A 67-year-old man suffered from a left cervical lymph node swelling and tenderness. Biopsy of the cervical lymph node showed pleomorphic large cells containing large atypical nuclei. Immunohistochemical stains of these cells were positive for CD30, but negative for CD3 and CD20. After the biopsy, his left cervical skin was ulcerated. Biopsy of the left cervical skin was performed. Large pleomorphic cells with constricted nuclei and Reed-Sternberg-like cells existed in the dermis and epidermis. Immunohistochemical stains of the former cells were positive for CD30, CD45 and PAX5, but negative for CD3, CD10, CD20, CD15, Bcl-2, EBER ISH, EMA and ALK. He was diagnosed with diffuse large B cell lymphoma, anaplastic variant. He achieved complete remission with CHOP chemotherapy. CD30-positive DLBCL, anaplastic variant is a rare B cell lymphoma. Most of the patients presented with primary nodal disease, and skin involvement of lymphoma is very rare. This is the report of a rare case of CD30-positive DLBCL, anaplastic variant, with both nodal and skin lesions.
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No significant difference was found in clinical background comparisons between the two groups. In the R-chemotherapy group, 60% of the patients were older than 65 years at diagnosis. Both the complete response rate and overall survival (OS) were significantly better in the R-chemotherapy group (P = 0.0003 and P = 0.002, respectively). Multivariate analysis confirmed that chemotherapy without rituximab was associated with unfavorable OS. However, the probability of CNS relapse did not differ between the two groups (P = 0.89). The CNS relapse was strongly associated with short OS (P < 0.0001). In the R-chemotherapy group, 83% of patients who experienced CNS relapse had parenchymal disease.
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Spinal sarcoidosis is a rare manifestation of sarcoidosis that can present a major diagnostic challenge. Herein we present a case of a previously healthy 55-year-old man who presented with leg weakness and was found to have diffuse involvement of his spinal cord by neurosarcoidosis. He was treated with steroids and recovered completely. The clinical characteristics, radiographic and laboratory findings of spinal sarcoidosis are discussed. Management strategies, including the use of newer targeted therapies, are also reviewed.
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Measurement of levels of serum morning fasting cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, total testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, insulin-like growth factor 1, TSH and free T(4), MRI of the pituitary gland and a transsphenoidal biopsy of a pituitary mass were performed.
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There were 7 females and 5 males with acquired TTP, with a median age of 13 (range, 6-17); and no cases of congenital TTP. The classic pentad of TTP (microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, neurologic symptoms, renal dysfunction and fever) was seen in only three patients. Nine had renal involvement; eight had neurologic symptoms; and four had fever. All 12 patients had thrombocytopenia, anemia, and elevated LDH. Nine had idiopathic TTP. Three patients had one of the following underlying disorders: systemic lupus erythematosus, mixed connective tissue disorder, and aplastic anemia (post-bone marrow transplant on cyclosporine). ADAMTS13 level was decreased in 7 of 8 patients studied. Eight of 10 patients achieved remission with plasmapheresis alone. Two needed additional treatment before achieving remission. Two had one or more relapses, requiring immunosupressive treatment with vincrisine, prednisone, or rituximab. The patient with aplastic anemia died of pulmonary hypertension 5 y after bone marrow transplantation. All other 11 patients are alive and free of TTP for a median follow-up of 12 mo (range, 3-72 mo).
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We compared the profiles of the three subsets of AIP to identify the unique characteristics of seronegative type 1 AIP and type 2 AIP.
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The 8-year OS rate for patients with stage IIB bulky disease who received combined-modality ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine) and radiation was 88.8%; the 8-year RFS rate was 76.8%. On multivariate analysis, age < 40 years (hazard ratio [HR], 0.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14-0.57; P = .001), receipt of ABVD (vs. MOPP [mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone]; HR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.10-0.88; P = .028), and radiation dose ≥ 30.1 Gy (HR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.11-0.65; P = .006) were associated with improved OS. Cardiac events (n = 11) and secondary malignancies (n = 11) only occurred in patients treated before 1995. A subgroup analysis demonstrated significantly improved survival in IIB bulky versus advanced-stage patients (8-year OS, 73.4% vs. 57.4%; P = .008). Improved outcomes in patients with in IIB bulky disease were especially evident in the modern era (> 1995; P = .004).
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Long-term corticosteroid treatment is effective in prolonging function but not in recovering lost function, and its early use seems appropriate.
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This report describes a 74 year old Caucasian man, with no known allergies, presenting severe myalgia, muscle weakness, jaw claudication, and fever. Blood work showed marked eosinophilia and high creatine kinase levels. Biceps brachialis muscle biopsy revealed eosinophilic necrotizing vasculitis and true myositis with myophagocytosis of non-necrotic fibers and strong sarcolemmal MHC-1 overexpression by immunohistochemistry. This patient was successfully treated with prednisone and azathioprine.
Inclusion criteria for this study required meeting previously published diagnostic criteria and complications greater than nasal polyps or sinusitis itself. Four patients from our cohort and 30 patients identified in a literature search formed the study group.
A 70-year-old male was admitted with a 2-week progressive course of severe cognitive impairment, scoring three on the Mini Mental State Examination. MRI of the brain showed confluent hyperintense areas in T2/FLAIR in the periventricular and subcortical white matter, extending to right parietal cortex and basal ganglia. Intra-arterial angiography was unremarkable. A targeted stereotactic brain biopsy disclosed a leukocytoclastic vasculitis. The patient improved on steroids. Leukocytoclastic vasculitis adds to the spectrum of histopathologic subtypes of primary angiitis of the central nervous system.
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Vincristine is a naturally occurring vinca alkaloid used in various chemotherapy regimens. Neurotoxicity is a known and commonly encountered side effect of vincristine. Peripheral neuropathy is the most common form of vincristine neuropathy whereas central effects are rarer. Enhanced VCR neurotoxicities from drug interactions with several azole antifungals such as itraconazole and voriconazole have been reported. Our case represents a drug possible adverse drug effect based on the Naranjo ADR Probability Scale.
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The influence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection on prognosis and hepatic toxicity in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the rituximab era is unclear. Thus, we analyzed 553 patients, 131 of whom were HCV-positive and 422 of whom were HCV-negative, with DLBCL treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (RCHOP)-like chemotherapy. Survival outcomes and hepatic toxicity were compared according to HCV infection. The median follow-up was 31 and 32 months for patients who were HCV-positive and HCV-negative, respectively. HCV infection was not a significant risk factor for prognosis (3-year progression-free survival, 69% vs 77%, P = .22; overall survival, 75% vs 84%, P = .07). Of 131 patients who were HCV-positive, 36 (27%) had severe hepatic toxicity (grade 3-4), compared with 13 of 422 (3%) patients who were HCV-negative. Multivariate analysis revealed that HCV infection was a significant risk factor for severe hepatic toxicity (hazard ratio: 14.72; 95% confidence interval, 6.37-34.03; P < .001). An exploratory analysis revealed that pretreatment transaminase was predictive of severe hepatic toxicity. HCV-RNA levels significantly increased during immunochemotherapy (P = .006). These results suggest that careful monitoring of hepatic function and viral load is indicated during immunochemotherapy for HCV-positive patients.
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Normal CRP steroid-free remission at week 12 was impacted by type of induction therapy, but not by early immunomodulation. It was associated with more corticosteroids-free remission at week 52 and a trend for less relapses.
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MDM2 is a key negative regulator of the tumor suppressor p53, however, the prognostic significance of MDM2 overexpression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has not been defined convincingly. In a p53 genetically-defined large cohort of de novo DLBCL patients treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) chemotherapy, we assessed MDM2 and p53 expression by immunohistochemistry (n = 478), MDM2 gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (n = 364), and a single nucleotide polymorphism in the MDM2 promoter, SNP309, by SNP genotyping assay (n = 108). Our results show that MDM2 overexpression, unlike p53 overexpression, is not a significant prognostic factor in overall DLBCL. Both MDM2 and p53 overexpression do not predict for an adverse clinical outcome in patients with wild-type p53 but predicts for significantly poorer survival in patients with mutated p53. Variable p53 activities may ultimately determine the survival differences, as suggested by the gene expression profiling analysis. MDM2 amplification was observed in 3 of 364 (0.8%) patients with high MDM2 expression. The presence of SNP309 did not correlate with MDM2 expression and survival. This study indicates that evaluation of MDM2 and p53 expression correlating with TP53 genetic status is essential to assess their prognostic significance and is important for designing therapeutic strategies that target the MDM2-p53 interaction.
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Despite a considerably higher cost than conventional prednisone, MR-pred is a cost-effective option for RA patients not on glucocorticoids who are eligible for therapy with biologic agents.
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Multi-institutional, unblinded, nonrandomized single group phase 2 clinical trial to assess the need for radiotherapy based on early response to chemotherapy. Eighty-eight eligible patients with Hodgkin lymphoma stage I and II (<3 nodal sites, no B symptoms, mediastinal bulk, or extranodal extension) enrolled between March 3, 2000, and December 9, 2008. Follow-up data are current to March 12, 2012.
The mediastinum is an uncommon location for presentation of peripheral T cell lymphoma. Esophageal involvement by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is extremely unusual. Although staging can be performed with routine imaging studies, surgical intervention is often required to ensure accurate histologic diagnosis of these lymphomas. Peripheral T cell lymphomas not otherwise specified are among the most aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas with often a poor response to conventional chemotherapy.
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Exchange of mycophenolate mofetil with leflunomide in patients with PVAN was well tolerated and safe, with no serious adverse effects or episodes of graft rejection. Mean follow-up after transplantation was 717 days, and after initiation of leflunomide therapy was 465 days. With the modified therapy, 12 patients cleared the virus at a mean of 109 days. One graft was lost due to refractory rejection accompanied by a decreasing viral load. In the other 12 patients, graft function stabilized or improved (mean [median] creatinine concentration at diagnosis, 2.39 [2.5] mg/mL, vs 2.27 [2.0] mg/dL at follow-up). Leflunomide concentration did not correlate with treatment efficiency.
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This study comprised 85 patients, aged ≥ 60 years, who were diagnosed with DLBCL; patients were enrolled at a single center between June 2004 and December 2009. Patients received either 6 or 8 cycles of RD-RCHOP, spaced 3 weeks apart, at the physician's discretion. The RD-RCHOP regimen consisted of 375 mg/m(2) rituximab, 600 mg/m(2) cyclophosphamide, 30 mg/m(2) doxorubicin, and 1-mg vincristine on day 1 of each cycle, and 40-mg prednisone on days 1-5. The patients received granulocyte colony-stimulating factor if they experienced grade 4 neutropenia or febrile neutropenia during any cycle.
Between January 2001 and June 2004, 124 consecutive patients who were in complete remission after dose dense chemotherapy and rituximab administration (R-CHOP14) were randomly assigned to received IFRT (30 Gy). Sixty-three patients received IFR, and 61 patients did not (control group).
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The role of consolidative radiation therapy (RT) for stage III and IV diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in the era of rituximab is not well defined. There is evidence that some patients with bulky disease may benefit, but patient selection criteria are not well established. We sought to identify a subset of patients who experienced a high local failure rate after receiving rituximab-based chemotherapy alone and hence may benefit from the addition of consolidative RT.
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To describe the first reported case of pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) in a pediatric patient with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and multiple other risk factors and review the literature for PI in adult and pediatric rheumatologic conditions.
We report a case of AST in a 21-year-old woman who presented with steadily worsening throat pain for 3 weeks, a tender left neck mass, and thyrotoxicosis. She was initially given prednisone for treatment of presumed SAT but then it acutely worsened. Fine needle aspiration yielded pus on gross examination, and she required intubation and emergent surgical drainage to maintain her airway. Culture of the abscess isolated Streptococcus F and Porphyromonas, a gram-negative intracellular anaerobe not previously reported to cause AST. She improved quickly after surgery, developed transient hypothyroidism that did not require treatment with thyroid hormone, and is currently euthyroid. An abnormal piriform sinus fistula was identified on the left using an esophagram.
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This was a prospective cross-sectional study of 1339 consecutive patients referred to the nephrology service after hospitalization who were evaluated for the relationship of the amount of serum eosinophils to their diagnosis, gender, age and the presence of autoimmune disease, cancer, infection, liver disease, pleural effusions, allergies and use of prednisone, beta-blockers or beta agonists, in addition to the total white blood count, urine protein, serum concentration creatinine and phosphorus levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate.
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In patients whose active RA persists despite treatment with MTX, low-dose tacrolimus in combination with MTX appears to be safe and well tolerated, and provides clinical benefit.
Serum immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related systemic disease is a newly found entity and should be considered as a further differential diagnosis to the big pool of unspecific orbital inflammation. We describe clinical appearance and treatment options.
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The aim of the current study is to evaluate the prognostic value of anemia, an easily estimable parameter in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP) immunochemotherapy. A total of 157 patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with ≥1 cycle of R-CHOP were included. Hemoglobin level without red cell transfusion within 7 days of initiation of treatment was chosen as a parameter of baseline cancer-induced anemia. To investigate the clinical significance of chemotherapy-induced anemia and its recovery after completion of treatment, 87 patients in complete remission for ≥6 months from the time of the last cycle of R-CHOP were grouped and analyzed separately. Patients with a cancer-induced anemia of hemoglobin <10 g/dL showed inferior event-free and disease-free survival compared to those with hemoglobin ≥10 g/dL. This finding was observed irrespective of the status of pre-treatment bone marrow involvement. In multivariate analysis, hemoglobin <10 g/dL was found to be an international prognostic index-independent prognostic factor. Risk of relapse was significantly higher for patients who were still anemic at 6 months after R-CHOP, compared to those who achieved complete recovery from chemotherapy-induced anemia within 6 months.
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Loss of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR expression may be related to a poor prognosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) may influence tumor progression. We retrospectively reviewed 36 patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL who received R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone) therapy at Kanagawa Cancer Center in Japan from 2004 to 2010. HLA-DR expression by lymphoma cells was evaluated using flow cytometry, and TAMs in lymphoma tissue were detected by immunohistochemistry for CD68 as a marker of macrophages and CD163 as a marker of M2 TAMs. Three-year overall survival was, respectively, 100% versus 69.6% in the HLA-DR "bright" and "not bright" groups (p = 0.012). Patients from the HLA-DR "not bright" group with strong CD163 expression had a much worse prognosis than other patients. The HLA-DR status shown by flow cytometry can be used to predict the prognosis of patients with DLBCL receiving R-CHOP therapy and prognostic accuracy can be increased by also assessing TAMs.
Our results encourage the use of intrathecal liposomal cytarabine in CNS prophylaxis in patients with lymphoma.