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Plavix (Clopidogrel)
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Plavix

Plavix is the medication of high quality which is taken in treatment of heart attacks and strokes by preventing blood clots. It is also taken to prevent other heart or blood vessels disorders. Plavix is acting by preventing blood clots.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Argatroban, Salagen, Arixtra, Persantine

 

Also known as:  Clopidogrel.

Description

Plavix target is the treatment of heart attacks and strokes by preventing blood clots. It is also taken to prevent other heart or blood vessels disorders.

Plavix is acting by preventing blood clots. It is antiplatelet agents.

Plavix is also known as Clopidogrel, Clopitab, Caplor, Iscover, Clopilet, Ceruvin.

Generic name of Plavix is Clopidogrel.

Brand name of Plavix is Plavix.

Dosage

Take Plavix at the same time every day, with or without food.

Take Plavix tablets orally with water.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Plavix suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Plavix and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Plavix overdosage: vomiting, abnormal bleeding or bruising, problems with breathing.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Plavix are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Plavix if you are allergic to Plavix components.

Do not take Plavix if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Be careful with Plavix if you suffer from or have a history of stroke, stomach ulcer or ulcerative colitis; liver or kidney disease, hemophilia.

Be careful with Plavix if you are taking such medicines as aspirin or other NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn), diclofenac (Voltaren), diflunisal (Dolobid), etodolac (Lodine), flurbiprofen (Ansaid), indomethacin (Indocin), ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil), (Toradol), ketoprofen (Orudis), nabumetone (Relafen), piroxicam (Feldene), ketorolac mefenamic acid (Ponstel), meloxicam (Mobic) and the others), phenytoin (such as Dilantin); torsemide (such as Demadex); medication used to prevent blood clots (alteplase (such as Activase), anistreplase (such as Eminase), dipyridamole (such as Persantine), streptokinase (such as Kabikinase, Streptase), ticlopidine (Ticlid) and urokinase (such as Abbokinase); fluvastatin (such as Lescol); a blood thinner (warfarin (such as Coumadin), heparin, ardeparin (such as Normiflo), dalteparin (such as Fragmin), danaparoid (such as Orgaran), enoxaparin (such as Lovenox), or tinzaparin (such as Innohep); tamoxifen (such as Nolvadex); tolbutamide (such as Orinase).

It is not recommended to do sport while taking Plavix because it can cause bleeding or bruising injury.

If you are going to have a surgery you should stop taking Plavix for 5 days before the surgery.

Do not use potassium supplements or salt substitutes.

If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Plavix suddenly.

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Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is one of the cornerstones of coronary artery disease (CAD) treatment. Standard DAPT requires one of, P2Y12 receptor inhibitors, clopidogrel, prasugrel or ticagrelor as an adjunct therapy to aspirin administration. The decision over DAPT duration depends on the evaluation of thrombotic risk and the assessment of the probability for major bleeding events.

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Despite recent updates to the ACC/AHA UA/NSTEMI guidelines, additional factors need to be taken into consideration in the management of UA/NSTEMI patients. Integrating initial responses with early or selectively invasive strategies and the risks of complications in subsequent procedures require careful consideration. Protocol development within an institution is required to risk-stratify patients rapidly, provide optimum precatheterisation medical management and allow seamless and rapid transitions to the catheterisation laboratory in patients at risk for adverse events.

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We could not demonstrate that, given optimized medical therapy, an early invasive strategy was superior to a selectively invasive strategy in patients with acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation and with an elevated cardiac troponin T level.

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The CURRENT-OASIS 7 trial will help to define optimal dosing regimens for clopidogrel and ASA in patients with ST and non-ST-segment-elevation ACS treated with an early invasive strategy.

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In this study the theory (guidelines, other studies) and the clinical practice of the therapy and medication of AMI were compared. ASA therapy did not produce any significant effect. Our results are similar to those studies which concluded that ASA did not decrease the risk of cardiovascular events.

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Current guidelines recommend dual anti-platelet therapy, aspirin and clopidogrel, for patients treated with drug-eluting stent for coronary heart disease. In a few small trials, addition of cilostazol on dual anti-platelet therapy (triple anti-platelet therapy) showed better late luminal loss. In the real-world unselected patients with coronary heart disease, however, the effect of cilostazol on platelet reactivity and ischemic vascular events after drug-eluting stent implantation has not been tested. It is also controversial whether there is a significant interaction between lipophilic statin and clopidogrel.

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To investigate the putative modifying effect of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) use on the incidence of stent thrombosis at 3 years in patients randomized to Endeavor zotarolimus-eluting stent (E-ZES) or Cypher sirolimus-eluting stent (C-SES).

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Despite two international studies, there is still no consensus concerning prostate cancer screening. The results of a meta-analysis are making us question our convictions concerning pneumococcal vaccination. The preoperative work-up of cataract surgery can be simplified. When describing the efficacy of a treatment to a patient, relative risks are better understood than absolute risks. For rotator cuff syndrome, intramuscular corticosteroid injections are as efficient as intra-articular injections. In patients prescribed clopidogrel, a proton pump inhibitor is not absolutely necessary. The arrival of a anticoagulant that does not need blood monitoring is an interesting option in atrial fibrillation.

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Prasugrel is effective for managing ACS patients with planned PCI and it offers an alternative with potential benefits over clopidogrel. Prasugrel is currently challenged by ticagrelor, a P2Y12 receptor antagonist with different pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties. The superiority of one drug to the other cannot be reliably estimated from the current trials. Ongoing randomized and observational studies may help to provide valuable information on the safety and efficacy of these two drugs and their respective places with ACS patients.

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The incidence of ST in OHCA survivors is high and associated with poor clinical outcome. The use of new oral P2Y12 inhibitors does not appear to be associated with a reduction in ST compared to clopidogrel.

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This group consisted of 106 patients (age, 69.3 +/- 11.7 years). Ulcers/erosions developed in 27 patients during hospitalization for cardiac events and in 79 patients after hospital discharge. Of 27 patients hospitalized for acute cardiac events, gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and dyspepsia occurred in 24 and three, respectively. The most common lesion was gastric ulcer. Of 79 discharged patients, GI bleeding and dyspepsia occurred in 64 and 15, respectively. The most common bleeding and dyspeptic lesions were gastric ulcer and gastritis, respectively. Overall, 17 patients underwent endoscopic hemostasis all successfully. A + C cotherapy was continued in 57 patients for a median (interquartile range) of 3.0 (6.2) months. Most were coprescribed a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) (53, 93%). No recurrent GI bleeding was observed.

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This trial randomized 110 P2Y12-receptor blocker-naive patients undergoing PCI with use of cangrelor to loading with prasugrel 60 mg or ticagrelor 180 mg at the start of cangrelor (n = 45 each) or loading with clopidogrel 600 mg after discontinuation of cangrelor (n = 20). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients without high on-treatment platelet reactivity 1 h after stopping cangrelor.

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SD rats were treated with ligustrazine, berberine, ligustrazine+berberine, or clopidogrel for 2 weeks. When the treatment completed, CME was induced by injection of sodium laurate into the left ventricular, while obstructing the ascending aorta. All rats were intubated for hemodynamic measurements. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analyses, flow cytometry, and ELISAs. Heart tissues were isolated for histopathology and subsequent protein analyses.

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All oral anticoagulants reduce the risk of stroke in AF patients. Some novel oral anticoagulants are associated with a lower stroke and/or major bleeding risk than warfarin. In addition to the safety and effectiveness of drug therapy, as reported in this study, individual treatment recommendations should also consider the patient's underlying stroke and bleeding risk profile.

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We demonstrate that 1) the sample sizes at three chosen time points are almost identical in the original and weighted datasets; and 2) the covariates between patients on and off clopidogrel were well balanced after stabilized weights were applied to the original samples.

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A literature search was conducted for studies that investigated PPB in patients on continued clopidogrel therapy. The primary outcome of interest was the pooled relative risk ratio (RR) of colonoscopic PPB in patients on continued clopidogrel therapy vs. controls. Secondary outcomes were a comparison of immediate and delayed colonoscopy PPB in patients on continued clopidogrel therapy vs. controls.

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There were no in-hospital deaths in the hybrid group, compared with 2 (3.8%) observed in the matched group (P = .11). Death, renal failure, or stroke occurred in 1 (1.5%) in the hybrid group versus 15 (28.8%) in the conventional group (P = .001). The median number of days between PCI and surgery was 24 (interquartile range, 2.5-37). At surgery, 23 hybrid patients were receiving both aspirin and clopidogrel;, 18, clopidogrel alone; 4, aspirin alone; and 22 stopped the antiplatelet agents 5 days before the operation. Intensive care unit hours and total hospital length of stay, including PCI stay for the hybrid group, were less in the hybrid group (P = .001 for both comparisons). In the hybrid group, average blood use was 1.6 ± 1.6 U per patient versus 1.9 ± 2.4 U per patient with conventional surgery (P = .35. There were no reoperations for postoperative bleeding in the hybrid group compared with 2 (3.8%) in the conventional group (P = .43).

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To evaluate the value and clinical effect of peripheral aneurysms with polytetrafluoroethene (PTFE) stent graft after peripheral endovascular procedures.

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The T744C polymorphism of the P2Y(12) receptor gene was assessed in 119 patients: 36 undergoing coronary stenting receiving a 300 mg loading dose (Group A) and 83 on long-term clopidogrel (75 mg/day) treatment (Group B). Patients were divided into 2 subgroups according to the presence or absence of the C allele: carriers (CT heterozygotes and CC homozygotes) and non-carriers (TT homozygotes). Platelet aggregation, assessed by light transmittance aggregometry following ADP, collagen, TRAP and epinephrine stimuli, and platelet activation (GP IIb/IIIa activation and P-selectin expression), assessed by whole blood flow cytometry in ADP and TRAP-stimulated platelets, were performed. Platelet function was assessed at baseline and 4 and 24 h following clopidogrel loading dose in Group A and when patients where on clopidogrel treatment for at least 1 month in Group B.

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Up to 30 ml·kg⁻¹·day⁻¹ of 6% HES 130/0.4 did not increase the perioperative blood loss compared to crystalloid in patients with recent exposure to DAPT undergoing OPCAB. HES 130/0.4 caused a similar degree and duration of coagulation impairment as observed when only crystalloid was given.

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buy plavix online 2017-09-07

Early reperfusion with prompt re-establishment of coronary blood flow improves survival in patients suffering from acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Leaving systemic thrombolysis for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is justified by clinical results in plavix buy favor of PCI. Nevertheless, primary PCI necessitates additional transfer time and requires an efficient territorial networking. The present article summarizes the up-to-dated management of patients with acute STEMI and/or overt cardiogenic shock.

buy plavix online 2015-06-07

PRU is consistently reported to be plavix buy lower in current smokers. However, PRU has a significant inverse relationship with hemoglobin level, and smokers have higher hemoglobin levels. Because the association between PRU and hemoglobin is likely to be an in vitro phenomenon, we hypothesized that the observed difference in PRU between nonsmokers and current smokers is the result of confounding effect of hemoglobin rather than true difference in platelet reactivity.

buy plavix online 2016-08-04

Clopidogrel and the combination of acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole were associated with similar risks for recurrent ischemic stroke and bleeding; whereas acetylsalicylic acid was associated with higher risks for Vasotec Normal Dose both ischemic stroke and bleeding. The latter finding may partially be explained by selection bias.

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IPA was measured at a median of 60 min after study medication administration. In all four tests: Fe induced platelet aggregation, ADP induced platelet aggregation, platelet function analyser (PFA)-100 (collagen-epinephrine and collagen-ADP cartridge) IPA was higher in patients pretreated with high-dose tirofiban (p<0.001 for all tests), even after >74 min of pretreatment. Patients in the highest quartile of IPA had less residual ST segment deviation 1 h post-PCI (p value for trend: p=0.001, 0.004, 0.001, 0.002 respectively). There was a significant relationship between PFA-100 (both cartridges) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, p=0.028, p=0.035) and early thrombosis (p=0.009, p=0.007). Lasix Drug Class

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We assessed prospectively the association between occurrence of post-discharge non-CABG-related TIMI major and minor bleeding and post-treatment platelet reactivity in patients Viagra Type Pills with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE ACS).

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Despite a substantial evidence base, implementation of pharmacogenetics into routine patient care has been slow due to a number of non-trivial practical barriers. We implemented a Personalized Anti-platelet Pharmacogenetics Program (PAP3) for cardiac catheterization patients at the University of Maryland Medical Center and the Baltimore Veterans Administration Medical Center Patients' are offered CYP2C19 genetic testing, which is performed in our Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment (CLIA)-certified Translational Genomics Laboratory. Results are returned within 5 hr along with clinical decision support that includes interpretation of results and prescribing recommendations for anti-platelet therapy based on the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium guidelines. Now with a working template for PAP3, implementation of other drug-gene pairs is in process. Lessons learned as described in this article may prove useful to other medical centers as they implement pharmacogenetics into patient care, a critical step in the pathway to personalized and genomic Generic Rulide Tablet medicine.

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We report 2 noteworthy cases of very late stent thrombosis presenting as ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, with vastly different manifestations. Both patients were women who had histories of multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention with first-generation sirolimus-eluting stents, in 2005 and 2006. On the more recent occasions reported here, one underwent successful multivessel primary percutaneous coronary intervention, while the other underwent successful multivessel "plain old balloon angioplasty." Both were discharged from the hospital with advice to stop smoking and to follow a lifelong regimen of aspirin and clopidogrel.On the basis of these two cases and our review of the current literature, we ask whether it is now prudent to recommend lifelong dual antiplatelet therapy after drug-eluting stent deployment. Moreover, in order to account for cases of stent thrombosis that occur ≥ 5 years after drug-eluting stent implantation, should we perhaps suggest the addition of "extremely late stent thrombosis" to the 4 Mg Propecia existing Academic Research Consortium classification?

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We Retrovir Oral Suspension evaluated percent inhibition of platelets due to aspirin or clopidogrel using TEGPM, which measures clot viscoelastic maximum amplitude (MA) after activation with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or arachidonic acid (AA) and subtraction of MA due to fibrin (MAFibrin).

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Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by thrombosis and/or pregnancy morbidity with persistent levels of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs). The development of thrombosis in APS is mediated by aPLs and contributes to the high mortality rate in APS patients. However, although APS has been reported for more than 30 years, there has been no optimal regimen for its prevention or for the Avapro Dosage management of thrombosis, mainly because the mainstay treatment strategies for managing APS are not targeted towards aPL-mediated thrombotic pathophysiology. Instead, the treatments commonly used are aimed at general thrombotic disorders. Warfarin is the most commonly used vitamin K antagonist (VKA), in addition to anti-platelet medications, such as aspirin and clopidogrel. Over the last decade, novel non-VKA oral anticoagulants, including rivaroxaban, apixaban and dabigatran, as well as immunomodulatory agents, such as rituximab, eculizumab, hydroxychloroquine, statins and sirolimus, have also been used. In this review, we discuss the current treatment strategies and future treatment outlook for thrombotic APS.

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Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-receptor antagonists are widely used for thrombus prevention, although reversing their platelet dysfunction is difficult. This study evaluated the ability of desmopressin to reverse clopidogrel-induced platelet dysfunction. Sprague-Dawley rats received either clopidogrel (30 mg/kg) or placebo, followed 4 h later by saline or desmopressin (0.15, 0.3, or 0.6 μg/kg). Bleeding times and platelet aggregation studies were subsequently performed. A bleeding time >25 min was considered "prolonged." The median bleeding time for clopidogrel-exposed rats was 21 min, vs. 6 min for controls (p < 0.01). Progressively higher doses of 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) were associated with a reduced number of rats with prolonged bleeding time (p = 0.001). Higher doses of DDAVP were also associated with a reduction in the median (IQR) bleeding time; 29 (13.5-30) min in rats receiving clopidogrel without DDAVP vs. 19 (12-28) min in rats receiving clopidogrel and 0.6 μg/kg DDAVP. The step-wise dosing of DDAVP resulted in a 54 % reduction in meeting the endpoint of prolonged bleeding time (OR 0.46; p = 0.025; 95 % CI 0.23-0.91). Platelet aggregation was observed in all control rats, but only some of those clopidogrel-treated rats who received 0.6 μg/kg DDAVP. In this model of an ADP-receptor antagonist, DDAVP results in partial reversal of clopidogrel-induced platelet dysfunction.

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Prevalence of patent foramen ovale (PFO) with detectable right-to-left shunt is higher in young adults with transient ischemic attack (TIA) and stroke compared to the general population. So far, published series included different occluder systems, various indications and regimens of postprocedural anticoagulation. In our experience, occluder systems may be associated with an increased prevalence of thrombus formation, which has also reported by other groups. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the follow-up results after implantation of the Amplatzer® occluder in patients with PFO using a consistent anticoagulation regimen.

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Sixty-three residents (84%) were being prescribed four or more medications. Forty-four residents (59%) were prescribed anti-platelet drugs for prevention of cardiovascular disease, including aspirin, clopidogrel and dipyridamole, and 31 residents (41%) were on statin therapy. Eighteen (24%) residents had a monthly medication cost that was above £101 per month. On detailed review, these were largely residents who were being prescribed special order liquid preparations, usually for secondary cardiovascular disease prevention.

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Significant prolongation in xenograft survival is achieved by improved immunosuppression. These results suggest that ongoing immune responses remain the major stimulus for DXR.

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Early stent thrombosis was observed in 4 patients (1%) (One subject in the control group and 3 in the case group) during the first 30 days after PCI, but the difference was not significant between the two groups (P=0.62). Mortality due to stent thrombosis occurred in 2 patients in the case group which showed no significant difference in this group (P=0.5). In addition, MI occurred in 2 patients (1 in each group) which also showed no significant difference between the two groups (P=1). Drug complication such as major bleeding had no significant difference between the two groups (P=0.9).

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The SERENADE trial will provide insight on the efficacy of adjunctive therapy with sarpogrelate after DES implantation for patients with high-risk profiles such as CKD or DM.

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This is a retrospective cohort study of ACS patients who underwent PCI [women (n=8,884) and men (n=23,937)] between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2007, with at least a 1-year follow-up, based on the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Propensity score was used to identify a 1:1 matched cohort (n=17,768) for multivariable adjustment. The influence of sex on drug therapy and outcomes was examined by multivariate logistic regression and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression.

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MULTIPRAC is a multinational, multicentre, prospective registry enrolling 2053 ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. Patients were grouped according to adherence to the initially prescribed thienopyridine. Pre-hospital use of prasugrel increased from 12.5% to 67.1% at study end. Prasugrel compared to clopidogrel-initiated patients more often adhered to the medication through discharge (87% vs. 38%) whereas 49% of the clopidogrel-initiated patients were switched to prasugrel. Patients who continued on clopidogrel were substantially older. In-hospital mortality was 0.5%, early stent thrombosis 0.1%. The major adverse cardiac events (MACE) rate was 1.6% in prasugrel-treated vs. 2.3% in clopidogrel-treated patients (adjusted OR 0.749, 95% CI [0.285-1.968]). Non-coronary artery bypass graft (non-CABG) bleeding occurred in 4.1% of prasugrel-treated vs. 6.1% of clopidogrel-treated patients (adjusted OR 0.686 [0.349-1.349]). Pre-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) TIMI flow 2-3 was seen in 38.7% treated with prasugrel vs. 35.6% with clopidogrel (adjusted OR 1.170 [0.863-1.585]). Post PCI ST-segment resolution ⩾50%, was 71.6% with prasugrel vs. 65.0% with clopidogrel (adjusted OR 1.543 [1.138-2.093], p=0.0052).

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Discontinuation of antiplatelet medication after ischemic stroke should be advocated only when the risk and severity of bleeding clearly outweigh the risk of cardiovascular events.

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Habitual smoking has been associated with increased platelet reactivity, increased risk of thrombotic complications and greater efficacy of clopidogrel therapy over placebo. In the PLATO trial, ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) reduced the primary composite end point of vascular death, myocardial infarction and stroke, without increasing overall rates of major bleeding. We evaluated the results in relation to smoking habits.

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A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed with 32 healthy male volunteers. Subjects were randomly assigned to a 14-day course of one of the following regimens: group A, placebo (tid) + LDA; group B, rebamipide (100 mg tid) + LDA (100 mg once-daily); group C, placebo + LDA + clopidogrel (75 mg once-daily); or group D, rebamipide + LDA + clopidogrel. The grade of gastric mucosal injuries was evaluated by esophagogastroduodenoscopy before and after dosing (on day 0 and day 14), and the grade of gastric mucosal injury was assessed according to the modified Lanza score. Subjective symptoms were assessed using the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS). A rapid urease test was performed on day 0, and blood tests were performed on day 0 and day 14.

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We aimed to investigate the relationship between platelet microRNA (miR-223 and miR-96) expression and clopidogrel responsiveness in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD).

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Atherothrombosis is a common condition affecting individuals worldwide. Its impact on different ethnic groups receiving evidence-based therapy is unclear. We aimed to determine if ethnicity is an independent predictor for cardiovascular events and bleeding complications in a contemporary clinical trial on antiplatelet therapy.

buy plavix online 2017-12-03

In this randomized clinical trial, a total of 90 patients planned to undergo PCI were randomly assigned into two groups: Group A-receiving omega-3 PUFAs (3 g, 12 h before PCI) plus standard treatment (n = 43) and Group B-control group, receiving only standard therapy (n = 47). Standard treatment included aspirin 325 mg and clopidogrel 600 mg loading dose. The plasma CK-MB level was measured before the procedure (baseline), at 8 and 24 h after PCI. The plasma troponin I was measured at baseline and 24 h after PCI.

buy plavix online 2016-02-20

Since the beginning of this century, information on pharmacogenetics appears in the summary of product characteristics (SPC) of drugs. Pharmacogenetic tests particularly concern the enzymes involved in the metabolism of drugs, among which P450 cytochromes. Some patients known as poor metabolisers eliminate some drugs more slowly, causing overdoses and adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The best-known examples are AVK and VKORC1-CYP2C9 or clopidogrel and CYP2C19. In the USA, the tests are recommended before the introduction of these drugs to prevent the occurrence of ADRs. Other tests are also commonly performed to address the toxicity of certain anticancer drugs (DPYD-capecitabine, UGT1A1-irinotecan, TPMT 6-mercaptopurine). Pharmacogenetic testing is also available to identify HLA loci that are very strongly associated with the occurrence of immuno-allergic reactions to a specific drug. The best-known example is HLA-B*5701, strongly associated with hypersensitivity to abacavir, and this test is now always prescribed before the instatement of this drug.

buy plavix online 2016-08-31

Multiple studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of dual or triple antiplatelet therapy with aspirin, clopidogrel and glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa therapy in patients with acute coronary syndromes as well as in patients undergoing coronary stent implantation. In the last few years, it is becoming clear that not all patients receive the full benefits with the current standard dosages of antiplatelet therapy. Specifically, numerous studies have revealed a wide interindividual variability in the response to these antiplatelet agents and, more importantly, both nonresponsiveness as well as a heightened residual platelet reactivity have been linked to the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular events. Therefore, assays that identify those patients with an impaired responsiveness or a heightened platelet reactivity despite dual antiplatelet therapy may contribute to better risk stratification and will probably improve clinical outcome when appropriate action is initiated. Likewise, a considerable number of patients do not achieve the minimal inhibition of aggregation threshold with the current recommended weight-adjusted dosages of GP IIb/IIIa therapy. Identifying and optimizing the absolute degree of platelet inhibition in this subgroup of patients will probably improve clinical outcome. The VerifyNow platform is one of the most user friendly point-of-care platelet function test systems because it produces rapid results at the patient bedside. The purpose of the present paper is to give insight into the principal mechanisms of the VerifyNow system, to discuss its clinical utility for the monitoring of antiplatelet therapy and to discuss the proposed cut-off levels to segregate responders from non-responders for the different types of antiplatelet therapy.

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Using data from the Vascular Study Group of New England from 2003 to 2009, we studied all patients who underwent combined CEA/CABG across six centers in New England. Our main outcome measure was in-hospital stroke or death. We compared outcomes between all patients undergoing combined CEA/CABG to a baseline CEA risk group comprised of patients undergoing isolated CEA at non-CEA/CABG centers. Further, we compared in-hospital stroke and death rates between high and low neurologic risk patients, defining high neurologic risk patients as those who had at least one of the following clinical or anatomic features: (1) symptomatic carotid disease, (2) bilateral carotid stenosis >70%, (3) ipsilateral stenosis >70% and contralateral occlusion, or (4) ipsilateral or bilateral occlusion.

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Platelet reactivity was assessed before and 30 days after carotid stenting using the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay to obtain P2Y12 reactivity unit (PRU) values.

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To explore platelet reactivity on dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients infected with HIV.

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We demonstrate that peri-interventional inflammatory degree and glycaemic control correlate with decreased antiplatelet drug responsiveness in diabetics. In addition, we identified high RPA as strong predictor for short-term CV-events in this group. Therefore, approaches to treat these entities are needed to improve outcome in diabetics undergoing PCI.

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Eight RCTs with 55,789 patient-years of warfarin therapy follow-up were included. Overall time spent in the therapeutic range was 55% to 68%. The annual incidence of stroke or systemic embolism in patients with AF taking warfarin was estimated to be 1.66% (95% CI, 1.41%-1.91%). Major bleeding rates varied from 1.40% to 3.40% per year across the studies. The risk of stroke per year was significantly higher in elderly patients (2.27%), female patients (2.12%), patients with a history of stroke (2.64%), and patients reporting no previous exposure to vitamin K antagonists (1.96%). There was a significant increase in the annual incidence of stroke with progressively increasing CHADS(2) (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age, diabetes, and prior stroke) scores.

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The present study was performed to compare initial clopidogrel response after 600 mg loading dose and 1-month platelet response and their relationship with ischemic and bleedings events. A total of 475 patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention have been included in the present study. All patients were treated with 600 mg clopidogrel followed by 150 mg daily. Clopidogrel low response was defined by high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HPR) with vasoactive stimulated phosphoprotein >50%, and "hyperresponse," as platelet reactivity index vasoactive stimulated phosphoprotein (PRI VASP) <95th percentile after 600 mg.

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Pre-injury antithrombotic therapy might influence the outcome of subjects with head injuries and positive computed tomography (CT) scans. We aimed to determine the potential risk of pre-injury antiplatelet drug use on short- and long-term outcome of head injured subjects admitted to emergency departments (EDs) in Italy for extended observation.