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The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness and safety of rilpivirine in treatment-naive adults infected with HIV-1.
Nonadherence, suggested by subtherapeutic ART with/without major resistance mutations, significantly contributed to failure when switching regimen. Unresolved nonadherence, not NRTI resistance, drives early second-line failure.
Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN97755073; EUDRACT 2009-012947-40; and CTA 27505/0005/001-0001.
Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) only are included in this review. Patients population is represented by HIV-infected adult patients treated with a PI-containing regimen (PI or boosted PI), with undetectable viral load. Patients on a PI-containing regimen had three possibilities: continue the PI regimen or switch to a simplification maintenance regimen, including switch to a NNRTI (EFV or NVP) containing regimen, or switch to a triple-NRTI regimen (ABC-zidovudine-lamivudine)
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After a single oral dose, measurable levels of all five ARVs administered could be detected in all 4 body compartments. The limit of detection based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 1:3 for the antiretroviral agents was as follows: 1 part per billion (ppb) for lamivudine, tenofovir, and efavirenz and 0.1 ppb for lopinavir and raltegravir. The IC50 (inhibitory concentration where 50% of viral replication is inhibited by a drug) was reached for all drugs in the serum and CSF. In the aqueous humor, lopinavir failed to reach IC50 and in the vitreous humor, only efavirenz and lopinavir attained IC50 levels.
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The median values of all assessed semen parameters were within a normal range, but in up to 19% of HIV-positive males, at least one parameter of semen quality was below the normal range. A significant association between treatment with efavirenz and the presence of dysmotility was detected in the multivariate analysis.
In a proof-of-concept study, deep sequencing was compared to population sequencing in HIV-1-infected individuals with previous triple-class virological failure who also developed virologic failure to deep salvage therapy including, at least, darunavir, tipranavir, etravirine or raltegravir. Viral susceptibility was inferred before salvage therapy initiation and at virological failure using deep and population sequencing genotypes interpreted with the HIVdb, Rega and ANRS algorithms. The threshold level for mutant detection with deep sequencing was 1%.
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The capacity of the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor efavirenz to induce either liver CYP3A4 or intestinal CYP3A4, or both, as well as intestinal P-glycoprotein, was evaluated in healthy volunteers during and after a 10-day treatment course with two different daily doses.
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Randomized, multicenter, open-label, pilot trial.
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Amdoxovir ([-]-beta-D-2,6-diaminopurine dioxolane [DAPD]) is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) with activity against HIV-1. DAPD is deaminated in vivo by adenosine deaminase to (-)-beta-D-dioxolane guanosine (DXG), a highly active anti-HIV compound. The median 50% effective concentrations (EC 50 ) +/- SD (representing antiviral activity against a laboratory-derived HIV-1 isolate) for DAPD and DXG in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were 4.0 +/- 2.2 micromol/L and 0.25 +/- 0.17 micromol/L, respectively. The 50% cytotoxic dose (CC 50 ) of both DAPD and DXG was >500 micromol/L. Recombinant viruses and clinical isolates of HIV-1 from patients for whom NRTI therapy and/or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) combination therapies failed remained susceptible to inhibition by DXG (less than fourfold change in EC 50). Similar analysis showed that recombinant viruses harboring mutations known to confer resistance to NRTIs (zidovudine, lamivudine, and abacavir) and NNRTIs (efavirenz and nevirapine) as well as the multidrug resistance-associated mutation Q151M and double codon insertions (SS and SG) were also susceptible to inhibition by DXG. Resistance to DXG was observed only in recombinant isolates containing the 65R and 151M double mutations. Phenotypic analysis of a site-directed mutant containing only the 151M mutation demonstrated moderate resistance to DXG (<10-fold change in EC 50). We also examined site-directed mutants containing only L74V or K65R, the characteristic resistance mutations for DXG. The L74V mutant remained susceptible to inhibition by DXG, and the K65R mutant demonstrated moderate resistance to DXG.
EFV-induced neuropsychiatric symptoms can last up to 200 days after treatment initiation. However, symptom severity appears to decline over time in EFV-treated patients versus patients treated with a PI-based ART.
We followed up 911 participants (297 EFV, 311 NFV, 303 EFV/NFV). At 3 years, the proportion with HIV RNA less than 50 copies per mL was highest in the EFV group (188 [74%] EFV, 162 [62%] NFV, 155 [62%] EFV/NFV; p=0.004). Mean (95% CI) increases in CD4 count were 316x10(6) cells per L (288-343) for EFV, 289x10(6) cells per L (262-316) for NFV, and 274x10(6) cells per L (231-291) for EFV/NFV (p=0.1). Fewer participants in the EFV group than in the other groups stopped adequate antiretroviral therapy for more than 30 days (p=0.005). Participants in the EFV/NFV group had shorter time to stopping the initial regimen (p<0.0001) and to a treatment modifying adverse event (p=0.04) than those in the other groups.
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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of saquinavir-soft-gelatin capsule (SGC)/ritonavir combination (1600 mg/100 mg) vs efavirenz (600 mg) both once daily and combined with 2 nucleoside analogs twice daily.
Pharmacokinetic interactions between rifampicin and nonnucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) pose challenges in the treatment of TB/HIV coinfection. We describe NNRTI plasma concentrations (PC) and treatment outcomes in TB/HIV coinfected patients receiving rifampicin and NNRTIs concomitantly. Single center prospective data were collected on all TB/HIV-coinfected patients who received concomitant NNRTI and rifampicin between 2001 and 2005. Of 103 TB/HIV coinfected patients, 26 received concomitant rifampicin with efavirenz (EFV) and 17 with nevirapine (NVP). NNRTIs were commenced after rifampicin in 18/26 (69%) and 7/17 (41%) subjects treated with EFV and NVP, respectively. Of these 88% completed antituberculosis therapy. There were two (5%) deaths, both due to lymphoproliferative malignancy. Three (7%) patients transferred care or discontinued therapy. Of subjects 83% had normal liver function tests (LFTs) and 11% had Grade 1-2 and 6% Grade 3-4 LFT abnormalities during concomitant therapy. PCs were measured in 31 patients. The first PCs were within the therapeutic range in 5/7 on NVP 200 mg bd, 2/4 on NVP 300 mg bd, 3/7 EFV 600 mg od, and 7/13 on EFV 800 mg od. PCs were subtherapeutic in 4/11 (36%) and 3/20 (20%) subjects on NVP and EFV, respectively. No virological rebounds were observed. Of subjects receiving concomitant NVP or EFV with rifampicin, 64% and 80%, respectively, had therapeutic NNRTI PCs. Subtherapeutic PCs were not associated with virological failure. Good clinical outcomes and a low incidence of hepatotoxicity were observed.
To do a multi-centre prospective study of neurological manifestations of HIV/AIDS.
Both ART regimens present pronounced effect on inflammatory mediators, resulting in decreased PAF levels and Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity for tenofovir-containing regimen and same as baseline PAF levels with a peak though at the 3rd month as well as elevated Lp-PLA2 activity for abacavir-containing regimen.