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Propecia (Finasteride)

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Generic Propecia is a 5-alpha reductase inhibitor which helps block the body's production of a male hormone causes the prostate to increase. Generic Propecia treats prostatic hypertrophy (BPH).

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Proscar, Finpecia, Finast, Finax, Fincar


Also known as:  Finasteride.


Generic Propecia is a medicine which belongs to the group of medicines called 5-alpha reductase inhibitors. 5-alpha reductase inhibitors help you to block the body's production of a male hormone causes the prostate to increase. You can use Generic Propecia with other medicines to treat prostatic hypertrophy (BPH).

Women can't take Generic Propecia. It is only for men.

Propecia is also known as Finasteride, Appecia, Finotop, Proscar, Fincar, Finpecia, Finax, Finast, Finara, Finalo, Prosteride, Gefina, Appecia, Finasterid.

Generic name of Generic Propecia is Finasteride.

Brand names of Generic Propecia are Proscar, Propecia.


Generic Propecia is available in tablets which should be taken orally.

It would be better to take Generic Propecia every day at the same time.

Generic Propecia should be taken one time a day, with or without food.

If you use Generic Propecia to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH):

For adults 5 mg a day.

If you use Generic Propecia to treat hair loss:

For adults 1 mg a day.

Keep Generic Propecia away from children.


If you overdose Generic Propecia and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.

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The most common side effects associated with Propecia are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Generic Propecia if you are allergic to Generic Propecia components.

Do not take Generic Propecia if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother. Generic Propecia can harm your baby.

Women can't take Generic Propecia. It is only for men.

Be careful with Generic Propecia if you suffer from blockage of urine flow or liver disease.

Keep Generic Propecia away from children and don't give it to other people for using.

Do not stop taking Generic Propecia suddenly.

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SPET-085 concentration-dependently inhibited 5alpha-reductase type II in vitro (IC(50)=2.88+/-0.45 microg/mL). The approved 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, finasteride, tested as positive control, led to 61% inhibition of 5alpha-reductase type II.

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The conversion of testosterone (T) to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) has been demonstrated to be catalysed by at least two isoforms of human steroid 5 alpha-reductase, designated types I and II. Type II 5 alpha-reductase expression predominates in human accessory sex tissues, localized to the fibromuscular stromal compartment. The type I isoform predominates in skin, prostatic epithelia and, to a lesser extent, in prostatic fibromuscular stroma. The significance of the type I isoform to prostatic cellular growth and function remains undefined. In cultured DU145 cells, we evaluated the metabolism of [14C]-T and demonstrated the time-dependent formation of [14C]-DHT. Oxidative metabolism (conversion of [14C]-T to [14C]-androstenedione) and the formation of conjugated androgen metabolites occurred at a relatively low rate in the DU145 cells. Using human type I 5 alpha-reductase cDNA, Northern blot analysis of DU145 cell mRNA revealed high levels of type I isoform expression. Analogous probing of the DU145 cells with a human 5 alpha-reductase II cDNA failed to reveal expression of the type II isoform. The expression of functional type I activity has been confirmed pharmacologically using isoform-selective 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors. Reductive metabolism of [3H]-T in the DU145 cells was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by LY306089, a potent non-steroidal type I-selective inhibitor (IC50 = 10.0 nM). SKF105657, a steroidal type II-specific inhibitor was distinctly less active at inhibiting [3H]-DHT formation. LY306089 was a non-competitive inhibitor of type I 5 alpha-reductase in DU145 cellular homogenates with an apparent Ki value of 4.0 nM. These studies have identified and pharmacologically defined type I 5 alpha-reductase activity in an androgen-insensitive prostatic cancer cell line and provide the basis for additional investigations into the significance of type I 5 alpha-reductase to human prostatic pathophysiology.

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The 5alpha-reductase inhibitor FK143 may, at specific doses, reduce the incidence of spontaneously developing prostate cancer; however, whether these findings in rats will apply to humans remains to be determined.

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Compared with men assigned to placebo, men assigned to doxazosin and combination experienced a statistically significant improvement in the BII at year 4. Men assigned to each of the drug groups also experienced a significant improvement in the I-PSS-QoL compared with those assigned to placebo. Considering longitudinal changes during 4 years, a significant improvement in BII and I-PSS-QoL scores was observed in men assigned to the drug groups compared with those assigned to placebo. However, there were no significant differences for the MOS-SF-36 subscales and summary scores when drug groups were compared with the placebo group.

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Results confirm that changing 5alpha-reductase inhibitors drugs can be associated with a clinically significant change in prostate specific antigen velocity. These prostate specific antigen velocity changes could place patients at risk for unnecessary prostate biopsy. Additional prospective studies are warranted.

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Patients with mild BOO may remain clinically and urodynamically stable for a long time.

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A rapid, simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) method for the quantification of vinflunine in rat plasma was developed and validated. After making alkaline with NaOH, plasma was extracted with ethyl acetate and determined by LC-MS. The analysis was carried out on a Shimadzu VP-ODS column (150 mmx4.6 mm ID, packed with 5 microm C18 Silica RP particle). The mobile phase consisted of methanol-10 mM ammonium acetate buffer (80:20, v/v) with the flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. LC-MS was performed in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode using target ions at m/z: 817.3 for vinflunine and m/z: 373.2 for finasteride (IS). Chromatographic separation was achieved in less than 6 min and the calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 0.025-6.25 microg/ml. The intra-assay and inter-assay variability values were less than 8.6%. The accuracy ranged from 91.5 to 105.6%. The established method has been successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of vinflunine in rats.

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Double-blind randomized study.

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5ARIs are recommended for men who have moderate-to-severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. Studies have confirmed the utility of combining 5ARIs with alpha-blockers; the MTOPS study showed that risk of overall clinical progression was significantly reduced after 4.5 years with combination therapy (finasteride/doxazosin) in comparison with either monotherapy, while the ongoing CombAT trial (dutasteride/tamsulosin) has for the first time shown benefit in improving symptoms for combination therapy over monotherapies within 12 months of treatment. Data also suggest roles for 5ARIs in prostate cancer. Several studies indicate that treatment with a 5ARI improves the performance of PSA testing for identifying men with prostate cancer, while the PCPT showed a significant reduction in the risk of developing prostate cancer with finasteride. However, widespread use of finasteride in this setting has been tempered by an apparent increase in high-grade disease observed in the study. The ongoing REDUCE study will provide further insight into prostate cancer prevention with 5ARIs. 5ARI-containing regimens may have utility as less aggressive treatment options for patients who only have rising PSA after definitive local therapy, and in patients with disease resistant to androgen deprivation therapy who have PSA progression. Current evidence therefore shows that 5ARIs are effective in treating LUTS/BPE and preventing disease progression, and may also have a role in the prevention of prostate cancer. The overlap between BPE and prostate cancer may allow a more unified approach to managing these conditions, with 5ARIs having a central role.

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In this single-dose study, based on the rate and extent of absorption, the ODT (ie, test) and standard tablet (ie, reference) formulations of finasteride met the regulatory criteria for bioequivalence in these fasting healthy adult male Han Chinese volunteers. However, a significant difference was found for T(max) between the test and reference formulations. Both formulations were well tolerated. ClinicalTrials. gov identifier: 2005L02216.

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Some men who use finasteride for hair loss report persistent sexual and other symptoms after discontinuing finasteride therapy.

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Review of the literature.

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PubMed, the Cochrane Library, reference lists of reports, and reviews were searched for randomised, double-blind trials of finasteride in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Outcomes included symptom score, urinary flow rate, prostate volume, discontinuation, and adverse effects. Relative risk and NNT or NNH were calculated for dichotomous data. Sensitivity analyses assessed influences of baseline symptom severity, initial prostate volume, a dominating trial, and previous interventions.

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Medicare-aged patients treated with dutasteride incurred $51 less per month in medical costs than those treated with generic finasteride, suggesting that the higher price of dutasteride may be offset by decreased medical resource consumption.

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Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the standard treatment for patients with prostate-specific antigen progression after treatment for localized prostate cancer. An alternative to continuous ADT is intermittent ADT (IADT), which allows recovery of testosterone during off-cycles to stimulate regrowth and differentiation of the regressed prostate tumor. IADT offers patients a reduction in side effects associated with ADT, improved quality of life, and reduced cost with no difference in overall survival. Our previous studies showed that IADT coupled with 5α-reductase inhibitor (5ARI), which blocks testosterone conversion to DHT could prolong survival of animals bearing androgen-sensitive prostate tumors when off-cycle duration was fixed. To further investigate this clinically relevant observation, we measured the time course of testosterone-induced regrowth of regressed LuCaP35 and LNCaP xenograft tumors in the presence or absence of a 5ARI. 5α-Reductase inhibitors suppressed the initial regrowth of regressed prostate tumors. However, tumors resumed growth and were no longer responsive to 5α-reductase inhibition several days after testosterone replacement. This finding was substantiated by bromodeoxyuridine and Ki67 staining of LuCaP35 tumors, which showed inhibition of prostate tumor cell proliferation by 5ARI on day 2, but not day 14, after testosterone replacement. 5α-Reductase inhibitors also suppressed testosterone-stimulated proliferation of LNCaP cells precultured in androgen-free media, suggesting that blocking testosterone conversion to DHT can inhibit prostate tumor cell proliferation via an intracrine mechanism. These results suggest that short off-cycle coupled with 5α-reductase inhibition could maximize suppression of prostate tumor growth and, thus, improve potential survival benefit achieved in combination with IADT.

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Steroid 5alpha-reductase is a system of two isozymes (5alphaR-1 and 5alphaR-2) which catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone in many androgen sensitive tissues and which is related to several human endocrine diseases such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostatic cancer, acne, alopecia, pattern baldness in men and hirsutism in women. The discovery of new potent and selective 5alphaR inhibitors is thus of great interest for pharmaceutical treatment of these diseases. The synthesis of a novel class of inhibitors for human 5alphaR-1 and 5alphaR-2, having the 19-nor-10-azasteroid skeleton, is described. The inhibitory potency of the 19-nor-10-azasteroids was determined in homogenates of human hypertrophic prostates toward 5alphaR-2 and in DU-145 human prostatic adenocarcinoma cells toward 5alphaR-1, in comparison with finasteride (IC50 = 3 nM for 5alphaR-2 and approximately 42 nM for 5alphaR-1), a drug which is currently used for BPH treatment. The inhibition potency was dependent on the type of substituent at position 17 and on the presence and position of the unsaturation in the A and C rings. delta9(11)-19-Nor-10-azaandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione (or 10-azaestra-4,9(11)-diene-3,17-dione) (4a) and 19-nor-10-azaandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione (5) were weak inhibitors of 5alphaR-2 (IC50 = 4.6 and 4.4 microM, respectively) but more potent inhibitors of 5alphaR-1 (IC50 = 263 and 299 nM, respectively), whereas 19-nor-10-aza-5alpha-androstane-3,17-dione (7) was inactive for both the isoenzymes. The best result was achieved with the 9:1 mixture of delta9(11)- and delta8(9)-17beta-(N-tert-butylcarbamoyl)-19-nor-10-aza-4- androsten-3-one (10a,b) which was a good inhibitor of 5alphaR-1 and 5alphaR-2 (IC50 = 127 and 122 nM, respectively), with a potency very close to that of finasteride. The results of ab initio calculations suggest that the inhibition potency of 19-nor-10-azasteroids could be directly related to the nucleophilicity of the carbonyl group in the 3-position.

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The purpose of this manuscript is to provide clinicians, health plan decision makers, and policy makers with highlights of key findings pertaining to our current understanding of the condition of enlarged prostate (EP) from a managed care perspective. This includes a brief discussion regarding the prevalence and economic burden of EP, followed by a review of clinical characteristics and pathophysiology, with the final section on treatment approaches with a focus on pharmacologic options. This supplement is not intended to be a comprehensive review of EP, because many review articles on this subject are available elsewhere. This manuscript does, however, serve to introduce 3 additional manuscripts contained within this supplement. The first article provides the readers with a real-world comparison of dutasteride and finasteride relative to acute urinary retention and surgery attenuation rates. The second article investigates differences in discontinuation rates of alpha blockers when used in combination with dutasteride or finasteride. The last article addresses the cost implications associated with dutasteride and finasteride therapy. All 3 articles represent data from a naturalistic, managed care population. This supplement is intended to assist managed care formulary decision makers in evaluating key clinical and economic data which could help to differentiate dutasteride and finasteride. Although the information presented does not prove superiority of either product, it will answer some important questions and raise some important issues beyond ingredient cost.

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To evaluate combinations of anti-tumour agents in tissue cultures using three established cell lines derived from patients with prostate cancer to obtain potential candidates for therapeutic testing in patients with prostate cancer.

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Alopecia is a common concern encountered in the medical practice. Treatment approach varies according to the type and severity of alopecia. However, available treatment options have limited efficacy and several adverse effects. Presently, there are different treatment options being studied to overcome these limitations. Additionally, cellular pathways involved in the pathophysiology of alopecia are further being clarified to potentially target pathogenic molecules.

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Despite advances in the detection and management of prostate cancer, this disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in men. Increasing propecia buy attention has focused on the role of chemoprevention for prostate cancer, ie the administration of agents that inhibit 1 or more steps in the natural history of prostate carcinogenesis. We review prostate cancer chemoprevention studies in Europe.

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Finasteride significantly decreases suburethral prostatic microvessel density in patients with BPH, which may explain its efficacy for decreasing BPH associated bleeding propecia buy .

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To identify the role of 5alpha-reductase in the spermatogenesis of male rats by studying the effect of two 5alpha-reductase inhibitors, Epristeride and Finasteride, on the spermatogenesis in male Sprague-Dawley Dose Of Rulide (SD) rats.

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A formal meta-analysis using an Empirical Bayes approach employed data from all finasteride studies which included the Phase III trials in North America and Internationally, the Prospect, Early Intervention, and SCARP trials, and the Veterans Administration Cooperative Study which compared terazosin, finasteride, and the combination of these two Viagra Online Buy drugs. A pooled analysis was also undertaken on the combined dataset.

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In two multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies (North American and international), patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia were randomly assigned to receive finasteride, 1 or 5 mg, or placebo for 1 year followed Asacol Tablets by an open-extension study in which all patients were treated with finasteride, 5 mg, regardless of original therapy. Men aged 40 to 80 years, in good physical and mental health, were eligible to enter the study. All patients were to have a maximum urinary flow rate of 15 mL/s or less with a voided volume of 150 mL or more, an enlarged prostate, and symptoms of urinary obstruction. Patients with a prostate-specific antigen level of 40 mg/mL or more or any finding suggestive of prostate cancer were excluded.

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In hair follicle (Hf) cells, the type-2 5-α-reductase enzyme, implicated in androgenetic alopecia Detrol Renal Dose , is selectively inhibited by finasteride (FNS). Because an effective topical formulation to deliver FNS to Hf is currently unavailable, this investigation aimed at evaluating in vitro FNS skin permeation and retention through and into hairless rat and human abdominal skin. Four hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCH)-based formulations (P-08-012, P-08-016, P-08-063, and P-08-064) and one anhydrous formulation without HPCH (P-10-008) were tested. The pharmacokinetics in plasma and skin after application of P-08-016 or P-10-008 on dorsal rat skin with single and repeated doses was investigated. P-08-016 performed the best in driving FNS to the reticular dermis without producing a high transdermal flux. Neither the in vivo single nor the repeated dose experiments produced plasma levels of FNS and no differences were found between formulations concerning skin retention. No increase in the amount of drug retained in the skin was obtained with the repeated dose experiment. In conclusion, the HPCH-based formulation P-08-016 might represent an alternative to systemic therapy for its ability to promote a cutaneous depot of FNS in the region of hair bulbs, minimizing systemic absorption even after repeated treatments.

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The in vivo and in vitro antiandrogenic activity of four new progesterone derivatives: 4-bromo-17alpha-(p-fluorobenzoyloxy)-4-pregnene-3,20-dione 1,4-bromo-17alpha-(pchlorobenzoyloxy)-4-pregnene-3,20-dione 2, 4-bromo-17alpha-(p-bromobenzoyloxy)-4 Levitra 75 Mg -pregnene-3,20-dione 3 and 4-bromo-17alpha-(p-toluoyloxy)-4-pregnene-3, 20-dione 4 was determined. These compounds were evaluated as antiandrogens on gonadectomized hamster prostate and reduced the weight of the prostate glands in gonadectomized hamsters treated with testosterone 5 (T) or dihydrotestosterone 6 (DHT) in a similar manner to that of commercially available finasteride, thus indicating a potent in vivo effect. The in vitro studies showed that steroids 1-4 have a weak inhibitory activity on 5alpha-reductase with IC50 values of: 280 (1), 2.6 (2), 1.6 (3) and 114 microM (4). The presence of Cl and Br atoms in the C-17 benzoyloxy group tends to increase the inhibitory potency of the compounds. The binding efficiency of the synthesized steroids 1-4 to the androgen receptor of the prostate gland is also evaluated. All compounds form a complex with the receptor and this explains the weight reduction of the seminal vesicles in the animals treated with DHT plus steroids 1-4.

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The survival of rat Purkinje cell (PCs) cerebellar cultures was used to test the hypothesis that progesterone is protective against oxygen-glucose deprivation through potentiation of GABA(A) receptor activity. Electrophysiological recordings confirm that PCs develop robust excitatory and inhibitory synapses in culture. Exposure of cultured PCs to increasing concentrations of progesterone during oxygen-glucose deprivation revealed a concentration-dependent protection by progesterone, with significant protection observed at physiological concentrations, as low as 10 nm. The concurrent application of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist picrotoxin (100 microm) completely abolished the neuroprotection afforded by progesterone, indicating that progesterone is neuroprotective through activation of GABA(A) receptors. Progesterone potentiates GABA(A) receptor activity indirectly through its metabolites, such as allopregnanolone (ALLO). Therefore, ALLO was applied to PC cultures and was observed to produce significant protection at all concentrations tested, from 10 to 1000 nm. Finally, the inhibition of progesterone metabolism with finasteride abolished the protection afforded by progesterone without having any effect on the neuroprotection caused Suprax User Reviews by ALLO. These data indicate that progesterone protects cerebellar PCs at physiological concentrations through a GABA-active metabolite.

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More than 25% of primary care practitioners begin performing digital rectal examination after patient age 55 years. Compared to prostate specific antigen (PSA) 59% of practitioners believe that digital rectal examination is more sensitive or that the tests are equal, or they do not know. In regard to PSA 11% of respondents begin testing after patient age 60 Nolvadex Buy Uk years, 11% evaluate PSA only if digital rectal examination is abnormal and greater than 3% never evaluate PSA. Approximately 45% of primary care practitioners indicated that PSA of greater than 4.0 ng./ml. signifies prostate cancer regardless of patient age, prostate size or prostatis and 50% think that digital rectal examination elevates PSA in a clinically significant way. Although 93.2% of respondents refer a patient to a urologist after palpating a prostatic nodule, only 51.1% refer for an area of induration. Of the 47.2% of respondents who attempt pharmacotherapy for voiding dysfunction with finasteride, terazosin or both 15% do not know the agent mechanisms of action. Of those prescribing finasteride 68.6% are not aware of its effects on serum PSA. Overall 66.5% of primary care practitioners are not familiar with the American Urological Association Symptom Index while only 15% of those attempting pharmacotherapy use the index as a diagnostic tool.

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Hair regrowth was evaluated by histologic analysis in men and women treated for androgenetic alopecia, by counting follicles in horizontal sections of scalp biopsies. Serial 4mm punch biopsies were taken at baseline and after 12mo of treatment from the transitional area of hair thinning between normal hair and vertex balding in men, and in an area of frontal/parietal thinning in women. Horizontal sections of reticular and papillary dermis were read by one observer, blinded to patient, treatment, and time. All terminal hair bulbs, terminal anagen and telogen hairs, and vellus and vellus-like miniaturized hairs were counted. Twenty-six men aged 18-41y, comprising 14 on finasteride 1 mg daily and 12 on placebo, and 94 postmenopausal women, aged 41-60y, comprising 44 on finasteride 1 mg daily and 50 on placebo, were evaluated. In the male study, the terminal hairs increased from a mean baseline count of 15.5-20.9 after 12mo of finasteride, versus 17.3-18.3 in the placebo patients. The miniaturized hairs decreased from 26.7 to 23.6 with finasteride versus 21.3-20.3 with placebo. The terminal-to-vellus ratio increased more in the finasteride than in the placebo patients, suggesting some reversal of the miniaturization process with finasteride. In the female study, no significant differences in follicular counts were found between the finasteride Atarax Cough Syrup and placebo groups after 12mo of treatment. Follicular counts in horizontal sections provide an informative adjunct to noninvasive measures used in hair growth studies. Finasteride appears to be capable of reversing hair miniaturization in androgenetic alopecia in young to middle-aged men, but not in postmenopausal women.

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A 5 alpha-reductase Astelin Review inhibitor, finasteride, was administered orally at 0.5 mg/day, alone or in combination with topical 2% minoxidil, for 20 weeks to determine the effects on scalp hair growth in balding adult male stumptail macaque monkeys. A 7-day dose-finding study showed that both 0.5- and 2.0-mg doses of the drug produced a similar diminution in serum dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in male stumptails. Hair growth was evaluated by shaving and weighing scalp hair at baseline and at 4-week intervals during treatment to obtain cumulative delta hair weight (sum of the 4-week changes in hair weight from baseline) for the 20-week study. The activity of the 5 alpha-reductase enzyme was assessed by RIA of serum testosterone (T) and DHT at 4-week intervals. The combination of finasteride and minoxidil generated significant augmentation of hair weight (additive effect) compared to either drug alone. Finasteride increased hair weight in four of five monkeys. When the data of the one nonresponsive monkey were excluded, finasteride elicited a significant elevation in hair weight compared to topical vehicle alone. Minoxidil also evoked a significant increase in hair weight compared to vehicle alone. Serum T was unchanged, whereas serum DHT was significantly depressed in monkeys that received either finasteride or the combination of finasteride and minoxidil. These data suggest that inhibition of the conversion of T to DHT by this 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor reverses the balding process and enhances hair regrowth by topical minoxidil in the male balding stumptail macaque.

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A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from record-linkage of administrative databases. Men aged ≥ 40 years old who had received a prescription for at least 10 boxes/year (index years: 2004-06) were included. The association of the outcomes was assessed using a multiple Cox proportional hazard model. Propensity score matched analysis and a 5-to-1, greedy 1:1 matching algorithm were performed. The budget impact analysis of dutasteride Tofranil Pm Dosage vs finasteride in BPH-treated patient was performed.

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The initial results of SELECT have now been reported and demonstrate no impact of selenium or vitamin E on the risk of prostate cancer. The REDUCE trial results should be available within the year. The results of the PCPT demonstrate a significant (measured relative risk reduction of 24.8%) reduction in the risk of prostate cancer. The initial observation of an excess risk of high grade disease appears to be related to improved detection of cancer and high grade cancer related to the improved sensitivity of prostate specific antigen, digital rectal examination and prostate biopsy for cancer and high grade cancer detection. Modeling studies suggest that with finasteride the risk of high grade cancer is unchanged or reduced. Sexual dysfunction and gynecomastia were observed but the rates were low.

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A reflection is made, on the one hand, on the lack of correlation between the intensity of micturition problems and the volume of the prostate and, on the other hand, on the different therapeutic approaches of irritative or obstructive voiding problems, and finally on the insufficiently convincing activity of Finasteride.

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LHRH agonists, antiandrogens, and 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors all reduce the androgenic stimulation to the prostate gland. In doing so, they decrease prostate size by 25 percent, but cause a modest improvement in symptom score (3-4 points) and peak urinary flow rate (approximately 2.5 mL/sec). All of these therapies cause a significant decrease in the serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration, and an effect is maintained as long as the treatment is continued. Side effects are most pronounced for the LHRH agonists, in which impotency and decreased libido are universal phenomena, and least significant for the 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors. Aromatase inhibitors eliminate the estrogenic stimulation to the prostate gland. Although substantial evidence exists to support the role of estrogens in the development and maintenance of BPH, no data from large-scale randomized clinical trials are available to document the clinical usefulness of aromatase inhibitors in the treatment of symptomatic BPH.

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The action of testosterone (T) on the sex accessory organs, such as ventral prostate (VP) and seminal vesicles (SV) is amplified by its 5 alpha-reduction to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). This does not happen in the case of muscle (levator ani, LA) which contains little or no 5 alpha-reductase activity. It has been suggested that the regulation of gonadotropins by T may also be mediated by its 5 alpha-reduced metabolites. We investigated this question by utilizing two types of androgens: (1) T and 17 alpha-methyl-testosterone (17MT), whose potency increases following 5 alpha-reduction; and (2) 19-nortestosterone (NT) and 17 alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone (17MNT) whose potency decreases following 5 alpha-reduction. Castrated rats were used to investigate the ability of these androgens to stimulate VP, and SV (androgenic action) and LA growth (anabolic action) and to suppress the post-castration rise in LH levels. In addition, modification of these actions by a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor (5 alpha-RI) was studied. Compared to T, NT was approximately 5 times less potent in stimulating VP and SV. By contrast, it was twice as potent as T in stimulating LA growth. Similarly, 17MNT was 5 times less androgenic but twice as anabolic as 17MT. The antigonadotropic potency of both the 19-nor compounds was 2-3 times greater than that of their respective 19-methylated parent compounds. The similarity in their anabolic and antigonadotropic potency suggested that 5 alpha-reduction is not a factor in their antigonadotropic action. This was confirmed by the use of the 5 alpha-RI. Treatment of rats receiving the androgens with 5 alpha-RI showed that it decreases the androgenic activity of T and 17MT while it increases the androgenic activity of NT and 17 MNT. In all cases the anabolic activity and the antigonadotropic potency remained unchanged. It is concluded that the regulation of pituitary gonadotropin secretion by T does not depend upon its 5 alpha-reduction to DHT.

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Baseline patient characteristics were generally comparable between responders and non-responders. The proportion of patients with an International Prostate Symptom Score improvement ≥3 points with tadalafil/finasteride and placebo/finasteride, respectively, at week 4 was 57.0% and 47.9% (OR 1.45, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.97), at week 12 was 68.8% and 60.7% (OR 1.48, 95% confidence interval 1.07-2.05) and at week 26 was 71.4% and 70.2% (OR 1.14, 95% confidence interval 0.81-1.61); for IPSS change ≥25%, the corresponding proportions were 44.8% and 32.9% (OR 1.66, 95% confidence interval 1.21-2.28), 55.5% and 51.9% (OR 1.18, 95% confidence interval 0.87-1.62), and 62.0% and 58.3% (OR 1.23, 95% confidence interval 0.89-1.70). Treatment satisfaction at week 26 was significantly greater with tadalafil/finasteride versus placebo/finasteride for total treatment satisfaction scale score (P=0.031) and satisfaction with efficacy subscore (P = 0.025); scores were not significantly different between treatments for satisfaction with dosing or side-effects (both P ≥ 0.371).

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Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) occurs in approximately 40% of men at the age of 40 and 50% at 50, respectively. Especially for young men progressive hair loss can be distressing. Therefore, understanding of these patients' concerns is important for appropriate management. Current understanding of the pathophysiology of AGA mainly focuses on androgen metabolism as it affects hair growth. As a result, pharmacologic treatment has made considerable progress through the introduction of selective 5 alpha-reductase inhibition with finasteride. In placebo-controlled clinical trials in men with AGA, treatment with oral finasteride proved to be effective. Minoxidil is the only pharmacological substance for topical application with proven efficacy. So far, other treatment modalities have no proven efficacy in clinical trials, so that their use cannot be recommended. Options for advanced AGA not amenable to pharmacologic treatment are autologous hair transplantation and hair replacement, both of which have recently also made progress in terms of cosmetic appeal.

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Local aromatase-mediated conversion of androgens plays an important role in androgen action on the brain. To characterize estrogen formation in the human brain, we measured the microsomal aromatase activity of temporal lobe biopsies and compared it to that of human placenta using a highly sensitive 3H2O assay with [1beta-3H]androstenedione as substrate. Brain tissue was removed neurosurgically from 23 patients with epilepsy. Data of kinetic studies were analyzed with a computer-assisted, nonlinear, curve-fitting method using the Michaelis-Menten plus a nonspecific metabolism model. In contrast to data for placental aromatase activity, that for brain always had to be corrected for nonspecific tritium release. The mean K, values were 22.2 nmol/L in brain and 49.6 nmol/L in placenta. Inhibition experiments with atamestane, an inhibitor of aromatase cytochrome P450, revealed specific, dose-responsive, and competitive inhibition of both brain and placental aromatase activities. Placental aromatase activity was completely suppressible by atamestane, whereas in brain tissue there remained a residue of nonspecific tritium release. Subsequent experiments with cerebral cortex and subcortical white matter specimens of children and adults revealed a significantly higher aromatase activity in cerebral cortex than in subcortical white matter, but no sex or age differences were found.

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Rats experienced uninterrupted SE or SE terminated with diazepam at 60, 120, and 180 min. P450scc induction in CA3 hippocampus was determined by double immunolabeling with P450scc antiserum and monoclonal antibodies against GFAP (astrocytes), RIP (oligodendrocytes), or heme oxygenase-1 (microglia).

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Finasteride achieved dose-dependent inhibition of macroscopic rat prostate carcinogenesis, and casodex also inhibited macroscopic prostate carcinogenesis. However, both drugs showed insufficient prevention of carcinogenesis at the microscopic level. These findings indicate that, in clinical medicine as well, such drugs may also be able to prevent the progression of latent prostate carcinoma to life-threatening disease.

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Prostatitis Symptom Severity Index and prostatism scores dropped significantly in patients in the finasteride group (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). There were no statistically significant differences in pain between the groups. There were significant differences in the changes of prostate volume and in serum prostate-specific antigen concentrations between the finasteride and placebo groups (P < 0.03 and P < 0.02, respectively). The groups did not differ with regard to side effects.

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Strategies for reducing the occurrence of prostate cancers will be critical in limiting the morbidity and mortality of this disease. The long latency period of prostate tumors and improved understanding of prostate carcinogenesis suggest opportunities for effective preventive measures. Because androgen is integral to prostatic carcinogenesis, several preventive strategies under investigation target the androgen axis. Epidemiologic and basic studies implicate dietary factors in prostate cancer development and suggest that altering diet may influence prostate cancer risk and progression. Many of the micronutrients with preventive potential have antioxidant properties; cellular defenses against oxidative stresses are likely to be crucial in reducing prostate carcinogenesis. This article summarizes the current status and opportunities in prostate cancer prevention.

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Thirteen hormone-naive men with advanced prostate cancer (4 with Stage D2, 1 with Stage D1, 1 with Stage D0, and 7 with rising PSA levels after radical prostatectomy [n = 2] or definitive radiation therapy [n = 5]) were initially treated with 5 mg finasteride daily. Flutamide (250 mg three times a day) was added after serum PSA levels stabilized.

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African American men have a higher prostate cancer risk profile than that of other men in the United States. The purpose of this manuscript is to summarize the challenges associated with enrolling and randomizing African American and other minority participants in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT).

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Progesterone treatment has previously been reported to promote the differentiation of glial cells probably through the production of 5alpha-reduced neurosteroids, resulting in the enhancement of serotonin-stimulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression, which is considered to contribute to the survival, regeneration, and plasticity of neuronal cells in the brain and hence has been suggested to improve mood disorders and other symptoms in depressive patients. Based on these previous observations, the effects on glial cells of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, which are known as agents promoting cell differentiation, were examined using rat C6 glioma cells as a model for in vitro studies. Consequently, trichostatin A (TSA), sodium butyrate (NaB), and valproic acid (VPA) stimulated glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) gene expression, and their stimulatory effects on GFAP gene expression were inhibited by treatment of these cells with finasteride, an inhibitor of the enzyme producing 5alpha-reduced neurosteroids. In addition, HDAC inhibitors enhanced serotonin-stimulated BDNF gene expression, the enhancement of which could be abolished by the inhibition of 5alpha-reduced neurosteroid production in the glioma cells. These results suggest that HDAC inhibitors may be able to promote the differentiation of rat C6 glioma cells through the production of 5alpha-reduced neurosteroids, resulting in the enhancement of serotonin-stimulated BDNF gene expression as a consequence of promoting their differentiation, indicating the possibility that differentiated glial cells may be implicated in preserving the integrity of neural networks as well as improving the function of neuronal cells in the brain.

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This report describes clinically important issues about use of the serum PSA concentration for detecting early prostate cancer. Other PSA-related factors--PSA density, PSA velocity, and age-specific reference ranges--seem to enhance the ability of clinicians to distinguish benign prostatic conditions from early prostate cancer. Because digital rectal examination only minimally affects the serum PSA concentration, delaying a determination after this examination is unnecessary. Finasteride therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia should be initiated only after the prostate has been evaluated for cancer because this 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor lowers the serum PSA value by approximately 50%; however, reassessment of the prostate for cancer is necessary if the PSA level fails to decrease as expected or increases to more than 2 ng/mL during finasteride treatment.

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In late pregnant rats neuroendocrine stress responses, expressed as increased oxytocin secretion and activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, are attenuated. These adaptations preserve the oxytocin store for parturition and prevent pre-term birth, and protect the fetuses from adverse programming by exposure to excess glucocorticoid. Mechanisms of adaptations for oxytocin neurones are reviewed, using challenge with systemic interleukin-1beta, simulating activation of immune signaling by infection, as a stressor of special relevance in pregnancy. In virgin rats, systemic interleukin-1beta stimulates the firing of oxytocin neurones, and hence oxytocin secretion, but interleukin-1beta has no effects in late pregnant rats. This lack of response is reversed by naloxone treatment just before interleukin-1beta administration, indicating endogenous opioid suppression of oxytocin responses in late pregnancy. This opioid presynaptically inhibits noradrenergic terminals impinging on oxytocin neurones. Finasteride pretreatment, inhibiting progesterone conversion to allopregnanolone, a positive GABA(A) receptor allosteric modifier, also restores an oxytocin response to interleukin-1beta. This finasteride effect is reversed by allopregnanolone treatment. In virgin rats allopregnanolone attenuates the oxytocin response to interleukin-1beta, which is exaggerated by naloxone. The effects of naloxone and finasteride in late pregnant rats in restoring an oxytocin response to interleukin-1beta are not additive. Accordingly, allopregnanolone may both enhance GABA inhibition of oxytocin neurone responses to interleukin-1beta, and induce opioid suppression of noradrenaline release onto oxytocin neurones.

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Information reviewed here comes mainly from published scientific articles and abstracts describing direct comparative trials among alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists, finasteride, and/or phytotherapy.

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Fourteen general practices in the Netherlands.

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Finasteride is effective in the treatment of prostatic-origin haematuria.

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To investigate serologic evidence of infection by cytomegalovirus (CMV), a herpesvirus with known oncogenic potential that has been detected in malignant prostate tissue, in relation to prostate cancer (PCa) risk in a large case-control study nested in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT).

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We previously reported the effects of finasteride on scalp hair weight and count over a 2-year period in men with androgenetic alopecia (AGA).

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For the physical function outcome (n = 16 077), neither the finasteride main effect nor the finasteride interaction with time were statistically significant. The effects of finasteride on physical function were minor and accounted for less than a 1-point difference over time in Physical Functioning scores (mixed-effect estimate = 0.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.28 to 0.42, P = .71). Comorbidities such as congestive heart failure (estimate = -5.64, 95% CI = -7.96 to -3.32, P < .001), leg pain (estimate = -2.57, 95% CI = -3.04 to -2.10, P < .001), and diabetes (estimate = -1.31, 95% CI = -2.04 to -0.57, P < .001) had statistically significant negative effects on physical function, as did current smoking (estimate = -2.34, 95% CI = -2.97 to -1.71, P < .001) and time on study (estimate = -1.20, 95% CI = -1.36 to -1.03, P < .001). Finasteride did not have a statistically significant effect on the other two dependent variables, mental health and vitality, either in the mixed-effects analyses or in the cross-sectional analysis at any of the three time points.

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The translocator protein 18kDa (TSPO) is closely related to regulation of immune/inflammatory response. However, the putative role and signaling mechanisms of TSPO in regulation of neuroinflammation remain unclear. GV287 lentiviral vectors mediating TSPO over-expression were injected into bilateral hippocampal CA1 areas to test whether TSPO over-expression was neuroprotective in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mice model. Finasteride, a blocker of allopregnanolone production, was used to test whether the protective effects were related to steroideogenesis. The results demonstrated that TSPO over-expression increased progesterone and allopregnanolone synthesis. TSPO over-expression in CA1 area improved LPS-induced cognitive deficiency in mice and this cognitive improvement was reversed by finasteride administration. These data suggest that up-regulation of TSPO level during neuroinflammation may be an adaptive response mechanism, a way to provide more neurosteroids. We confer that TSPO could be an attractive drug target for controlling neuroinflammation in the future.