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A single-center, retrospective analysis was undertaken between elderly (≥ 65 years) (n=137) and nonelderly (n=276) kidney transplant recipients who received rabbit antithymocyte globulin induction and calcineurin inhibitor, mycophenolic acid, and prednisone maintenance.
In our endocrine study, we found that only risk allele A carriers of rs9296158 showed GR supersensitivity with PTSD; in contrast, baseline cortisol levels were decreased in PTSD only in patients with the GG genotype. Expression of 183 transcripts was significantly correlated with PTSD symptoms after multiple testing corrections. When adding FKBP5 genotype and its interaction with PTSD symptoms, expression levels of an additional 32 genes were significantly regulated by the interaction term. Within these 32 genes, previously reported PTSD candidates were identified, including FKBP5 and the IL18 and STAT pathways. Significant overrepresentation of steroid hormone transcription factor binding sites within these 32 transcripts was observed, highlighting the fact that the earlier-described genotype and PTSD-dependent differences in GR sensitivity could drive the observed gene expression pattern. Results were validated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and replicated in an independent sample (N = 98).
Sirolimus (rapamycin) is used in drug-eluting stent strategies and proved clearly superior in this application compared with other immunomodulators such as pimecrolimus. The molecular basis of this action of sirolimus in the vascular system is still incompletely understood. Measurements of cell proliferation in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (hCASM) demonstrated a higher antiproliferative activity of sirolimus compared with pimecrolimus. Although sirolimus lacks inhibitory effects on calcineurin, nuclear factor of activated T-cell activation in hCASM was suppressed to a similar extent by both drugs at 10 μM. Sirolimus, but not pimecrolimus, inhibited agonist-induced and store-operated Ca(2+) entry as well as cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation in human arterial smooth muscle, suggesting the existence of an as-yet unrecognized inhibitory effect of sirolimus on Ca(2+) signaling and Ca(2+)-dependent gene transcription. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that only sirolimus but not pimecrolimus significantly blocked the classical stromal interaction molecule/Orai-mediated, store-operated Ca(2+) current reconstituted in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293). A link between Orai function and proliferation was confirmed by dominant-negative knockout of Orai in hCASM. Analysis of the effects of sirolimus on cell proliferation and CREB activation in an in vitro model of arterial intervention using human aorta corroborated the ability of sirolimus to suppress stent implantation-induced CREB activation in human arteries. We suggest inhibition of store-operated Ca(2+) entry based on Orai channels and the resulting suppression of Ca(2+) transcription coupling as a key mechanism underlying the antiproliferative activity of sirolimus in human arteries. This mechanism of action is specific for sirolimus and not a general feature of drugs interacting with FK506-binding proteins.
Twenty-four patients completed the study with an exceptional compliance and tolerable safety profile. One patient withdrew from the study due to severe flare-up reaction affecting both hemi-faces. The mean baseline total rosacea severity scores were 5.06 + 1.29 for both sides and reduced to 2.5 +/- 1.06 vs. 3.25 +/- 1.24 on pimecrolimus vs. placebo applied sides without the significance (P = 0.06). There was not any significant difference concerning each rosacea sign scores and total rosacea severity scores except for the significant improvement in erythema score and total rosacea severity score obtained on the pimecrolimus-applied hemi-face at 2nd week of therapy (P =0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively). The reduction rates of the mean subjective severity scores at 4th week were 49.77% vs. 38.89% for pimecrolimus vs. placebo, respectively, without a statistical significance (P = 0.15). Subjective symptoms responded well in 54.16% of patients concerning pimecrolimus application compared with 12.50% for the placebo application. The side-effects were mostly transient local irritations.
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We found no difference in calcineurin activity between the groups and no difference in the amount of non-isoform-specific catalytic subunit bound to CaM. However, association of CnAα-CaM is increased in transplant patients, whereas CnAβ-CaM is decreased. In addition, the amount of CnAβ-CaM corresponds positively with T-cell activity and negatively with tacrolimus level. Finally, CnAβ-CaM is lower in stable transplant patients compared with those with acute rejection.
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This was a double-masked, randomized pilot study. A total of 18 soft contact lens users (n = 36 eyes) with mild to moderate papillary conjunctivitis were enrolled. Subjects were randomly assigned into three groups to receive tacrolimus 0.05%, fluorometholone 0.1%, or saline (sodium chloride 0.9%). Drugs were prescribed at the baseline visit (visit 1) and instilled twice daily for 4 weeks. Follow-up visits were taken at week 1 (visit 2), week 2 (visit 3), week 4 (visit 4, drug usage suspended at this visit), and week 6 (visit 5, 2 weeks after interrupting eye drops). Contact lens use was discontinued during the 6 weeks of the study, and variables assessed were symptoms and signs, tear film status, and intraocular pressures. Conjunctival impression cytology was performed at baseline and visit 5 to assess ocular surface status.
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In a cohort of 32 renal transplant patients who are potentially at risk for adverse events, we compared tacrolimus (TAC) abbreviated AUC values calculated by a method developed in Asians (AUCw) with those derived for Caucasians (AUCa). The relationships between TAC trough (C0), abbreviated AUC, and biopsy results were also assessed. Forty-eight AUCs and 15 associated biopsies were evaluated. For AUCs obtained only from Caucasian patients, median AUCw value was lower than that of AUCa (104 vs. 115 ng×h/mL, n=29, p<0.0001). AUCs obtained from the two methods for all patients correlated with C0 (rs>0.72, n=48, p<0.0001). Median AUCw (72.9 vs. 174 ng×h/mL, p=0.043) and AUCa (81.0 vs. 203 ng×h/mL, p=0.043) were lower in patients experiencing biopsy-proven acute rejection (AR) than those with normal histology. C0 tended to be lower in biopsies showing AR>6 months post-transplant (5.80 vs. 11.0 ng/mL, p=0.110). Thus, lower abbreviated AUCs were obtained for Caucasians using a method developed in Asians. C0 correlated well with abbreviated AUCs. Lower C0 and AUC appeared to be associated with biopsy-proven AR>6 months post-transplant. Further prospective evaluation of TAC AUC and C0 monitoring in a larger cohort of patients is warranted.
The safety profile of intermittent or continuous long-term application of 0.1% tacrolimus ointment for up to 4 years was consistent with that which has been established from shorter studies and gave no reason for concern. In addition, 0.1% tacrolimus ointment demonstrated sustained efficacy as reflected by the expression of high satisfaction with treatment by both patients and investigators.
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We aimed to minimize the dose of tacrolimus in pediatric patients undergoing liver transplantation prospectively.
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This study aimed to investigate in vivo absorption of tacrolimus formulated as a solid dispersion using Eudragit E®/HCl (E-SD). E-SD is an aminoalkyl methacrylate copolymer that can be dissolved under neutral pH conditions. E-SD was used alone as a solid dispersion carrier and/or was mixed with tacrolimus primarily dispersed with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC). Tacrolimus was formulated with E-SD at several different ratios. Formulations with tacrolimus/E-SD ratio of 1/3 showed higher in vivo absorption, compared to tacrolimus dispersed in the excipients (primarily HPMC) found in commercially available tacrolimus capsules, using a rat in situ closed loop method. Good correlation was observed between in vitro drug solubility and in vivo drug absorption. In vitro solubility tests and rat oral absorption studies of tacrolimus/HPMC solid dispersion formulations were also conducted after mixing the HPMC dispersion with several ratios of E-SD. E-SD/tacrolimus/HPMC formulations yielded high in vitro drug solubility but comparatively low in vivo absorption. Dog oral absorption studies were conducted using capsules containing a formulation of tacrolimus/E-SD at a ratio of 1/5. The E-SD formulation-containing capsule showed higher in vivo drug absorption than tacrolimus dispersed in the standard HPMC capsule. These studies report enhancement of the in vivo absorption of a poorly water-soluble drug following dispersion with E-SD when compared to formulation in HPMC.
This review summarizes data concerning the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and clinical efficacy of the new PKC inhibitor sotrastaurin with a focus on renal transplantation. The article contains information that has been presented at international transplant meetings and congresses and that has been published between 2006 and 2010. Additionally, current ongoing trials are described in detail.
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NMSC and peritumoral epidermis protein expression of Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 were assessed by immunohistochemistry in renal transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus or sirolimus and the general population not receiving immunosuppression.
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We quantified Tregs in peripheral blood and allograft biopsies from nonhuman primates after heterotopic partial facial segment allotransplantation from major histocompatibility complex class I-mismatched donors using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Immunosuppression consisted of tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil without induction or depletional therapies. Circulating and graft skin Treg values were compared with graft outcomes and with histologic grade from concurrent biopsies.
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These studies suggest that simultaneous BMT and VCA may establish indefinite allograft survival in rats through Treg-mediated suppression and thymic deletion of alloreactive T cells.
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Aspergillosis has emerged as important human mycoses, in view of the ever expanding population at risk. The emergence of resistance to the most commonly used drugs for aspergillosis, the azoles, the mediocre activity, and frequent toxicity of the current antifungal armamentarium, support the need for development of novel antifungals for treatment of this disease. In this minireview, we describe recent efforts by small drug companies and University research labs to develop novel therapies for invasive aspergillus infections. We specifically discuss four small-molecule antifungals (T-2307, E1210/APX001, ASP2397, and F901318) with novel modes-of-action, which are currently entering phase I clinical trials. In addition, we provide a nonexhaustive discussion of some interesting, yet early developments in the quest for improved therapeutic strategies such as (i) novel formulations of amphotericin B including AMB nanoparticle suspensions and AMB-arabinogalactan or AMB-PEG conjugates that show low toxicity and high efficacy in preclinical animal models, (ii) repurposed drugs that synergize with existing antifungals (clozafimine, trichostatin A, MGCD290, geldanamycin, tacrolimus, cyclosporin), (iii) natural products (psoriasin, humidimycin), and (iv) immunotherapy using adoptive transfer of activated immune cells with antifungal activity. We argue that despite the plethora of candidates, the extremely low success rates of drug development leading to clinically useful drugs reinforces the need for continued clinical reliance on mainstream antifungals and their improved derivatives.
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Tacrolimus concentrations measured by CLIA correlated with those measured by HPLC-MS/MS. Bland-Altman analysis revealed the 95% confidence intervals between CLIA and HPLC-MS/MS in RA and RT patients were -20.7 to 109.9% and -5.0 to 74.1%, respectively. While 31-O-demethylated tacrolimus cross-reaction amounted to an equivalent of 120% tacrolimus in CLIA, 13-O-demethylated tacrolimus did not cross-react.
In the murine model, tumor growth was evident in 100% of the nude mice (n=5), with a peak size of 20 mm (15.22+/-4.5 mm; mean+/-SD) at the time of sacrifice (3 weeks). Tumor growth was evident in 71% of the wild mice (n=21), with a peak size of 7.8 mm (4.19+/-1.1 mm) by the third week of growth. In the swine model, tumor growth was evident in 75% (3/4 ears; n=2) of swine under tacrolimus-based immunosuppression versus 50% of swine under steroids-based immunosuppression (n=2). Tumor growth was slow in two animals, while in one animal the tumor was larger with a peak growth of 42 mm at 3 weeks. The tumor pattern in the ear lobules was characterized by slow growth, with a peak size of 6-8 mm in the immunocompetent swine at 3 weeks. All tumors were shown to be malignant by histology. In contrast, inoculums of the transformed fibroblast cell line in swine livers showed no evidence of tumor growth at 3 weeks.
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The importance and usefulness of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) have been emphasized, and analysis of drugs has been increased in clinical laboratories. We evaluated the analytical performance and clinical usefulness of a recently introduced enzyme multiplied immunoassay instrument, Viva-E Drug Testing System (Dade Behring Inc., USA).
Relevant articles (English language and human subjects) were reviewed. Selected studies included 3 Phase 2 and 2 Phase 3 trials. Data were compared with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) briefing documents and belatacept full prescribing information.
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Sirolimus (SRL) has been used as an alternative immunosuppressant strategy to allow either dose minimization or complete withdrawal of calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) therapy to improve renal outcome. One hundred thirty-one heart and 55 lung transplant patients were converted from a CNI to SRL based immunosuppression, with CNI elimination in 25 patients, and dose reduction in 161 patients. Fifty-six (28%) patients died and 65 (33%) patients had a 25% or more decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) during a median follow-up of 18 months. The three groups (SRL only group n = 25; SRL + tacrolimus n = 94; SRL + cyclosporine n = 67) had an initial improvement in estimated glomerular filtration rate (p = 0.05), with subsequent similar slow decline in mean eGFR (repeated measures ANOVA, p = 0.96). After controlling for important potential confounding variables, the three groups had similar renal outcome (p = 0.40) and overall survival (p = 0.45). In conclusion, the benefits of CNI withdrawal vs. minimization as part of SRL-based regimens are similar with regard to renal outcomes and patient survival.
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Sixteen patients exhibited pretransplant donor-specific antibodies, but only 3 of these patients (19%) developed antibody-mediated rejection and 2 of them experienced early graft losses. Excluding these 2 losses, 6 of 14 patients exhibited donor-specific antibodies at the final follow-up exam, whereas 8 of these patients (57%) exhibited complete clearance of the donor-specific antibodies. Five other patients developed ''de novo'' posttransplant donor-specific antibodies. Death-censored graft survival was similar in patients with pretransplant donor-specific and non-donor-specific antibodies after a mean follow-up period of 70 months.
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Up to now, protocols entirely avoiding CNI have not passed the primary safety endpoint of patient and graft survival, as well as the FDA mandated endpoint of biopsy proven acute rejection. Thus, early CNI minimization after LTx is the most rational approach preserving post-transplant renal function.
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A 51-year-old Japanese woman developed systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in 1995. In August 2005, she had massive pericardial effusion due to lupus pericarditis, which was compromising her circulation. Methylprednisolone pulse, intravenous cyclophosphamide pulse and pericardiocentesis were all ineffective. The pericardium was cut surgically to create a passage to drain the liquid into the pleural cavity. The procedure was temporarily effective; however, massive liquid accumulated in the pleural cavity within 1 year. Oral tacrolimus and topical betamethasone injection were ineffective. Since the interleukin-6 (IL-6) level in the effusion was markedly increased (1160 pg/ml), tocilizumab was administered intravenously at a dose of 8 mg/kg every 4 weeks. The effect was astonishing and only a residual amount of pericardial effusion remained. Prednisolone was tapered successfully from 15 to 5 mg daily. Tocilizumab is a treatment of choice when we confront an intractable serositis with massive effusion in SLE, if the IL-6 level is high.
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Some studies reported no changes in the number of epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) that were observed in mice treated with pimecrolimus, and low-dose stimulated solar radiation (once)-induced changers in LC are minimally affected by pimecrolimus. This study is to investigate the effects of topical pimecrolimus 1% on high-dose ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated epidermal LC. Forty human foreskin tissues were randomly divided into 4 groups of 10 tissues each: Group A, control; Group B, pimecrolimus 1% (once)-only; Group C, 180 mJ/cm(2) UVB (once)-only; Group D, UVB+pimecrolimus. Each tissue was cut into 4 pieces corresponding to 4 time points. All the tissues were cultured at 37 °C. After being treated, the tissues were collected respectively and processed for immunohistochemical staining and immunofluorescence staining. For UVB-only group, epidermal CD1a(+) LC number at 18h decreased from 39.6 ± 8.30 to 22.3 ± 2.26/5 high magnification, compared to CD1a(+) LC number at 0 h (P<0.01). The CD1a(+) LC number of UVB-only group was significantly less than other groups at 18 h, 24h and 48 h (P<0.05, respectively). Similar results were obtained with immunofluorescence staining for CD 1a and immunohistochemical staining for Langerin. The numbers of epidermal HLA-DR(+) LC had no significant differences among all groups at different time points. Our study found a single 180 mJ/cm(2) UVB irradiation significantly reduced epidermal LC numbers at 18 h, 24h and 48 h, however, topical pimecrolimus could reverse these changes. UVB plus pimecrolimus treatment did not affect human LC maturation.
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The aim of the study is to characterize the pharmacokinetics and the gastrointestinal side effect profiles of enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS) in de novo kidney transplant patients of Hispanic ethnicity.
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Polyclonal antibodies raised against full-length antigens are often used for localization experiments. Exact knowledge of epitopes in the antigen recognized by the antiserum is important if the target antigen belongs to a large family of proteins which are highly conserved. We have shown that epitope mapping using peptide microarrays represents a powerful tool for determination of immunodominat regions in a proteome-wide manner. As examples we show results of epitope mapping using peptide microarrays displaying overlapping peptide scans through either all human cyclophilins or all human FK506-binding proteins.
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Patient and graft survival were 100% for a median follow-up of 40 months (range, 12-60 months). There were no humoral rejections based on ABO-antigen-antibody interactions. C3a and the C3a/C3 ratio declined with the start of IA treatment, and this decline was maintained postoperatively. C1q declined from day -30 to a lower value on the day before transplantation (P<0.05). In eluates from both patient and control, immunoadsorbent column immunoglobulins together with C3a and C1q were detected.
Tacrolimus-associated posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a potential complication of allogeneic stem cell transplant (SCT). Due to the paucity of information on the management of PRES in SCT patients receiving tacrolimus, more information is needed on trends associated with the incidence of PRES and to characterize its management. A retrospective review was conducted of patients receiving tacrolimus for prevention of graft versus host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic SCT who developed PRES from September 2008 to July 2011. Nineteen patients were identified. Altered mental status, seizures, and visual abnormalities were experienced by 78.9%, 52.6%, and 31.5% of the patients, respectively, at time of PRES onset. Compared with baseline, patients with PRES were likely to have an increase in mean arterial pressure (P < 0.0001) and serum creatinine. Elevated tacrolimus levels and hypomagnesemia were not observed with PRES onset. Tacrolimus was managed in three general strategy groups: not held, held then continued, and switched to another agent. Survival was defined as survival to discharge from PRES hospitalization. When tacrolimus was not held, held then continued, or switched to another agent, 40% (2 of 5), 40% (4/10), and 50% (2/4) survived to discharge, respectively. PRES was associated with high blood pressure and adequate blood pressure control should be part of its management. No management strategy pertaining to tacrolimus usage appeared more beneficial over another.
Vitamin D deficiency was shown to be prevalent among renal transplant recipients in northern countries, but little is known regarding risk factors.