It has been recently reported in the literature that using a fast freezing rate during freeze-drying of drug nanosuspensions is beneficial to preserve the original particle size distribution. All freezing rates studied were obtained by utilizing a custom-made apparatus and were then indirectly related to conventional vial freeze-drying. However, a standard freeze-dryer is only capable of achieving moderate freezing rates in the shelf fluid circulation system. Therefore, it was the purpose of the present study to evaluate the possibility to establish a typical freezing protocol applicable to a standard freeze-drying unit in combination with an adequate choice of cryoprotective excipients and steric stabilizers to preserve the original particle size distribution. Six different drug nanosuspensions containing itraconazole as a drug model were studied using freeze-thaw experiments and a full factorial design to reveal major factors for the stabilization of drug nanosuspensions and the corresponding interactions. In contrast to previous reports, the freezing regime showed no significant influence on preserving the original particle size distribution, suggesting that the concentrations of both the steric stabilizer and the cryoprotective agent are optimized. Moreover, it could be pinpointed that the combined effect of steric stabilizer and cryoprotectant clearly contribute to nanoparticle stability.
Chytridiomycosis caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) poses a serious threat to urodelan diversity worldwide. Antimycotic treatment of this disease using protocols developed for the related fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), results in therapeutic failure. Here, we reveal that this therapeutic failure is partly due to different minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antimycotics against Bsal and Bd. In vitro growth inhibition of Bsal occurs after exposure to voriconazole, polymyxin E, itraconazole and terbinafine but not to florfenicol. Synergistic effects between polymyxin E and voriconazole or itraconazole significantly decreased the combined MICs necessary to inhibit Bsal growth. Topical treatment of infected fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra), with voriconazole or itraconazole alone (12.5 μg/ml and 0.6 μg/ml respectively) or in combination with polymyxin E (2000 IU/ml) at an ambient temperature of 15 °C during 10 days decreased fungal loads but did not clear Bsal infections. However, topical treatment of Bsal infected animals with a combination of polymyxin E (2000 IU/ml) and voriconazole (12.5 μg/ml) at an ambient temperature of 20 °C resulted in clearance of Bsal infections. This treatment protocol was validated in 12 fire salamanders infected with Bsal during a field outbreak and resulted in clearance of infection in all animals.
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The absolute oral bioavailability of telithromycin is approximately 57%, which is unaffected by food intake. At the recommended 800 mg once-daily oral dosing regimen, telithromycin reaches a steady-state concentration of approximately 2 microg/mL in plasma and has an elimination half-life of approximately 10 hours. Telithromycin shows extensive tissue distribution and penetrates effectively into bronchopulmonary tissue and epithelial lining fluid. Since elimination of telithromycin occurs via multiple pathways--the highest proportion (70%) through metabolism--impairment of a single pathway has a limited impact on telithromycin exposure. Dose adjustments are unnecessary in elderly patients or in individuals with hepatic impairment or mild to moderate renal impairment. A reduced dose could be recommended in patients with severe renal impairment. Telithromycin is metabolized primarily in the liver, approximately half of which is via the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 system. Telithromycin AUC(0-24 h) increased by 1.5- to 2.0-fold in the presence of itraconazole and ketoconazole. Administration of telithromycin with drugs metabolized via CYP3A4 may result in increased exposure to the co-administered drug, as shown for simvastatin (5.3-fold) and midazolam (6-fold). Co-administration of telithromycin minimally increases (1.2- to 1.4-fold) exposure to theophylline, digoxin, and metoprolol. Although telithromycin does not affect the pharmacokinetics of warfarin, consideration should be given to monitoring prothrombin times/INR in patients receiving telithromycin and oral anticoagulants simultaneously.
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The current study was undertaken to compare systemic levels of inhaled fluticasone in patients with and without concomitant itraconazole therapy.
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For dogs in both treatment groups, clinical severity of cutaneous and otic disease was significantly decreased by day 21, but decrease in severity was not significantly different between groups. Similarly, skin cytology, skin culture, and ear culture scores were significantly decreased on day 21, compared with day 0, for both groups, but decreases were not significantly different between groups except that dogs in the pulse administration group had a significantly greater decrease in ear culture scores than did dogs in the daily administration group. However, when cytology scores only for ear samples were analyzed, day 21 score was not significantly decreased, compared with day 0 score, for either group.
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In this study, PBPK models of two statins (pitavastatin and atorvastatin) were developed and applied to predict pitavastatin and atorvastatin associated DDIs.
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The role of itraconazole in anti-fungal prophylaxis has been limited by the low bioavailability of the capsule formulation but the bioavailability of the oral solution is much improved. Three multi-centre studies using itraconazole solution (5 mg/kg/day) have recently been completed. The UK trial compared itraconazole solution with fluconazole suspension (100 mg/day). No invasive aspergillosis occurred in the itraconazole arm and there were more fungal deaths due to proven/suspected infection in the fluconazole group than in the itraconazole group (0 versus 7, p = 0.024). An Italian study compared itraconazole solution with placebo. Proven, suspected and superficial fungal infections were fewer in the itraconazole arm compared with placebo, with significant differences in proven and suspected systemic fungal infections (itraconazole 24% versus placebo 33%, p = 0.035). The third study compared itraconazole with amphotericin B capsules (2 g/day). There were more invasive fungal infections, Aspergillus infections and fungal deaths in the amphotericin B arm than with itraconazole but none of these differences were statistically significant. Azole prophylaxis in neutropenic patients may reduce the incidence of Candida infections, empirical amphotericin B usage, and the incidence of proven fungal infections. Itraconazole may be more effective than fluconazole in preventing invasive aspergillosis. All of these effects are more pronounced in high risk patients.
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The study objective was to determine the in vitro activity of terbinafine and itraconazole through the microdilution technique in broth (NCCLSM27-A2), adapted for dimorphic fungus, in relation to 12 isolates of Sporothrix schenckii. Six were from feline sporotrichosis, three from human sporotrichosis, one from a dog and two from human isolates originating from Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. The inoculum and antifungal concentrates were distributed on microplates that were incubated at 35 degrees C for five days. Minimum inhibitory concentration readings were made at the end of this period. The MIC for terbinafine ranged from 0.055 microg/ml to 0.109 microg/ml, and the MIC for itraconazole ranged from 0.219 microg/ml to 1.75 microg/ml. For both drugs, the MIC from the isolates from IOC was 0.875 microg/ml. The present study demonstrates the high susceptibility of Sporothrix schenckii to terbinafine. Further studies to correlate the in vitro susceptibility tests with the clinical response of patients with sporotrichosis are needed.
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We describe a case of central venous catheter-related fungemia caused by Cryptococcus liquefaciens, a non-neoformans and non-gattii Cryptococcus, in a non-HIV patient. A 71-year-old man with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma receiving antineoplastic chemotherapy was febrile approximately 30 weeks after central venous port insertion, and C. liquefaciens was isolated from all three performed blood cultures as well as a central venous catheter tip culture. In vitro antifungal susceptibility tests showed that this yeast isolate was susceptible to low concentrations of amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole yet was resistant to 5-fluorocytosine (MIC: >64 μg/ml), unlike Cryptococcus neoformans. Treatment of the patient with oral and intravenous voriconazole was effective and consistent with the susceptibility tests. Although non-neoformans and non-gattii Cryptococcus spp. are considered non-pathogenic environmental yeast, they may rarely be the causative agents of serious infections in humans, as in the present case.
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Unexpected pathogens from the environment represent considerable risk for humans with impaired health. We examined the occurrence of itraconazole tolerant micromycetes in soil and in maize products. Five concentrations of itraconazole (2.5-12.5 micrograms/mL) selected according to known treatment schedules for human patients were incorporated into Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol and Rose Bengal and diluted samples were inoculated onto the agar surface. After 7-d growth at 22 degrees C colonies of Alternaria sp., Aspergillus clavatus, A. glaucus group, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger group, A. ochraceus group, A. ochraceus, Chaetomium sp., Cladosporium cladosporioides, Cylindrocarpon sp., Doratomyces sp., Fusarium sp., F. moniliforme, F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. subglutinans, Marianaea elegans, Mortierella sp., Mucor sp., Myrothecium sp., Penicillium sp., Rhizopus sp., Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, Sepedonium sp., Stachybotrys chartarum, Stemphylium sp., Torula humicola and Trichoderma viride were isolated.
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All cases of patients with documented endovascular histoplasmosis at a single tertiary care center in an endemic region during the period 1993-2010 were reviewed.
Sterol delta22-desaturase has been purified from a strain of Candida glabrata with a disruption in the gene encoding sterol 14alpha-demethylase (cytochrome P-45051; CYP51). The purified cytochrome P-450 exhibited sterol delta22-desaturase activity in a reconstituted system with NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase in dilaurylphosphatidylcholine, with the enzyme kinetic studies revealing a Km for ergosta-5,7-dienol of 12.5 microM and a Vmax of 0. 59 nmol of this substrate metabolized/min/nmol of P-450. This enzyme is encoded by CYP61 (ERG5) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and homologues have been shown in the Candida albicans and Schizosaccharomyces pombe genome projects. Ketoconazole, itraconazole, and fluconazole formed low-spin complexes with the ferric cytochrome and exhibited type II spectra, which are indicative of an interaction between the azole moiety and the cytochrome heme. The azole antifungal compounds inhibited reconstituted sterol delta22-desaturase activity by binding to the cytochrome with a one-to-one stoichiometry, with total inhibition of enzyme activity occurring when equimolar amounts of azole and cytochrome P-450 were added. These results reveal the potential for sterol delta22-desaturase to be an antifungal target and to contribute to the binding of drugs within the fungal cell.
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The purpose of the present work was to prepare multiparticulate drug delivery systems for oral administration of a poorly soluble drug such as itraconazole. Multiparticulate systems were prepared by extrusion/spheronization technique using a mix of crospovidone, low viscosity hypromellose, microcrystalline cellulose, micronized drug and water. In order to improve the release performance of the multiparticulate systems, the micronized drug was suspended in water with polysorbate 20 and nanonized by a high-pressure homogenization. The suspension of drug nanoparticles was then spray-dried for enabling an easy handling of the drug and for preventing the over-wetting of the powders during extrusion/spheronization processing. Both multiparticulate units prepared with micronized or nanonized drug showed acceptable disintegrating properties. The nanosizing of micronized drug powder provided a significant improvement of drug dissolution rates of the multiparticulates.
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Secondary resistance to azoles in Aspergillus fumigatus isolates from patients taking long-term itraconazole therapy has been described. We studied the acquisition of secondary azole resistance in 20 A. fumigatus isolates with no mutations at codon 54, 98, 138, 220, 432, or 448 in the cyp51A gene. Adjusted conidium inocula (3 × 10(7) CFU/ml) of each isolate were prepared and progressively or directly exposed to increasing itraconazole concentrations, ranging from 0.5 μg/ml to 16 μg/ml. Itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole MICs were determined using the CLSI M38-A2 procedure before (MIC(initial)) and after (MIC(final)) exposure to itraconazole. In both procedures, the MIC(final) was significantly higher than the MIC(initial). However, after progressive exposure to itraconazole, the MICs of the three azoles were higher than after direct exposure. No mutations were found at codon 54, 98, 138, 220, 432, or 448 in the cyp51A gene of isolates growing at the highest concentration of itraconazole. More concentrated conidium inocula (2 × 10(9) CFU/ml) plated in itraconazole at 4 μg/ml revealed the presence of heteroresistant populations in two initially wild-type isolates. These isolates became resistant to itraconazole and posaconazole only after use of the concentrated inoculum. These heteroresistant isolates harbored a mutation at codon G54, and the MICs of itraconazole and posaconazole were >16 μg/ml. In all procedures, A. fumigatus short tandem repeat (STRAf) typing was used to demonstrate that the genotype did not change before or after exposure to itraconazole.
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Pregnant women are more susceptible to both vaginal colonization and infection by yeast. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence in pregnant women of yeasts isolated from vaginal exudates and their susceptibility to current antifungal drugs. A total of 493 patients was studied between December 1998 and February 2000. The prevalence of Candida spp. was 28% (Candida albicans 90.4%; Candida glabrata 6.3%; Candida parapsilosis 1.1%, Candida kefyr 1.1 %; unidentified species 1.1 %). The diffusion test in Shadomy agar was employed to determine the susceptibility to fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and nistatine. All C. albicans, C. kefyr and C. parapsilosis isolates were susceptible in vitro to the antifungal agents tested, while 1 in 6 C. glabrata isolates showed resistance to azole drugs; all strains were susceptible to nistatine. In pregnant women, C. albicans was the yeast most frequently isolated from vaginal exudates; it continues to be highly susceptible to antifungal drugs. Azole resistance was detected only among C. glabrata isolates. Identification to the species level is recommended, specially in cases of treatment failure and recurrent or chronic infection.
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One-hundred and ninety-five patients with toenail tinea unguium were recruited to a multicentre double-blind clinical trial. Patients were given 250 mg terbinafine or 200 mg itraconazole daily for 12 weeks, with follow-up for a further 40 weeks. At the end of the study, mycological cure rates were 81% (70/86 assessed) for terbinafine and 63% (53/84 assessed) for itraconazole (two-tailed, P < 0.01). The length of unaffected nail was 9.44 mm in the terbinafine group and 7.85 mm in the itraconazole group (two-tailed, P < 0.05). Patient self-assessment also favoured terbinafine, with 65% evaluating it as good to very good, compared with 58% for itraconazole. Before treatment the terbinafine group had a mean of 6.7 and the itraconazole group 6.3 affected nails per patient. Total cure was achieved in 69% of terbinafine and 61% of itraconazole affected nails. We conclude that terbinafine is more effective than itraconazole in the treatment of toenail tinea infection.
Given the conditions of the Swiss setting, posaconazole can be considered a cost-effective early treatment strategy that increases survival in patients at risk for IFI and may have a substantial benefit for the economic burden of IFI.
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We report a case of mucocutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala spinifera. Crusty plaques and nodules were major clinical features. Histological examination revealed brown yeast-like cells and hyphae. Mycological and molecular data identified E. spinifera as etiologic agent. Oral itraconazole was effective, which was in accordance with the results of in vitro susceptibility testing. We speculated that her pregnancy may play a role of risk factor in the infection by E. spinifera.
Treatment consists of at least 2 months' systemic antifungal therapy, with itraconazole as the first-choice agent. The prognosis is favourable provided there is good owner compliance and adverse drug effects do not occur.
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ABPA, A. fumigatus infection and A. fumigatus allergy without ABPA all likely worsen cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. Studies examining utility of new serologic assays for diagnosing ABPA include evaluations of standardized measurement of A. fumigatus-specific IgG, serum chemokine TARC levels, and recombinant A. fumigatus allergens; as yet, none appear ideal. Although oral glucocorticoids remain primary therapy, toxicity and incomplete control have led to an ongoing search for further safe and effective agents including itraconazole and voriconazole, intravenous pulse methylprednisolone, nebulized amphotericin B and omalizumab. Little controlled treatment data is available.
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Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nails, more often of the toenails. It is a common condition, with an estimated overall prevalence of 3-10% in European populations. Dermatophytes, especially Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, are the usual pathogens. Some 50% of infected patients fail to seek medical advice. Medically confirmed onychomycosis should be treated. This recommendation is based on several disease-specific considerations: cosmetic and functional disability, lack of spontaneous remission, impairment of health and wellbeing in elderly patients and the need to reduce contamination in communal bathing places. Current treatments for onychomycosis include oral antifungal agents such as terbinafine (Lamisil) and itraconazole (Sporanox). They offer significantly improved rates of cure, shorter treatment regimens and a lower level of adverse events than was previously the case. Comparative studies have shown that terbinafine is more effective than griseofulvin, fluconazole or itraconazole in the treatment of this condition, providing a cure rate of 70-80% and an excellent tolerability profile. Terbinafine is also the most cost-effective agent. However, several problems remain that will provide future challenges in the treatment of onychomycosis, not least the consistent treatment failure rate of 20%. In many of these cases, surgery may need to precede drug therapy in order to maximise the prospects of clinical and mycological cure. In addition, duration of treatment also needs to be more closely adjusted to the individual case by prior identification of severity and extent of toenail infection, and combined oral and topical therapy also requires further investigation.
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Invasive fungal infection (IFI) has increased in recent years due to there being a greater number of risk factors. IFI caused by Candida is the most frequent, and although Candida albicans is the most isolated species, there is currently a decrease of C. albicans and an increase of other species of the genus.
A three-month laboratory-based prospective survey was conducted at four major university hospitals covering one-third of the Danish population in order to determine the prevalence, significance, and susceptibility pattern of aspergilli in airway samples. Samples received in January-March 2007 for routine microbiologic investigation were examined for Aspergillus following routine procedures and with extended incubation (5 days). Identification was done by morphologic criteria and susceptibility testing using EUCAST method for azoles and amphotericin B E-test. Invasive aspergillosis (IA) was evaluated using modified EORTC/MSG criteria. A total of 11,368 airway samples were received. Growth of Aspergillus spp. was found in 129 and 151 patients using routine and extended incubation, respectively. Three patients had proven IA (2%), 11 probable (7%), four had allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) (3%), but the majority was colonised (88%). Underlying conditions were cystic fibrosis in 82 patients (55%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 19 (13%) and haematological disorder in 11 (7%). Twenty-six patients (18%) were at intensive care unit and 69 (47%) received steroid treatment. Azole MICs were elevated for five isolates as follows (itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole MICs [mg/L]): two A. fumigatus isolates (>4; >4; 2 and >4; 0.125; 1), one A. lentulus isolate (2; 2; 0.5) and two A. terreus isolates (2; 2; 2 and 2; 0.125; 1). For four isolates the amphotericin B MIC was >1 μg/ml (3/112 A. fumigatus, 1/2 A. terreus). In conclusion, Aspergillus appears to be an important pathogen in Denmark. Elevated itraconazole MICs were detected in 4% of the isolates including a multi-azole resistant isolate.
With the increased movement of the world population, acquaintance with the clinical picture of the Madura foot is of growing importance beyond its original endemic areas. The characteristic triad of symptoms consists of indurated swelling, multiple sinus tracts with purulent discharge filled with grains and localization at the foot. An increasing number of new etiologic agents are recognized today. For a better choice of therapy an adequate diagnostic procedure is essential ; a deep biopsy for histology appears to give a more substantial contribution to identification of the causal organism than culture. The treatment which should be started early, is at first essentially a drug treatment. However, in spite of high expectations with regard to new antimycotic drugs, amputation or disarticulation is often inevitable even today, particularly when the lesion is caused by Eumycetes. The first two documented patients with this disease in the Netherlands are described. They developed serious deformities of the lower extremity despite long-term use of antimycotic and antibiotic medication.
This article provides an overview of the pharmacology, efficacy, and tolerability of posaconazole when used for the prophylaxis and treatment of various common and rare fungal infections.
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Candida auris is a newly described species whose clinical significance is not clear. Here, we describe the first three cases of nosocomial fungemia caused by C. auris, which confirms that it is a causative agent of bloodstream infections. All three patients presented persistent fungemia for 10 to 31 days. The isolates obtained from the three patients were misidentified as Candida haemulonii and Rhodotorula glutinis by the Vitek 2 and the API 20C systems, respectively. C. auris was confirmed by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region and D1/D2 regions of the 26S ribosomal DNA of the rRNA gene. The MIC ranges of amphotericin B (AMB), fluconazole (FLU), itraconazole, and voriconazole were 0.5 to 1, 2 to 128, 0.125 to 2, and 0.06 to 1 μg/ml, respectively. All isolates were susceptible to caspofungin (MIC = 0.06 μg/ml) and micafungin (MIC = 0.03 μg/ml). One patient developed breakthrough fungemia while receiving FLU therapy, and two patients who received FLU therapy followed by AMB showed therapeutic failure and fatal outcomes. Our cases show that C. auris fungemia can be persistent, despite FLU or AMB therapy, which emphasizes the importance of accurately identifying this species.
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Fungal infections of the cornea continue to be an important cause of ocular morbidity, particularly in the agricultural communities of the developing world. A proper understanding of agent and host factors involved in these infections will improve the outcome of this condition.
Malassezia species are associated with pityriasis (tinea) versicolor, seborrheic dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis. Presently, eleven species are accepted in the genus Malassezia. Of these, M. globosa and M. restricta colonize the skin surface in atopic dermatitis patients, suggesting that they play a significant role in exacerbating the condition. The two species have different genotypes in the intergenic spacer (IGS) region of the rRNA gene, which correspond to patients and healthy individuals. In addition, the antifungal susceptibilities of the genotypic strains to itraconazole and ketoconazole differ. We found a new analytically significant role of the rRNA gene in Malassezia species, in addition to its use for fungal taxonomy and identification.
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The geometric mean MICs (mg/L) of amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole for these isolates were 0.45 +/- 0.19, 0.69 +/- 0.45, 5.24 +/- 3.74 and 0.27 +/- 0.18, respectively. A comparison of the geometric mean MICs of the antifungals obtained for the resistant isolates to those of the susceptible parents showed 1.15-, 2.76-, 16.90- and 1.42-fold increases, respectively, for amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole, suggesting that low-level cross-resistance exists between the azole antifungals. The susceptible parent and the resistant isolates accumulated similar amounts of voriconazole.
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Feline histoplasmosis is a systemic fungal infection often treated with itraconazole, which can be cost-prohibitive for some clients. Additionally, although the clinical disease in cats has been documented, sources of Histoplasma species spore exposure in cats have yet to be thoroughly investigated. The objectives of this study were to compare the outcomes of cats with histoplasmosis treated with fluconazole to those treated with itraconazole, and to evaluate possible sources of exposure for affected cats. Medical records from feline patients with confirmed histoplasmosis (n = 32) at Kansas State University were systematically reviewed and follow-up was performed by owner telephone interview. Cats treated with fluconazole (n = 17) had similar mortality and recrudescence rates when compared with cats treated with itraconazole (n = 13). Thus, fluconazole may be a viable alternative therapy for the treatment of feline histoplasmosis. Eleven cats were housed strictly indoors and possible sources of exposure reported for these cats included potted plants (5/11) and unfinished basements (6/11).
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A retrospective clinical and immunological survey was conducted in 60 patients with Chronic Granulomatous Disease. A prospective controlled non-randomized study of the efficacy of long-term IFNgamma treatment was carried out. The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 4.4 years; mean duration of follow-up was 10.4 years. Lung and skin infections were the most frequent manifestations both prior to diagnosis and during follow-up. Aspergillus species was the first cause of infection and of death in our cohort. The mortality rate was 13%. Long term prophylaxis with IFNgamma did not significantly change the rate of total infection per patient-year compared to controls (p=0.07). Our data provide clear evidence that protocols of continuing intensive surveillance and monitoring of compliance with anti-infective regimens may significantly improve the quality of life and long-term survival in patients with CGD. No evidence justifying long-term prophylaxis with IFNgamma was obtained.
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The invasive fungus infections of the maxillary sinus and the orbit are exceptional in immunocompetent patient. Healing is based on early diagnosis and administration of the reference antifungal to face the risk of recurrence.
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Microdilution testing was performed in accordance with the CLSI M38-A method on 17 S. dimidiatum and 15 S. hyalinum clinical isolates.
Terfenadine has been associated with several adverse drug interactions and it was of interest to develop in vitro systems to explain and predict such interactions. The metabolism of terfenadine was studied using intact hepatocytes from primary human and rat hepatocyte cultures, and the immortalized human hepatoma cell line HepG2. Rates and routes of biotransformation were analysed by HPLC. Terfenadine was extensively metabolized by all three cell culture systems during exposure periods ranging from 4 to 24 hr. Human and rat hepatocytes and HepG2 cells formed products of C-oxidation (an acid metabolite and its precursor alcohol metabolite). Human hepatocytes also formed the N-dealkylation product azacyclonol. Several cytochrome P4503A (CYP3A) substrates and inhibitors were evaluated for their ability to inhibit terfenadine biotransformation. In rat hepatocytes, ketoconazole, erythromycin and troleandomycin failed to inhibit; in HepG2 cells, only ketoconazole potently inhibited terfenadine metabolism. In human hepatocytes, ketoconazole, itraconazole, erythromycin, troleandomycin, cyclosporin and naringenin inhibited terfenadine metabolism. The results suggest that human hepatocytes may be a useful system for screening for inhibitors of terfenadine metabolism.
We report three cases involving 7- to 8-year-old children from a Swiss school who had refractory tinea capitis due to an unusual strain of Microsporum audouinii which perforates hair in vitro. The patients showed no response to modern oral antifungal drugs like terbinafine and fluconazole. After switching to oral griseofulvin, two of the patients had a complete recovery, while the third was cured after the introduction of oral itraconazole. Given the high potential for contagion of this anthropophilic dermatophyte, all family members and three entire school classes were screened using the 'toothbrush technique'. Three family members and five class-mates were found to be asymptomatic carriers of M. audouinii and were consequently treated to avoid further transmission or reinfection of the treated patients. This is the first report of an outbreak of M. audouinii in Switzerland and underlines the importance of screening all contacts of patients with M. audouinii tinea capitis. Further, the effectiveness of griseofulvin in Microsporum tinea capitis has been corroborated, while newer antimycotic drugs like fluconazole or terbinafine failed.
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Patients with pre-transplant chemosensitive disease and those who achieved complete response following transplant had a significantly better chance of survival.