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Prandin (Repaglinide)

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Prandin is an efficacious medical preparation in fight against type 2 diabetes. Prandin acts by controlling and decreasing glucose (sugar in blood).

Other names for this medication:

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Also known as:  Repaglinide.


Prandin is created with extremely active ingredients with aim to make Prandin ideal remedy against type 2 diabetes. Target of Prandin is to control sugar level in blood.

Prandin acts by controlling and decreasing glucose (sugar in blood). You can use it in case exercise and diet does not help.

Prandin is also known as Repaglinide, Eurepa, GlucoNorm, NovoNorm, Rapilin.

Prandin is an oral anti-diabetic drug. It can be taken together with anti-diabetic medication as Glucophage.

Prandin is not taken to treat type 1 diabetes.

You can normally take insulin while using Prandin.


It is better to take Prandin orally every day at the same time.

Usual Prandin dosage is 0.5mg - 4mg, which is taken 2-4 times a day before meal.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Prandin suddenly.


If you overdose Prandin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Prandin overdosage: troublesome, retching, flushing, migraine, short breath, weakness, sweating, coma, fainting, muscle pain, hunger, pain of stomach, tremors, extreme fatigue, dizziness, seizure, slow heartbeat, dyspepsia, feeling cold, lack of appetite, fast heartbeat.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Prandin if you are allergic to Prandin components.

Be careful with Prandin if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Prandin is not taken to treat type 1 diabetes.

You can normally take insulin while using Prandin.

Do not use Prandin in case of having type 1 diabetes, diabetic ketoacidosis, liver disease, poor adrenal, pituitary function.

Try to be careful with Prandin in case of using such medication as sulfa drugs (Gantanol); isoniazid; niacin (Nicobid); water pills (thiazide diuretics HydroDIURIL, Dyazide); beta blockers (blood pressure medications as Tenormin, Inderal); barbiturates (sedatives as Nembutal, Seconal); calcium channel blockers (blood pressure medications as Procardia, Cardizem); Rifampin (Rimactane, Rifadin); oral contraceptives; ketoconazole (Nizoral); chloramphenicol (Chloromycetin); nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Voltaren, Motrin, Advil, Naprosyn); blood thinners (Miradon, Dicumarol); steroids as prednisone; furosemide as Lasix; clarithromycin as Biaxin; thyroid medications as Synthroid; phenytoin as Dilantin; Probenecid (ColBENEMID, Benemid); estrogens (Premarin); aspirin; erythromycin (PCE, Eryc, Ery-Tab); MAO inhibitors (antidepressants Parnate, Marplan, Nardil); glucose lowering agents (Micronase, Glucotrol); carbamazepine (Tegretol); major tranquilizers (Stelazine, Mellaril).

You can use Prandin in case exercise and diet does not help.

Prandin can be taken together with anti-diabetic medication as Glucophage.

Try to avoid unhealthy food.

Avoid consuming alcohol.

Do not stop taking Prandin suddenly.

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Administration of repaglinide resulted in a significant reduction of plasma glucose at 2 hours (172.8+/-48.4 vs. 138.3+/-41.2 mg/dl; p < 0.001). The flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) 2 hours after the glucose-load was significantly reduced in comparison to fasting in the control group (6.21+/-2.69 vs. 7.98+/-2.24 %; p = 0.028), whereas after theadministration of repaglinide the FMD was not significantly different to fasting values (7.24+/-2.57 vs. 8.18+/-2.93 %; p = n.s.). Linear and logistic regression analysis revealed that only the change of glucose was significantly correlated to the change of FMD observed (p < 0.001). Regression analysis after grouping for treatment and time confirmed the strong negative association of the changes of plasma glucose and FMD and indicate that the effect of repaglinide observed is based on the reduction glycemia.

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These findings show that the therapeutic reduction of serum glucose levels produced by repaglinide is dose-dependent for the 0.25- to 4-mg dose range. All doses of repaglinide tested were effective and well tolerated in patients with type 2 diabetes.

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Glycaemic normalisation improved skin microcirculation but not endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes with mild cardiovascular engagement.

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For rat model studies, in the tacrolimus group, fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were increased after three months (p < 0.01). After five months, the insulin secretion index and the sensitivity index in the tacrolimus group was significantly lower than in the control group (p < 0.01). For studies of post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM), eighty-six liver transplant recipients were enrolled. 51 were given repaglinide and 35 were given repaglinide combined with glargine. After treatment for 1, 6, and 12 months, FBG, post-prandial blood glucose (PPBG), and HbA1c levels decreased (p < 0.05) in both groups, and no statistically significant changes were observed in the liver and kidney function indicators (p > 0.05). No severe hypoglycemia episodes were reported.

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Ritonavir is an antiretroviral drug to treat HIV AIDS and inhibits cytochrome P450 3A4. To treat diabetes mellitus in HIV, repaglinide is coadministered with ritonavir in the clinic. Multiple cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms are involved in the metabolism of repaglinide like CYP2C8 and CYP 3A4. In order to predict and understand drug-drug interactions of these two drugs, the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) of repaglinide and ritonavir were studied in normal, diabetic and hepatic impaired rats. The purpose of the study was to assess the influence of ritonavir on the PK/PD of repaglinide in rats with normal, diabetic and impaired hepatic function.

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Diabetes and its treatment can cause problems for the Muslim population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different therapy models on clinical and metabolic status in type 2 diabetic patients during Ramadan.

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Chronic kidney disease, or renal impairment (RI) can increase plasma levels for drugs that are primarily renally cleared and for some drugs whose renal elimination is not a major pathway. We constructed physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for 3 nonrenally eliminated drugs (sildenafil, repaglinide, and telithromycin). These models integrate drug-dependent parameters derived from in vitro, in silico, and in vivo data, and system-dependent parameters that are independent of the test drugs. Plasma pharmacokinetic profiles of test drugs were simulated in subjects with severe RI and normal renal function, respectively. The simulated versus observed areas under the concentration versus time curve changes (AUCR, severe RI/normal) were comparable for sildenafil (2.2 vs 2.0) and telithromycin (1.6 vs 1.9). For repaglinide, the initial, simulated AUCR was lower than that observed (1.2 vs 3.0). The underestimation was corrected once the estimated changes in transporter activity were incorporated into the model. The simulated AUCR values were confirmed using a static, clearance concept model. The PBPK models were further used to evaluate the changes in pharmacokinetic profiles of sildenafil metabolite by RI and of telithromycin by RI and co-administration with ketoconazole. The simulations demonstrate the utility and challenges of the PBPK approach in evaluating the pharmacokinetics of nonrenally cleared drugs in subjects with RI.

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To establish a tacrolimus-induced diabetes rat model and assess efficacy and safety of insulin glargine combined with repaglinide in Chinese patients with diabetes after liver transplantation.

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The objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of three different single doses (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg) of repaglinide in healthy Caucasian and Japanese subjects. In this single-center, open-label, randomized, three-period crossover study, 27 healthy male subjects (15 Caucasian and 12 Japanese) each received three different single doses of repaglinide (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg) at consecutive 24-hour intervals. Pharmacokinetic profiles, including area under the curve (AUC0-t), maximum serum concentration (Cmax), time to Cmax (tmax), and half-life (t1/2), were determined for each dose of repaglinide. The relative change in blood glucose level (RC1h) and area under the blood glucose curve (AUGC0-1) at 1 hour after dose were also measured. After oral dosing, both Cmax and AUC0-t increased linearly with dose within the 0.5- to 2.0-mg dose range, regardless of ethnic group. Both Cmax and AUC0-t were significantly higher in Japanese subjects than in Caucasian subjects. At each dose of repaglinide, Cmax and AUC were statistically significantly higher in Japanese than in Caucasian subjects (p = 0.0038 and 0.023, respectively). Discrepancies in body weight and body mass index (BMI) between Caucasian and Japanese subjects could not explain the between-group differences in Cmax or AUC0-t. Statistically significant differences in pharmacodynamic parameters (RC1h and AUGC0-1) were found between ethnic groups (p < 0.0001), the difference being more pronounced for RC1h than AUGC0-1. At a dose of 2.0 mg, the mean decrease in RC1h was 41% for Japanese subjects and 24% for Caucasian subjects. Hypoglycemic reactions were more common at the highest dose (2.0 mg), where they were observed more frequently in Japanese (7 cases) than in Caucasian subjects (4 cases). It was concluded that higher serum levels of repaglinide and greater reductions in blood glucose levels are found in Japanese than in Caucasian subjects following a single oral dose of repaglinide within the 0.5- to 2.0-mg dose range. Repaglinide is well tolerated in both ethnic groups. The results indicate that glycemic control targets may be achieved at lower doses within the recommended range (0.5-4.0 mg/meal) when repaglinide is used to treat Japanese patients in comparison to Caucasian patients.

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Our aim was to investigate the placental transfer of repaglinide by ex vivo placental perfusion experiment. In addition, the involvement of the active organic anion transporters (OATP1B1, OATP1B3 and OATP2B1) was studied by assessing the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes (SLCO1B1, SLCO1B3 and SLCO2B1) encoding OATPs.

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To systematically review available data from the literature regarding the efficacy of oral antidiabetic agents, both as monotherapy and in combination.

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This phase I, pilot clinical study was designed to evaluate the safety and the pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of the CIME (Metabolic Identity Card) combination of ten drugs, with a view to its use as a phenotyping cocktail. Ten healthy Caucasian subjects were orally dosed with the CIME combination (caffeine-CYP1A2, repaglinide-CYP2C8, tolbutamide-CYP2C9, omeprazole-CYP2C19, dextromethorphan-CYP2D6, midazolam-CYP3A, acetaminophen-UGT1A1, 6&9 and 2B15, digoxin-P-gp, rosuvastatin-OATP1B1&3 and memantine-active renal transport). Blood was collected over 3 days and on day 7. CIME probes and relevant metabolites were assayed by LC-MS/MS and PK parameters were calculated. Main results were: (1) good safety with reversible mild or moderate adverse effects, (2) an analytical method able to quantify simultaneously the 10 probes and the major metabolites, (3) calculation of PK parameters for all probes in general agreed with published values, and (4) identification of the low CYP2D6 metabolizer. This pilot study showed that the CIME combination was well tolerated and that its pharmacokinetics could be accurately measured in healthy volunteers. This combination can now confidently be checked for sensitivity and specificity and for lack of interaction to be validated as a phenotyping cocktail.

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Effective and safe clopidogrel combination therapy can be achieved by increasing the awareness of potential changes in efficacy and toxicity, rationally selecting alternatives, tailoring drug therapy based on genotype, checking the appropriateness of physician orders, and performing therapeutic monitoring.

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The purpose of this work was to develop prolonged release binary lipid matrix-based solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) of repaglinide (RG) for oral intestinal delivery and to improve the bioavailability of RG. SLN were designed by using glycerol monostearate and tristearin as lipid core materials and Pluronic-F68 as stabilizer. SLN were characterised by their particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, solid-state studies, in vitro drug release, particle surface and storage stability at 30 °C/65% relative humidity for 3 months. Pharmacodynamic (PD) and pharmacokinetic (PK) studies were also performed in diabetes-induced rat. Moreover, an in vitro toxicity study was performed in rat macrophage cells to establish the safety of the prepared SLN. It was observed that binary lipid matrix-based SLN had better drug entrapment, desired release characteristics, spherical shape and maximum storage stability. Pharmacodynamic study indicated that RG delivered through binary SLN significantly reduces blood glucose, blood cholesterol and blood triglycerides level. The area under the curves after oral administration of optimised RG-SLN formulation and RG control were 113.36 ± 3.01 and 08.08 ± 1.98 h/(ng · mL), respectively. The relative bioavailability of RG was enhanced with optimised SLN formulation when compared with RG control. There was a direct correlation found between the plasma drug level (drug concentration) and the peak response (% blood glucose inhibition) in optimised RG-SLN batch. The in vitro toxicity study indicated that the SLN were well tolerated.

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Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) and fructosamine (FA) were improved in all groups similarly (p>0.05). Rg group was with the highest early-phase insulin secretion index (DeltaI30/DeltaG30) (p=0.026), lower mean amplitude of glycaemic excursion (MAGE) (p<0.05), lowest mean peak value of post-lunch glucose (p=0.043), and lowest postprandial triglyceride (TG) (p=0.039). Postprandial free fatty acid (FFA) was lower after Rg and Gli treatment (p<0.05). Serum 8-iso prostaglandin F(2alpha) (8-iso PGF(2alpha)) was improved in all groups, but the improvement showed statistically significant only in Rg group (p=0.04).

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Nateglinide (A-4166) is an amino acid derivative with insulinotrophic action in clinical development for treatment of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether nateglinide's interaction at the K(ATP) channel/sulfonylurea receptor underlies its more rapid onset and shorter duration of action in animal models. Binding studies were carried out with membranes prepared from RIN-m5F cells and HEK-293 cells expressing recombinant human sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1). The relative order for displacement of [(3)H]glibenclamide in competitive binding experiments with RIN-m5F cell membranes was glibenclamide > glimepiride > repaglinide > glipizide > nateglinide > L-nateglinide > tolbutamide. The results with HEK-293/recombinant human SUR1 cells were similar with the exception that glipizide was more potent than repaglinide. Neither nateglinide nor repaglinide had any effect on the dissociation kinetics for [(3)H]glibenclamide, consistent with both compounds competitively binding to the glibenclamide-binding site on SUR1. Finally, the inability to measure [(3)H]nateglinide binding suggests that nateglinide dissociates rapidly from SUR1. Direct interaction of nateglinide with K(ATP) channels in rat pancreatic beta-cells was investigated with the patch-clamp method. The relative potency for inhibition of the K(ATP) channel was repaglinide > glibenclamide > nateglinide. Kinetics of the inhibitory effect on K(ATP) current showed that the onset of inhibition by nateglinide was comparable to glibenclamide but more rapid than that of repaglinide. The time for reversal of channel inhibition by nateglinide was also faster than with glibenclamide and repaglinide. These results suggest that the unique characteristics of nateglinide are largely the result of its interaction at the K(ATP) channel.

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This study investigated plasma protein binding by the novel oral hypoglycemic agent, repaglinide, and assessed the influence of other protein-bound drugs upon this process. Varying concentrations of [3H]-repaglinide (0.01 to 100 micrograms/ml) were incubated in solutions of plasma proteins (human serum albumin, HSA; alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, AAGP), or human plasma in the absence or presence of several test drugs. Protein binding was assessed using an ultrafiltration technique. At all concentrations tested, the mean binding of repaglinide in plasma was 98.5%, binding to HSA averaged 98.6%, and the binding to AAGP was saturable and remained below 50%. Warfarin 10 micrograms/ml, furosemide 0.2 microgram/ml, and tolbutamide 100 micrograms/ml, significantly reduced in vitro binding of repaglinide at 1 and 100 micrograms/ml versus control (p < 0.05), producing an 18-36% increase in free repaglinide. No reduction was found using 0.1 microgram/ml repaglinide. Diazepam, glibenclamide and nicardipine hydrochloride had no significant effects on the in vitro protein binding of repaglinide. These data suggest that the binding of repaglinide to HSA in human plasma has potential clinical significance, and that within the therapeutic range for repaglinide, the presence of the test drugs has no clinically relevant effects on repaglinide binding to plasma proteins.

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In addition to assessing the effects of repaglinide and glimepiride on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, this study also examined the effects of these agents on 3 metabolic parameters known to be cardiovascular risk factors--lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and homocysteine (Hcy).

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To explore the determinants of hepatic uptake, 16 compounds were investigated with different physicochemical and disposition characteristics, including five statins, three sartans, saquinavir, ritonavir, erythromycin, clarithromycin, nateglinide, repaglinide, fexofenadine, and bosentan. Freshly isolated rat hepatocytes in suspension were used with the oil-spin method to generate kinetic parameters. Clearances, via passive diffusion (P(diff)) and active uptake (CL(active), characterized by maximal uptake rate and K(m)), were estimated from the initial uptake rate data over a 0.01 to 100 μM concentration range. The K(m) values had a range of 15-fold, with 10 of the 16 drugs with K(m) < 10 μM (median 6 μM). Both CL(active) and P(diff) ranged over 100-fold (median 188 and 14 μl/min/10⁶ cells). Assessment of the relative contribution of P(diff) and CL(active) indicated that, at low concentrations (approximately 0.1 μM), the active process contributes >80% to the overall uptake for 13 drugs. Although high P(diff) values were obtained for ritonavir and repaglinide, active process contributed predominantly to uptake; in contrast, high passive permeability dominates over transporter-mediated uptake for saquinavir over the full concentration range. For bosentan and erythromycin, active and passive processes were equally important. Hepatocyte-to-medium unbound concentration ratio was >10 for 9 of the 16 drugs, ranging from 2 to 494 for bosentan and atorvastatin, respectively. Some drugs showed extensive intracellular binding (fraction unbound range 0.01-0.6), which was not correlated with active uptake. LogD₇.₄ correlated significantly with P(diff) and the extent of intracellular binding but not with active uptake. This study provides systematic assessment of the role of active uptake relative to the passive process; implications of the findings are discussed.

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The study comprised three screening visits, followed by a 7-day inpatient period. Thirty-four patients, with normal renal function (n = 12), mild-to-moderate renal dysfunction (n = 12) or severe renal dysfunction (n = 10), received a single 2-mg dose of repaglinide on day 1, followed by preprandial 2-mg doses with main meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner) on each of days 2-4. A final 2-mg dose of repaglinide was administered on day 5.

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Hyperglycemia is a modifiable risk factor that has a deleterious effect on the development and progression of microvascular and macrovascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. The UK Prospective Diabetes Study revealed how reductions in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) correlate with a significant reduction in all-cause mortality and the incidence of myocardial infarction. The Diabetes Intervention Study showed that poor control of fasting glycemia does not increase the risk of myocardial infarction or mortality, whereas poor control of post-prandial glucose is associated with a high all-cause mortality rate. HbA1c is the standard measure for metabolic control and therapeutic efficacy, but does not reflect fluctuations in glycemic control. Plasma glucose concentrations in healthy subjects remain within a narrow range, which suggests that the fluctuations in glucose levels caused by inappropriate treatment may have negative consequences. These fluctuations have been associated with acute adverse effects (particularly excessive post-prandial hyperglycemia, pre-meal hypoglycemia and weight gain) that counteract the positive effect of lowering fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c. Post-prandial hyperglycemia and spikes also have deleterious effects on insulin secretion and sensitivity. Prandial oral antidiabetic agents such as alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (acarbose, miglitol) and rapidly acting insulin secretagogues (nateglinide, repaglinide) have recently been introduced to improve the control of post-prandial hyperglycemia.

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English-language journals, abstracts, review articles, and newspaper accounts.

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Several new pharmacological agents have recently been developed to optimise the management of type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. The aim of this article is to briefly review the various therapeutic agents available for management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and to suggest a potential approach to drug selection. There are three general therapeutic modalities relevant to diabetes care. The first modality is lifestyle adjustments aimed at improving endogenous insulin sensitivity or insulin effect. This can be achieved by increased physical activity and bodyweight reduction with diet and behavioural modification, and the use of pharmacological agents or surgery. This first modality is not discussed in depth in this article. The second modality involves increasing insulin availability by the administration of exogenous insulin, insulin analogues, sulphonylureas and the new insulin secretagogue, repaglinide. The most frequently encountered adverse effect of these agents is hypoglycaemia. Bodyweight gain can also be a concern, especially in patients who are obese. The association between hyperinsulinaemia and premature atherosclerosis is still a debatable question. The third modality consists of agents such as biguanides and thiazolidinediones which enhance insulin sensitivity, or agents that decrease insulin requirements like the alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous disease with multiple underlying pathophysiological processes. Therapy should be individualised based on the degree of hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia or insulin deficiency. In addition, several factors have to be considered when prescribing a specific therapeutic agent. These factors include efficacy, safety, affordability and ease of administration.

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The progress of knowledge relating to non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is associated with new therapeutic developments. Their different respective targets allow to classify them in drugs stimulating insulin secretion (glimepiride, repaglinide, glucagon-like peptide 1), medications reducing insulin resistance (thiazolidinediones) or in insulinmimetic agents (vanadium). Alpha glucosidase inhibitors, available in France since 1993, constitute another therapeutic approach, reducing postprandial hyperglycemia by delaying the digestion of complex carbohydrates. These new medications, safer and sometimes effective in a single daily administration, represent an alternative to classic oral antidiabetic agents allowing therapeutic combinations and a more global management of NIDDM.

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Presentation of six drugs: clopidogrel, raloxifene, mecillinam, natiglinide and repaglinide, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. For each, positive and negative arguments, questions on hold and rating.

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Gelucire 50/13 could successfully yield SLN and NLC of various solid lipids, demonstrating its potential to act as a novel stabilizer. DSC studies indicated that Gelucire 50/13 interacts with Precirol ATO 5 and this interaction suppresses polymorphic transitions of both the components. RPG-GeluPearl exhibited significantly higher anti-diabetic activity compared to marketed RPG tablets. RPG-GeluPearl demonstrated good colloidal and chemical stability at the end of 1 month.

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This was an open uncontrolled randomised study in n=112 patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes not previously treated with oral hypoglycaemic agents. Patients beginning treatment with either repaglinide or metformin entered an 8-week titration period (to optimise dosage: repaglinide, 2-4 mg/day; metformin, 1500-2500 mg/day) followed by a 12-month treatment period. Glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors were determined at baseline and at the end of the treatment period.

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We included randomised controlled, parallel or cross-over trials comparing at least 10 weeks of treatment with meglitinide analogues to placebo, head-to-head, metformin or in combination with insulin.

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In type 2 diabetic patients, the important post-prandial hyperglycemic peak combined with the defective insulin secretion emphasizes the need for restoring a physiological insulin profile during meals, characterized by insulinemia peaking within 1 hour and returning to basal levels within 4 hours. During type 1 diabetes mellitus, short acting insulin analogs aim at counteracting on post-prandial hyperglycemic peak. During type 2 diabetes mellitus, repaglinide is the first fast-acting oral antidiabetic drug able to stimulate endogenous insulin secretion during meal by mimicking physiological insulin secretion pattern.

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Rosuvastatine, doxazosin, repaglinide and oxcarbazepin are therapeutic drugs available in the market for the treatment of different diseases. Potential to display antitumor activities has also been suggested. The aim of the current study was to evaluate their in vitro effects on some human transformed cell lines.

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Persons with Type 2 diabetes who were poorly controlled on oral therapy were randomly assigned to monotherapy with repaglinide or combination therapy with repaglinide plus metformin. Brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation was assessed by ultrasonography at randomization and following 16 weeks of therapy. The primary outcome was change in brachial artery endothelial function from baseline. Comparison of randomized groups was a secondary aim.

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buy prandin online 2016-05-07

The aim of this study was to develop a prandin buy pH-sensitive chitosan/polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) based controlled drug release system for repaglinide. The hydrogels were synthesised by crosslinking chitosan and PVP blend with glutaraldehyde to form a semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN). These semi-IPNs were studied for their content uniformity, swelling index (SI), mucoadhesion, wettability, in vitro release and their release kinetics. The hydrogels showed more than 95% loading of repaglinide. These hydrogels showed high swelling and mucoadhesion under acidic conditions. The swelling was found due to the protonation of a primary amino group on chitosan. In acidic condition chitosan was ionized, and adhesion occurred between the positively charged chitosan and the negatively charged mucus. In the physiological condition less swelling was noticed. In vitro release study revealed that formulation containing chitosan (2% w/v) and PVP (4% w/v) in the ratio of 14:6 w/w showed complete drug release after 12h. Release profile showed that all the formulations followed non-fickian diffusion mechanism (diffusion coupled with swelling). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis revealed proper crosslinking of polymer and formation of semi-IPN as well as presence of drug in the formulation. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder x-ray diffraction (p-XRD) study revealed the presence of repaglinide in crystalline form in the formulations. The surface morphology of semi-IPN was studied before and after dissolution in simulated gastric fluid (SGF, pH 1.2) which indicated generation of open channel-like structure in hydrogel after dissolution. The results of study suggest that semi-IPNs of chitosan/PVP are potent candidates for delivery of repaglinide in acidic environment.

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Meglitinides may offer an alternative oral hypoglycaemic agent of similar potency to metformin, and may be indicated where side effects of metformin are intolerable or where metformin is contraindicated. However, there is no evidence available to indicate what effect meglitinides will have on important long-term outcomes, prandin buy particularly mortality.

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age, sex, prevalence of diabetes, duration of diabetes, complications, macrovascular complications, retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy. Prandin Tablet Metabolic control: frequency of baseline blood glucose and HbA1c determinations. Metabolic complications suffered.

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This preliminary analysis of an observational, non-randomised, open-label ongoing study has Motrin Dosage shown that early use of combination therapy at time of diagnosis or within the first 3-6 months following diagnosis with metformin plus pioglitazone in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes results in a slower deterioration in glycaemic control than that with metformin combined with either gliclazide or repaglinide. This may be due to the beta-cell protective properties of pioglitazone. These results need to be confirmed by further studies with a more robust design and methodology.

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End-of-treatment levels of haemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)), fasting plasma glucose, mean of seven-point home-monitored plasma glucose and fasting levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and adiponectin were not significantly different between treatments. However, body weight, waist circumference, fasting serum levels of insulin and Prevacid Dissolving Tablets C-peptide were lower and less number of patients experienced hypoglycaemia during treatment with metformin vs. repaglinide. Both drugs were well tolerated.

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Trimethoprim raised the AUC(0, infinity ) and C(max) of repaglinide by 61% (range, 30-117%; P= 0.0008) and 41% (P = 0.005), respectively, and prolonged the t((1/2)) of repaglinide from 0.9 to 1.1 h (P = 0.001). Trimethoprim had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of its aromatic amine metabolite Luvox 450 Mg (M1), but decreased the M1 : repaglinide AUC(0, infinity ) ratio by 38% (P = 0.0005). No effect of trimethoprim on the blood glucose-lowering effect of repaglinide was detectable. In vitro, trimethoprim inhibited the metabolism of (220 nm) repaglinide in a concentration-dependent manner.

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Five distinct oral drug classes are now available for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Compared with placebo treatment, most of these agents lower hemoglobin A(1c) levels approximately 1% to 2%. Equivalent efficacy is usually demonstrated when different agents are compared with Zyloprim Tab 100mg one another in the same study population. When they are used in combination, there are additional glycemic benefits. Long-term vascular risk reduction has been demonstrated only with sulfonylureas and metformin.

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The present study was undertaken to determine oxidative/nitrosative stress in aqueous humor of alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rabbits and to investigate the effects of two oral antidiabetic drugs, pioglitazone from peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists and repaglinide from nonsulfonylurea K(ATP) channel blockers. Ascorbic acid (AA), glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant status (TAS), lipid peroxidation products (LPO), total nitrites (NO(2)), advanced oxidized protein products (AOPP), and protein carbonyl groups (PCG) were determined using respective colorimetric and ELISA methods. In our hyperglycemic animals, AA decreased by 77%, GSH by 45%, and TAS by 66% as compared to control animals. Simultaneously, LPO increased by 78%, PCG by 60%, AOPP by 84%, and NO(2) by 70%. In pioglitazone-treated animals, AA and TAS increased above control values while GSH and PCG were normalized. In turn, LPO was reduced by 54%, AOPP by 84%, and NO(2) by 24%, in relation to hyperglycemic rabbits. With repaglinide, AA Prevacid Go Generic and TAS were normalized, GSH increased by 20%, while LPO decreased by 45%. Our results show that pioglitazone and repaglinide differ significantly in their ability to ameliorate the parameters like NO(2), PCG, and AOPP. In this area, the multimodal action of pioglitazone as PPARγ agonist is probably essential.

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Pharmaceutical counterfeiting is becoming a serious problem in the world, especially in developing countries including China. Herein an isocratic reversed-phase high performance Prevacid 50 Mg liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for screening counterfeit medicines and adulterated dietary supplement products. The developed method could be employed to separate and determine simultaneously six anti-diabetic drugs (glipizide, gliclazide, glibenclamide, glimepiride, gliquidone, repaglinide) on an isocratic solvent system using an Alltima C18 column (5 microm, 150 mmx4.6 mm) with an isocratic mobile phase of methanol-phosphate buffer (pH 3.0; 0.01 mol/L) (70:30, v/v), at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and at a wavelength of 230 nm. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of medicinal and dietary supplement samples purchased from the local market in China.

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Oral hypoglycemic agents bind to the ATP-sensitive potassium channel and lower glucose levels effectively in individuals with diabetes. Although the principle mechanism of action can also promote hypoglycemia, clinically profound hypoglycemia is rare. Decreased stimulation of insulin secretion by these agents at mild hypoglycemia could provide protection from more profound hypoglycemia. Sulfonylureas and meglitinides bind to both shared and unique sites on the ATP-sensitive potassium receptor/channel complex but have different pharmacokinetic profiles. To evaluate the differential ability of both sulfonylureas and meglitinides to stimulate insulin release at modest hypoglycemia, we evaluated dextrose infusion rates necessary to maintain plasma glucose after oral administration of repaglinide (1 mg) or glipizide (5 mg) at euglycemia and again at modest hypoglycemia. Healthy subjects with no family history of diabetes underwent four clamp studies, two performed while maintaining isoglycemia (glucose levels at the fasted value) and two while maintaining modest hypoglycemia of 2.78 mmol/liter (50 mg/dl) induced by low-dose insulin infusion (3.6 pmol/kg.min). There was a marked decrease in the dextrose infusion rate with administration of either repaglinide or glipizide at hypoglycemia Crestor 30 Mg compared with drug administration at euglycemia (P

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A simple, fast and sensitive HPLC method employing dual-channel coulometric detection for the determination of repaglinide in human plasma is presented. The assay involved extraction of repaglinide by ethyl acetate and isocratic reversed-phase liquid chromatography with dual-channel coulometric detection. The mobile phase composition was 50mM disodium hydrogen phosphate/acetonitrile (60:40, v/v), pH of the mobile phase 7.5 set up with phosphoric acid. For all analyses, the first cell working potential was +380mV, the second was +750mV (vs. Pd/H(2)). Calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 5-500nmolL(-1). Rosiglitazone was used as an internal standard. The Hytrin Generic Brand limit of detection (LOD) was established at 2.8nmolL(-1), and the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) at 8.5nmolL(-1). The developed method was applied to human plasma samples spiked with repaglinide at therapeutical concentrations. It was confirmed that the method is suitable for pharmacokinetic studies or therapeutic monitoring.

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The pharmacokinetic parameters like peak plasma concentration (Cmax), area under the plasma concentration time profile (AUC) and elimination half life of repaglinide were significantly (p<0.0001) increased Aricept Dose when compared to repaglinide control rats. The repaglinide clearance (CL) was significantly (p<0.0001) decreased in the presence of ritonavir treatment. In the presence of ritonavir, repaglinide hypoglycemic activity was increased significantly (p<0.0005) when compared with repaglinide control group.

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Herbal enhancers compared to the synthetic ones have shown less toxis effects. Coumarins have been shown at concentrations inhibiting phospoliphase C-Y (Phc-Y) are able to enhance tight junction (TJ) permeability due to hyperpoalation of Zonolous Occludense-1 (ZO-1) proteins. The purpose of this study was to evaluate Geodon Suspension the influence of ethanolic extract of Angelica archengelica (AA-E) which contain coumarin on permeation of repaglinide across rat epidermis and on the tight junction plaque protein ZO-1 in HaCaT cells.

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All 44 patients responded with a rapid, progressive decline in their HbA1c levels from 11.43±2.3% to 6.17±0.72% (101±25.1 mmol/mol to 44±7.9 mmol/mol) by three months, and remained stable thereafter. An HbA1c ≤7.0% (≤53 mmol/mol) was reached within 1-4 months in 42 of 44 patients, and in every patient by 12 months. Each patient's lowest HbA1c level, 5.65±0.6% (38±6.6 mmol/mol), was reached over 6.3±2.9 months. Patients with initial HbA1c levels >10% (>86 mmol/mol) (n=33) responded similarly as those with HbA1c levels <10% (< Geodon 200 Mg 86 mmol/mol) (n=11). Combination drug therapy maintained HbA1c levels between 5.0 and 7.0% (31 and 53 mmol/mol) for up to 14.83 years. Only one clinically significant hypoglycemic event occurred during 261.08 person-years of follow-up.

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Fasting ghrelin concentrations were not different between all treatments and between patients with diabetes and control subjects. Subjects with T2DM treated with placebo showed no suppression of ghrelin in the LMCT. After administration of meglitinides a nadir of serum ghrelin was observed at 60 min (8.6% of baseline [P = 0.038] for repaglinide and 7.5% of baseline [P = 0.081] for nateglinide), which was similar to the secretion pattern seen in control subjects. No correlations between postprandial insulin or glucose levels and circulating ghrelin concentrations were observed.

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Postprandial metabolism was evaluated by a standard test meal (3515 kJ; 54% fat, 13% protein and 33% carbohydrate) with blood sampling 0-6 h postprandially.

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A large interindividual variability exists in the plasma concentrations of repaglinide. Our aim was to investigate possible associations between the pharmacokinetics of repaglinide and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes encoding for the drug transporters organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) (SLCO1B1 ) and P-glycoprotein ( MDR1 , ABCB1 ) and the drug-metabolizing enzymes cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8 and CYP3A5.

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Due to industrialization and sedentary life, incidence of type 2 diabetes (DM2) is increasing seriously. Repaglinide is a glucose reducing agent that predominantly reduces post-prandial glucose. Continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) monitors blood glucose excursions over a 3-day period. CGMS can be used as a therapeutic and diagnostic instrument in diabetics. There are not enough studies about using CGMS in DM2. The aim of this study was to determine the blood glucose excursions in patients with new onset of DM2. 10 patients with new onset of DM2 were entered to this study. As the first therapeutic management, patients received diabetic diet and moderate exercise for 3-weeks, if they did not achieve blood glucose goal (Fasting blood glucoser (FBG) <120mg/dl, 2-hour postprandial blood glucose (2hpp) <180mg/dl), were considered to undergo 3-days CGMS at baseline and after 4-weeks on Repaglinide (0.5mg three times before meals). Mean excursions of blood glucose were not different at the onset and at the end of treatment (6±4.05 VS 7.6±5.2 episodes, P=0.49). There were also no significant differences between mean duration of hypoglycemic episodes (zero VS 5.1±14.1 hours, P =0.28) and hyperglycemic episodes before and after therapy (7.6±5.2 VS 5.7±4.1, P=0.42), but mean hyperglycemia duration was significantly reduced at the end of therapy (21±26.17 VS 57.7±35.3, P=0.001). Patients experienced a mean of 0.3±0.67 episodes of hypoglycemia after therapy showed no significant difference before it (P =0.19). Mean FBG (with CGMS) was significantly lower after therapy than before it (142.9±54.31 VS 222.9±82.6, P <0.001). This study showed the usefulness of CGMS not only as a diagnostic but also as an educational and therapeutic tool that in combination with Repaglinide (with the lowest effective dose and duration) can significantly reduce FBG and glycemic excursions in DM2 patients and hypoglycemic events are low.

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The mean particle size of the RPGNP1 and RPGNP2 formulations was 387.8 ± 11.9 and 310.2 ± 12.4 nm, respectively, with a zeta potential of -27.4 ± 0.7 and -15.7 ± 0.5 mV, respectively. The entrapment efficiency and drug content of RPGNP1 (58.7 ± 1.3% and 27.4 ± 2.3%, respectively) was better than that of RPGNP2 (45.8 ± 1.2% and 24.3 ± 1.1%, respectively). Blood glucose levels of RPGNP1- and RPGNP2-treated STZ-diabetic rats were reduced significantly (to normal levels) compared with untreated STZ-diabetic rats (P < 0.05), but there was no difference between the two treatment groups (P > 0.05). However, whereas RPGNP1 was effective for a period of only 24 h, RPGNP2 was effective for up to 1 week.

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Significant dose-related increases in early insulin secretion were found only in less advanced diabetic subjects. In advanced diabetic patients, only the maximum dose (4 mg) was significant compared with placebo. Better proinsulin-to-insulin processing was noted with increasing drug doses.

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Repaglinide is an effective oral hypoglycemic agent taken either as monotherapy or combination therapy. There is less eating to avoid hypoglycemia, fewer meals consumed, and weight loss.

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Grapefruit juice can alter oral drug pharmacokinetics by different mechanisms. Irreversible inactivation of intestinal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 is produced by commercial grapefruit juice given as a single normal amount (e.g. 200-300 mL) or by whole fresh fruit segments. As a result, presystemic metabolism is reduced and oral drug bioavailability increased. Enhanced oral drug bioavailability can occur 24 hours after juice consumption. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a possible mechanism that increases oral drug bioavailability by reducing intestinal and/or hepatic efflux transport. Recently, inhibition of organic anion transporting polypeptides by grapefruit juice was observed in vitro; intestinal uptake transport appeared decreased as oral drug bioavailability was reduced. Numerous medications used in the prevention or treatment of coronary artery disease and its complications have been observed or are predicted to interact with grapefruit juice. Such interactions may increase the risk of rhabdomyolysis when dyslipidemia is treated with the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors atorvastatin, lovastatin, or simvastatin. Potential alternative agents are pravastatin, fluvastatin, or rosuvastatin. Such interactions might also cause excessive vasodilatation when hypertension is managed with the dihydropyridines felodipine, nicardipine, nifedipine, nisoldipine, or nitrendipine. An alternative agent could be amlodipine. In contrast, the therapeutic effect of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist losartan may be reduced by grapefruit juice. Grapefruit juice interacting with the antidiabetic agent repaglinide may cause hypoglycemia, and interaction with the appetite suppressant sibutramine may cause elevated BP and HR. In angina pectoris, administration of grapefruit juice could result in atrioventricular conduction disorders with verapamil or attenuated antiplatelet activity with clopidrogel. Grapefruit juice may enhance drug toxicity for antiarrhythmic agents such as amiodarone, quinidine, disopyramide, or propafenone, and for the congestive heart failure drug, carvediol. Some drugs for the treatment of peripheral or central vascular disease also have the potential to interact with grapefruit juice. Interaction with sildenafil, tadalafil, or vardenafil for erectile dysfunction, may cause serious systemic vasodilatation especially when combined with a nitrate. Interaction between ergotamine for migraine and grapefruit juice may cause gangrene or stroke. In stroke, interaction with nimodipine may cause systemic hypotension. If a drug has low inherent oral bioavailability from presystemic metabolism by CYP3A4 or efflux transport by P-gp and the potential to produce serious overdose toxicity, avoidance of grapefruit juice entirely during pharmacotherapy appears mandatory. Although altered drug response is variable among individuals, the outcome is difficult to predict and avoiding the combination will guarantee toxicity is prevented. The elderly are at particular risk, as they are often prescribed medications and frequently consume grapefruit juice.

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As the prevalence of type 2 diabetes continues to rise, new drug therapies will need to be explored to prevent morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes as well as growing health care costs. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by decreased insulin secretion and sensitivity. Numerous oral medications are currently approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. A treat-to-failure approach has traditionally been adopted with step-wise additions of oral medications; however, a growing frequency of treatment failures with monotherapy has led to the use of combination therapies earlier in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. One such combination regimen is repaglinide (a prandial glucose optimizer that increases insulin release) plus metformin (an insulin sensitizer that inhibits hepatic glucose output and increases peripheral glucose uptake while minimizing weight gain). Findings from several clinical trials have shown repaglinide plus metformin combination therapy to be superior to either monotherapy with significant reductions in hemoglobin A1C and fasting glucose values. Repaglinide used in combination also has shown less incidence of hypoglycemia compared with other combination therapies such as sulphonylureas plus metformin. Repaglinide plus metformin combination therapy appears to be a valuable therapeutic option for type 2 diabetic patients seeking a less complex drug regimen while potentially achieving better glucose control if currently inadequately controlled on monotherapy.

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Part of the compounds have higher hypoglycemic activity deserve to be further investigated.

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In a randomized crossover study, 24 SLCO181-genotyped healthy volunteers were given daily doses of 1,200 mg gemfibrozil, 40 mg atorvastatin, or placebo, followed by 0.25 mg of repaglinide on day 3. The mean increase in the repaglinide area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 h to infinity (AUC(0-infinity)) produced by gemfibrozil was larger in individuals with the SLCO1B1 c.521CC genotype (n = 6) than in those with the c.521TC (n = 6) and c.521TT (n = 12) genotypes, by factors of 1.56 (P = 0.004) and 1.54 (P = 0.002), respectively. Gemfibrozil prolonged the repaglinide elimination half-life 1.43 times more in the c.521 CC group than in the c.521TT group (P = 0.047), but no differences were seen in the effects on peak plasma concentration (C(max)). While on gemfibrozil, the minimum blood glucose concentration after repaglinide intake was 19% lower in the c.521CC participants than in the c.521TT participants (P = 0.009). In the c.521TT group, atorvastatin intake had the effect of increasing repaglinide Cmax and AUC(0-infinity) by41% (P = 0.001) and 18% (P = 0.033), respectively. In conclusion, the extent of gemfibrozil-repaglinide interaction depends on SLCO1B1 genotype. Atorvastatin raises plasma repaglinide concentrations, probably by inhibiting organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1).

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After a four month run-in period with repaglinide plus metformin combination therapy, patients with a glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) concentration of 6.5% or more were randomised to repaglinide 6 mg or metformin 2000 mg. All patients also received biphasic insulin aspart 70/30 (30% soluble insulin aspart and 70% intermediate acting insulin aspart) 6 units once a day before dinner for 12 months. Insulin dose was adjusted aiming for a fasting plasma glucose concentration of 4.0-6.0 mmol/l. The target of HbA(1c) concentration was less than 6.5%. Treatment was intensified to two or three insulin injections a day if glycaemic targets were not reached.