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Protection against whole body gamma-irradiation (WBI) of Swiss mice orally fed with Triphala (TPL), an Ayurvedic formulation, in terms of mortality of irradiated animals as well as DNA damage at cellular level has been investigated. It was found that radiation induced mortality was reduced by 60% in mice fed with TPL (1g/kg body weight/day) orally for 7 days prior to WBI at 7.5 Gy followed by post-irradiation feeding for 7 days. An increase in xanthine oxidoreductase activity and decrease in superoxide dismutase activity was observed in the intestine of mice exposed to WBI, which, however, reverted back to those levels of sham-irradiated controls, when animals were fed with TPL for 7 days prior to irradiation. These data have suggested the prevention of oxidative damage caused by whole body radiation exposure after feeding of animals with TPL. To further understand the mechanisms involved, the magnitude of DNA damage was studied by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) in blood leukocytes and splenocytes obtained from either control animals or those fed with TPL for 7 days followed by irradiation. Compared to irradiated animals without administering TPL, the mean tail length was reduced about three-fold in blood leukocytes of animals fed with TPL prior to irradiation. Although, similar protection was observed in splenocytes of TPL fed animals, the magnitude of prevention of DNA damage was significantly higher than that observed in leukocytes. It has been concluded that TPL protected whole body irradiated mice and TPL induced protection was mediated through inhibition of oxidative damage in cells and organs. TPL seems to have potential to develop into a novel herbal radio-protector for practical applications.
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Animals were divided into five groups of six rats and treated as follows: Group I was a normal control and received no treatment, Group II received only bromobenzene (10 mmol/kg), Groups III and IV received bromobenzene and Triphala (250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively), Group V received Triphala alone (500 mg/kg), and Group VI received bromobenzene and silymarin (100 mg/kg). Antioxidant status and serum kidney functional markers were analyzed.
The cytotoxic effects of aqueous extract of Triphala, an ayurvedic formulation, were investigated on human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and a transplantable mouse thymic lymphoma (barcl-95). The viability of treated cells was found to decrease with the increasing concentrations of Triphala. On the other hand, treatment of normal breast epithelial cells, MCF-10 F, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, mouse liver and spleen cells, with similar concentrations of Triphala did not affect their cytotoxicity significantly. The drug treatment was found to induce apoptosis in MCF-7 and barcl-95 cells in vitro as determined by annexin-V fluorescence and proportion of apoptotic cells was found dependent on Triphala concentration. MCF-7 cells treated with Triphala when subjected to single cell gel electrophoresis, revealed a pattern of DNA damage, characteristic of apoptosis. Studies on Triphala treated MCF-7 and barcl-95 cells showed significant increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a concentration dependent manner. ROS increase was, however, found to be insignificant in MCF-10 F as well as in murine spleen and liver normal cells. In vivo, direct oral feeding of Triphala to mice (40 mg/kg body weight) transplanted with barcl-95 produced significant reduction in tumor growth as evaluated by tumor volume measurement. It was also found that apoptosis was significantly higher in the excised tumor tissue of Triphala fed mice as compared to the control, suggesting the involvement of apoptosis in tumor growth reduction. These results suggest that Triphala possessed ability to induce cytotoxicity in tumor cells but spared the normal cells. The differential effect of Triphala on normal and tumor cells seems to be related to its ability to evoke differential response in intracellular ROS generation. The differential response of normal and tumor cells to Triphala in vitro and the substantial regression of transplanted tumor in mice fed with Triphala points to its potential use as an anticancer drug for clinical treatment.
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Present study evaluates efficacy of Trifala and Ela as plaque controlling agent and compares it with chlorhexidine.
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To evaluate the combined effect of Shilajitvadi Vataka, Punarnavadi Mandura, Triphala Guggulu and Pippalimooladi Paneeya added with Amrita and Bringaraja in DN.
The key to good oral health is hidden in nature. Natural herbs like neem, tulsi, pudina, clove oil, ajwain, triphala and many more has been used since ages either as a whole single herb or as a combination against various oral health problems like bleeding gums, halitosis, mouth ulcers and preventing tooth decay. The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of a commercially available herbal mouthrinse (Herboral) with that of chlorhexidine gluconate which is considered to be a gold standard as an anti-plaque agent.
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A study to evaluate an antimutagenic potential of water, chloroform and acetone extracts of Triphala has been made in an Ames histidine reversion assay using TA98 and TA100 tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium against the direct-acting mutagens, 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NPD) and sodium azide, and the indirect-acting promutagen, 2-aminofluorene (2AF), in the presence of phenobarbitone-induced rat hepatic S9. A combination drug 'Triphala' - a composite mixture of Terminalia bellerica, T. chebula and Emblica officinalis, has been used in traditional system of medicine for the treatment of many malaises, such as heart ailments and hepatic diseases. The drug was sequentially extracted with water, acetone and chloroform at room temperature. The study revealed that water extract was ineffective in reducing the revertants induced by the mutagens. The results with chloroform and acetone extracts showed inhibition of mutagenicity induced by both direct and S9-dependent mutagens. A significant inhibition of 98.7% was observed with acetone extract against the revertants induced by S9-dependent mutagen, 2AF, in co-incubation mode of treatment. Various spectroscopic techniques, namely 1H-NMR, normal 13C-NMR, distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer (DEPT-90 and DEPT-135), UV and IR, are under way to identify the polyphenolic compounds from an acetone extract.
Lauha bhasma is one of the herbo-metallic preparations used in Ayurveda, a traditional Indian system of medicine for treating various ailments such as anemia, diarrhea, hyperlipidemia and diabetes.
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Randomized control trial.
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of triphala mouth rinse (aqueous) in the reduction of plaque and gingivitis among children.
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The present study showed the strong inhibitory activity of triphala on PMN-type MMPs involved in the extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation during periodontitis.
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Triphala is a combination of three herbs amla, bahera and haritaki, it is widely available in the form churna and is a valued formula since ancient times. The aim of this research was to develop reproducible batches of triphala tablets and evaluation of the optimized batch. Direct compression was the method of choice. The tablets were prepared using different directly compressible excipients MicroceLac, Ludipress, Ludiflash. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method was employed for authentification of the herbs using gallic acid as the marker. The tablets were evaluated as per the pharmacopoeial tests. The tablets each weighing 600 mg were successfully formulated fulfilling the limits of evaluation.
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Triphala is categorized as a rejuvenator and antioxidant-rich Ayurvedic herbal formulation and has traditionally been used in various gastric problems including intestinal inflammation. The aim of the present study was to examine the comparative enteroprotective effect of Triphala formulations against methotrexate-induced intestinal damage in rats. Triphala formulations were prepared by mixing equal (1:1:1) and unequal (1:2:4) proportions of Terminalia chebula Retz., Terminalia belerica (Gaertn.) Roxb. and Emblica officinalis Gaertn. Intestinal damage was induced by administering methotrexate (MTX) in a dose of 12 mg/kg, orally for 4 days to albino rats. The intestinal damage response was assessed by gross and microscopical injury, measuring the intestinal permeability to phenol red and tissue biochemical parameters. Triphala equal and unequal formulations at the dose of 540 mg/kg significantly restored the depleted protein level in brush border membrane of intestine, phospholipid and glutathione content and decreased the myeloperoxidase and xanthine oxidase level in intestinal mucosa of methotrexate-treated rats. In addition, Triphala unequal formulation showed significant decrease in permeation clearance of phenol red with significant attenuation in the histopathological changes, level of disaccharidase in brush border membrane vesicles and lipid peroxidation content of intestinal mucosa. Based on the data generated, it is suggested that Triphala unequal formulation provides significantly more protection than Triphala equal formulation against methotrexate-induced damage in rat intestine.
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Bromobenzene treatment resulted in significant (P< 0.05) decreases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase as well as total reduced glutathione. There was a significant (P< 0.05) increase in lipid peroxidation in kidney tissue homogenates. There were significant (P< 0.05) reductions in the levels of serum total protein and albumin as well as significant (P< 0.05) increases in serum creatinine, urea and uric acid. The oral administration of two different doses (250 and 500 mg/kg) of Triphala in bromobenzene-treated rats normalized the tested parameters. The histopathological examinations of kidney sections of the experimental rats support the biochemical observations.
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Triphala, a herbal formula composed of the three fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Haritaki, Family: Combretaceae), Terminalia bellirica Roxb. (Bibhitaki, Family: Combretaceae) and Phyllanthus emblica Linn. or Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Amalaki or the Indian gooseberry, Family: Euphorbiaceae) is considered to be a universal panacea in the traditional Indian system of medicine the Ayurveda. It has been described in the Ayurveda text as a "Rasayana' and to rejuvenat the debilitated organs. Ayurvedic physicians use Triphala for many ailments but most importantly to treat various gastrointestinal disorders. Scientific studies carried out in the past two decades have validated many of the ethnomedicinal claims and researches have shown Triphala to possess free radical scavenging, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic, antibacterial, antimutagenic, wound healing, anticariogenic, antistress, adaptogenic, hypoglycaemic, anticancer, chemoprotective, radioprotective and chemopreventive effects. Clinical studies have also shown that Triphala was found to have good laxative property, to improve appetite and reduce gastric hyperacidity. Studies have also shown that Triphala was effective in preventing dental caries and that this effect was equal to that of chlorhexidine. The current review addresses the validated pharmacological properties of Triphala and also emphasizes on aspects that need further investigation for its future clinic application.
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The novel herbal dentifrice can be recommended for treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity.
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High-pressure liquid chromatography analysis showed the presence of (-)epigallocatechin gallate. FT-IR spectroscopy study revealed the interaction of polyphenols with the collagen. Triphala incorporated collagen sponge has shown to increase thermal stability and water uptake capability, faster wound closure, improved tissue regeneration, collagen content at the wound site, and supporting histopathological parameters pertaining to wound healing. Matrix metalloproteinases expression was correlated well with reduction in the inflammatory phase, thus confirming efficacy of the dressing.
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Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were extracted from gingival tissue samples from 10 patients (six males, four females) with chronic periodontitis. Tissue extracts were treated with the drug solutions, the inhibition was analyzed by gelatin zymography, and the percentage of inhibition was determined by a gel documentation system.
American Optometric Association (AOA) defines computer vision syndrome (CVS) as "Complex of eye and vision problems related to near work, which are experienced during or related to computer use". Most studies indicate that Video Display Terminal (VDT) operators report more eye related problems than non-VDT office workers. The causes for the inefficiencies and the visual symptoms are a combination of individual visual problems and poor office ergonomics. In this clinical study on "CVS", 151 patients were registered, out of whom 141 completed the treatment. In Group A, 45 patients had been prescribed Triphala eye drops; in Group B, 53 patients had been prescribed the Triphala eye drops and SaptamritaLauha tablets internally, and in Group C, 43 patients had been prescribed the placebo eye drops and placebo tablets. In total, marked improvement was observed in 48.89, 54.71 and 06.98% patients in groups A, B and C, respectively.
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The preparation of T. lauha bhasma (calx of iron [Fe] turning) involves samanya shodhana, vishesha shodhana followed by bhanupaka, sthalipaka and putapaka with Triphala kwatha as a medium under temperature of 650 °C in electric muffle furnace (EMF) and maintained for 1 h. T. lauha bhasma were subjected to different physico-chemical characterization using X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometer and scanning electron microscopy.
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Present study carried out in total five groups (n = 6 in each group); first group served as normal, second group control, third group standard control and remaining two as test drug groups. Mesalzine was used as a standard drug for comparison. Two doses (150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) of Triphala were given as treatment for two separate groups of colitis rats for 7 days. C-reactive protein, superoxide dismutase, catalase, malondialdehyde levels were evaluated and histological study of the distal colon was conducted.
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Candida albicans is one of the microorganisms which harbor the oral cavity, especially in elderly. However, the incidence of existence of this increases in patients using removable dental prosthesis. There is therefore a need to test the anticandidal efficacy of these cost-effective, easily available products to be used as routine denture cleansers.
To assess the effect of herbal antimicrobial agents on Streptococcus mutans count in biofilm formations during orthodontic treatment.
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TPL contains 40% unidentified polyphenolic acids, of which 2.4% comprised GA. GA induced severe morphological alterations and was about 3-fold more cytotoxic towards cancer cells than TPL. This activity increased further in the presence of dihydrotestosterone. GA toxicity on normal cells was low at 72 h. Combination of GA with flutamide caused higher toxicity to cancer cells than either of the compounds alone.
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In the present study, we have investigated the efficacy of Indian ayurvedic herbal formulation Triphala on monosodium urate crystal-induced inflammation in mice; an experimental model for gouty arthritis and compared it with that of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Indomethacin. The anti-arthritic effect of Triphala was evaluated by measuring changes in the paw volume, lysosomal enzyme activities, lipid peroxidation, anti-oxidant status and inflammatory mediator TNF-alpha in control and monosodium urate crystal-induced mice. The levels of beta-glucuronidase and lactate dehydrogenase were also measured in monosodium urate crystal-incubated polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL). Triphala treatment (1 gm/kg/b.w. orally) significantly inhibited the paw volume and the levels of lysosomal enzymes, lipid peroxidation and inflammatory mediator tumour necrosis factor-alpha; however the anti-oxidant status was found to be increased in plasma, liver and spleen of monosodium urate crystal-induced mice when compared to control mice. In addition, beta-glucuronidase and lactate dehydrogenase level were reduced in Triphala (100 microg/ml) treated monosodium urate crystal-incubated polymorphonuclear leucocytes. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated that Triphala exerted a strong anti-inflammatory effect against gouty arthritis.
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Ayurvedic texts describe many formulations for different ailments. Triphala Guggulu (TG) is reputed for treating inflammatory conditions. These formulations have been considered complementary medicine or alternative to conventional medicines across the globe. These complex polyherbal formulations need science-based approach toward manufacturing process and chemical standardization.
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Triphala comme un anti fongique est démontré pour avoir plus d'efficacité que le lavage de la bouche classique chlorhexidine.
Triphala is an Ayurvedic herbal formulation consisting of equal parts of three myrobalans: Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica and Emblica officinalis. We recently reported that chebulagic acid (CA) isolated from Terminalia chebula is a potent COX-2/5-LOX dual inhibitor. In this study, compounds isolated from Terminalia bellerica were tested for inhibition against COX and 5-LOX. One of the fractionated compounds showed potent inhibition against COX enzymes with no inhibition against 5-LOX. It was identified as gallic acid (GA) by LC-MS, NMR and IR analyses. We report here the inhibitory effects of GA, with an IC(50) value of 74 nM against COX-2 and 1500 nM for COX-1, showing ≈20 fold preference towards COX-2. Further docking studies revealed that GA binds in the active site of COX-2 at the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) binding site. The carboxylate moiety of GA interacts with Arg120 and Glu524. Based on substrate dependent kinetics, GA was found to be a competitive inhibitor of both COX-1 and COX-2, with more affinity towards COX-2. Taken together, our studies indicate that GA is a selective inhibitor of COX-2. Being a small natural product with selective and reversible inhibition of COX-2, GA would form a lead molecule for developing potent anti-inflammatory drug candidates.
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TRP and budesonide caused a significant decrease in bronchial reactivity. TRP treatment altered immune-cell distributions and showed anti-oxidative properties. These findings suggest that immune-cell modulation with TRP can ameliorate lung injury.
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The present study was aimed at developing colon specific drug delivery system for sennosides and Triphala. These drugs are reputed Ayurvedic medicines for constipation in India. The proposed device explored the application of pectin and ethyl cellulose as a mixed film for colon specific delivery. This mixed film was prepared using non-aqueous solvents like acetone and isopropyl alcohol. A 32 factorial design was adopted to optimize the formulation variables like, ratio of ethyl cellulose to pectin (X1) and coat weight (X2). The rate and extent of drug release were found to be related to the thickness and the ratio of pectin to ethyl cellulose within the film. Statistical treatments to the drug release data revealed that the X1 variable was more important than X2. Under simulated colonic conditions, drug release was more pronounced from coating formulations containing higher proportions of pectin. The surface of the device was coated with Eudragit S100 to ensure that the device was more pH dependent and trigger the drug release only at higher pH. The final product is expected to have the advantage of being biodegradable and pH dependant. This type of a film effectively releases the drug while maintaining its integrity.
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Triphala, a mixture of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia bellirica, containing ingredients from plant origin, is often prone to microbial contamination. A high level of microbial contamination was observed in Triphala samples obtained from different sources. On gamma radiation processing, a sharp decline in log CFU was observed with increasing radiation dose and a complete decontamination at 5 kGy. Average D10 value for total aerobic and fungal counts were observed to be 0.55 +/- 0.073 kGy and 0.94 +/- 0.043 kGy, respectively. Water extracts of irradiated samples showed linearly increasing concentration of gallic acid (3.3 to 4.5 times), total phenolic contents (2.16 to 2.87 times), and antioxidant properties with increasing radiation dose up to 25 kGy. The increase could be attributed to easy release of active ingredients from their radiation degraded complex forms. Aflatoxin B(1) and ochratoxin could not be detected in the samples. Gamma-radiation dose up to 5 kGy could be safely used to hygienize Triphala.
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Acute and subacute toxicity study of LB was conducted in albino rats. Criteria for assessment included ponderal changes, change in biochemical parameters viz., LFT and KFT and hematological parameters. Histopathological studies of different organs including liver, kidney, spleen, testis etc., were also conducted to observe pathological changes if any.
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The efficacy of the polyherbal formulation NR-ANX-C (composed of the extracts from Withania somnifera, Camellia sinensis, Ocimum sanctum, shilajith and triphala) was evaluated in terms of antioxidant potential as assessed in terms of protection from lipid peroxidation and the antiulcer activity as seen by the area of gastric lesions, gastric juice volume, gastric pH, total acidity and total adherent gastric mucus content.
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The fruits of Terminalia bellerica Roxb. (Combretaceae) and T. chebula Retz. (Combretaceae) are important components of triphala, a popular Ayurvedic formulation, for treating diabetes in Indian traditional medicine.