted the bradykinin dose-response curve to the left in both groups (P < .001) and was associated with a minimal increase in apparent maximal venodilation in nonsmokers (78%+/-9% to 83%+/-18%). In contrast, in smokers ACE inhibition augmented the magnitude of apparent maximal venodilation to values comparable to those observed in the control group (48%+/-9% to 102%+/-21%). In both groups the response to sodium nitroprusside was not affected by enalaprilat.

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AB-47 (N-[8-amino-1(S)-carboxyoctyl]-L-alanyl-L-proline) is a non-sulfhydryl angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor with omega-aminoalkyl group. AB-47 was slightly more potent than enalaprilat in inhibiting rabbit lung ACE. The ACE inhibition and bradykinin (BK) potentiation by AB-47 in guinea-pig ileal longitudinal muscle were as potent as with enalaprilat. In conscious rat, AB-47 (i.v.) inhibited angiotensin I (A-I)-induced pressor response and augmented BK-induced depressor response more potently and in a long-lasting manner than enalaprilat. Furthermore, AB-47 exhibited higher selectivity for ACE inhibition than for BK inactivation and higher selectivity than enalaprilat and captopril. The inhibition of A-I-induced pressor response by AB-47 (p.o.) was as potent as that of enalapril. These results suggest that AB-47 is a highly potent, long-lasting and relatively A-I-selective ACE inhibitor.

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Even though most previous studies have shown that central nervous angiotensin II causes sympatho-excitation, there are data suggesting that blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) could activate the renal sympathetic nerves. The aim of the present study was to investigate overall, cardiac and renal sympathetic nerve activity, before and after intravenous enalaprilat, in healthy normotensive subjects without an activated RAS.

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The converting enzyme not only converts angiotensin I into angiotensin II but also metabolizes bradykinin. Furthermore, the effects of ischemia on myocardial tissue damage can be modulated by converting enzyme inhibitors. It is unknown whether these effects of ACE-inhibitors are due to increased bradykinin production. In this paper we describe the effects of captopril on bradykinin production in the ischemic isolated rat heart. The reduced deleterious effects of ischemia by captopril were associated with a stimulated bradykinin production. Beneficial effects of bradykinin could be due to an improved perfusion or to an effect on cellular metabolism. Therefore, we conclude that this effect on kinins by ACE-inhibitors is of importance in modulating tissue damage during ischemia.

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Autoregulation of renal blood flow is highly efficient and is mediated partly by tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF), which couples regulation of blood flow to that of sodium excretion. Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) dilates preglomerular resistance vessels, in which autoregulation occurs, and has been reported to inhibit TGF. This study addressed potential actions of ANF on the slow, TGF-mediated, component of autoregulation. Renal blood flow was measured by an electromagnetic flow probe in Sprague-Dawley rats anesthetized by halothane or isoflurane while renal perfusion pressure was manipulated by a servo-controlled clamp placed on the aorta between the renal arteries. Progressive reduction of perfusion pressure to 60 mmHg (1 mmHg = 133.3 Pa) induced resetting of autoregulation to operate at the reduced pressure and to defend lower renal blood flow. Infusion of ANF at a dose shown to reliably increase sodium excretion did not affect autoregulation or its resetting. Because resetting is angiotensin II dependent, the converting enzyme inhibitor Enalaprilat was used to provide angiotensin II blockade. As expected, autoregulation did not reset to operate at reduced perfusion pressure. Again ANF was without effect. In a third experiment, relaxation of resistance was assessed in response to repeated steps of perfusion pressure between 65 and 75 mmHg. Time constants of constriction and dilatation were recovered by fitting to a single exponential before and during ANF infusion. Time constants ranged form 0.045 to 0.055 Hz, were consistent with operation of TGF, were not different for constriction or dilatation, and were unaltered by ANF; nor did ANF affect the magnitude of constriction or dilatation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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Bradykinin (BK) is widely believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of anaphylaxis. To help clarify any such roles, we examined for effects of inhibitors of kininase II (angiotensin converting enzyme, ACE) and "kininase I" (carboxypeptidase N, CPN), on the early course of egg albumin-induced aggregate anaphylaxis in anesthetized guinea pigs. In this model, pulmonary and systemic arterial blood pressure (BP) rise (unless pulmonary fibrillation occurs), lung wgt increases by approximately 60% and pulmonary microvessels are occluded by cell-rich thrombi, all within 5 min of i.v. antigen. The 30 min mortality rate is approximately 2%. ACE inhibitors (BPP9a, Captopril and MK 422; doses up to 140 mumol/kg) do not make anaphylaxis more nor less severe in terms discernible by changes in BP, lung wgt, EKG or intravascular coagulation. In marked contrast, an inhibitor of CPN (2-mercaptomethyl-3-guanidinoethylthiopropionic acid, 2-MGP; 8-16 mumol/kg) increases the 30 min mortality rate to 94% and lung wgt to 180% of control. The animals die in ventricular fibrillation. Given the enormous BK potentiating effects of BPP9a, Captopril and MK 422, it seems likely that little if any BK is formed in the early min of anaphylaxis. 2-MGP does not potentiate BP effects of BK but markedly potentiates effects of C3a anaphylatoxin. Thus, our data support the views that BK is neither a primary nor secondary mediator of aggregate anaphylaxis, and the adverse effects of 2-MGP are best explained in terms of preservation of anaphylatoxins and not in terms of preservation of kinins.

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Green bioanalytical approaches are oriented toward minimization or elimination of hazardous chemicals associated to bioanalytical applications. LC/MS-MS assay of enalapril and enalaprilat in human plasma was achieved by elimination of acetonitrile from both sample preparation and chromatographic separation stages. Protein precipitation (PP) by acetonitrile addition was replaced by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) in 1-octanol followed by direct large volume injection of the organic layer in the chromatographic column operated under reversed phase (RP) separation mechanism. At the mean time, acetonitrile used as organic modifier in the mobile phase was successfully replaced by a mixture of propylene carbonate/ethanol (7/3, v/v). Three analytical alternatives ((I) acetonitrile PP+acetonitrile based chromatographic elution; (II) 1-octanol LLE+acetonitrile based chromatographic elution; (III) 1-octanol LLE+propylene carbonate/ethanol based chromatographic elution) were validated and the quality characteristics were compared. Comparison between these alternative analytical approaches was also based on results obtained on incurred samples taken during a bioequivalence study, through application of the Bland-Altman procedure.

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The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders including hypertension and is one of the most important targets for drugs. A whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (wb PBPK) model integrating this hormone circulation system and its inhibition can be used to explore the influence of drugs that interfere with this system, and thus to improve the understanding of interactions between drugs and the target system. In this study, we describe the development of a mechanistic RAAS model and exemplify drug action by a simulation of enalapril administration. Enalapril and its metabolite enalaprilat are potent inhibitors of the angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE). To this end, a coupled dynamic parent-metabolite PBPK model was developed and linked with the RAAS model that consists of seven coupled PBPK models for aldosterone, ACE, angiotensin 1, angiotensin 2, angiotensin 2 receptor type 1, renin, and prorenin. The results indicate that the model represents the interactions in the RAAS in response to the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of enalapril and enalaprilat in an accurate manner. The full set of RAAS-hormone profiles and interactions are consistently described at pre- and post-administration steady state as well as during their dynamic transition and show a good agreement with literature data. The model allows a simultaneous representation of the parent-metabolite conversion to the active form as well as the effect of the drug on the hormone levels, offering a detailed mechanistic insight into the hormone cascade and its inhibition. This model constitutes a first major step to establish a PBPK-PD-model including the PK and the mode of action (MoA) of a drug acting on a dynamic RAAS that can be further used to link to clinical endpoints such as blood pressure.

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Zinc, the catalytically essential metal of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), has been replaced by cobalt(II) to give an active, chromophoric enzyme that is spectroscopically responsive to inhibitor binding. Visible absorption spectroscopy and magnetic circular dichroic spectropolarimetry have been used to characterize the catalytic metal binding site in both the cobalt enzyme and in several enzyme-inhibitor complexes. The visible absorption spectrum of cobalt ACE exhibits a single broad maximum (525 nm) of relatively low absorptivity (epsilon = 75 M-1 cm-1). In contrast, the spectra of enzyme-inhibitor complexes display more clearly defined maxima at longer wavelengths (525-637 nm) and of markedly higher absorptivities (130-560 M-1 cm-1). The large spectral response indicates that changes in the cobalt ion coordination sphere occur on inhibitor binding. Magnetic circular dichroic spectropolarimetry has shown that the metal coordination geometry in the inhibitor complexes is tetrahedral and of higher symmetry than in cobalt ACE alone. The presence of sulfur----cobalt charge-transfer bands in both the visible absorption and magnetic circular dichroic spectra of the cobalt ACE-Captopril complex confirm direct ligation of the thiol group of the inhibitor to the active-site metal.

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ACE inhibition increases constitutive endothelial t-PA release through endogenous bradykinin.

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The contribution of nonangiotensinergic effects of converting enzyme inhibitors to their hemodynamic effects in patients with chronic heart failure is not clear. A comparison of the effects of renin and converting enzyme inhibition should help to clarify this issue.

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We studied 7 smokers and 7 nonsmokers with the hand vein technique. After preconstriction with phenylephrine was performed, endothelium-dependent and independent relaxations were assessed by infusing bradykinin (1 to 278 ng/min) and sodium nitroprusside (0.0001 to 3166 ng/min), respectively. Dose-response curves were constructed before and during enalaprilat coinfusion (1 microg/min for 40 minutes).

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Glucose uptake, forearm and skin blood flow, and energy expenditure.

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Substance P proved to be the most potent venodilator known thus far (the dose-rate exerting 50% of mean maximum dilation [ED50], geometric mean: 0.105 pmol/min). Rapid development of tolerance occurred in seven of eight volunteers studied. Glyburide decreased the venodilator action of a single dose of substance P (1.5 pmol/min) from 81% to 28% of baseline venodilation (p < 0.05), suggesting that substance P acts through release of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor. The cyclooxygenase-inhibitor acetylsalicylic acid reduced substance P-induced venodilation from 53% +/- 7% to 34% +/- 8% (p < 0.05), whereas L-NMMA had no effect.

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1. We set out to develop a simple, rapid, highly sensitive and reproducible assay to quantify total angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in serum and tissues after ACE inhibition. 2. Total ACE was measured by dissociating ACE inhibitor from the enzyme using zinc chelation (EDTA). The enzyme reconstituted with zinc ion (ZnSO4) was then measured by enzymatic fluorimetric assay. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition was produced in vitro by incubation of enalaprilat or perindoprilat with human serum or cell membranes from rat heart. To achieve the highest recovery rate, we studied concentrations of EDTA from 1 to 300 mmol/L with a pH range from 4 to 13, where the incubation times of EDTA were between 1 and 12 h. After washing off ACE inhibitor and excess EDTA, the resulting concentrates and pellets were then resuspended with Tris buffer containing ZnSO4 to restore ACE activity. 3. The optimal assay conditions to dissociate the drug from the enzyme were 300 mmol/L EDTA in Tris buffer at pH 11 for 12 h with cell membranes and 23 mmol/L EDTA at the same pH incubated for 4 h with serum. The recovery of ACE activity was 81.7 +/- 15.8 and 97.3 +/- 2.9% in tissues and serum, respectively. Intra- and interassay variability coefficients were 5.6 and 12.8% in tissue, respectively, 3.2 and 13.0% in serum, respectively. The method allows quantification of ACE in 100 microliters or less serum and 20 mg or less tissue. 4. The total ACE concentration after ACE inhibition can be determined by this assay, which is suitable for micro-sampling studies of both tissue and serum ACE levels.