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AST, ALT, and total bilirubin levels were lower in Group 2 than in Group 1 (P < 0.05). TBARS levels were lower in Groups 2 (P = 0.000), 3 (P = 0.001), and 4 (P = 0.001) than in Group 1. Degenerative findings were lower in the Capparis ovata + paracetamol group than in the paracetamol group (P < 0.05).
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Adenotonsillectomy is the most frequently performed ambulatory surgical procedure in children. Post operative agitation and inadequate pain control, for children undergoing adenotonsillectomy, can be a challenge. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of intravenous dexamethasone and oral acetaminophen codeine on emergence agitation and pain after adenotonsillectomy in children.
In this prospective, randomized, triple-blinded study, we tested the hypothesis that a 48 h continuous C5-6 root/superior trunk patient-controlled infusion of ropivacaine 0.4% would provide superior analgesia after shoulder surgery compared with the same infusion of ropivacaine 0.2%.
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In multivariable models, non-aspirin NSAIDs were positively associated with follicular free estradiol [13.5 % higher, use ≥4 days/week vs. nonusers (p = 0.04; p trend = 0.11)]; results for follicular total estradiol were similar (13.2 % higher, p = 0.06; p trend = 0.11). Acetaminophen use was inversely associated with prolactin (11.8 % lower, use 2 days/week vs. nonusers, p = 0.01, p trend = 0.04). Acetaminophen was also inversely associated with free testosterone (7.1 % lower, use 2 days/week vs. nonusers, p = 0.04; p trend = 0.04). No other associations were observed with the other hormones, or with aspirin use.
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One hundred and eighteen patients with chronic cancer pain participated in a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Sixty-two patients received hydrocodone and 56 patients received tramadol.
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Median follow-up was 15 mo. The probability of recurrence at 1, 6, 12, and 24 mo was 3.1%, 19%, 27%, and 38%, respectively. Of the 41 NSAID users on admission, 26 (63%) discontinued NSAID use at discharge. Many of the patients who could discontinue NSAIDs were intermittent users, and could be switched to alternative therapies, such as acetaminophen or an antiinflammatory analgesic plaster. The probability of recurrence at 12 mo was 9.4% in discontinuing NSAID users compared with 77% in continuing users (P<0.01, log-rank test). The hazard ratio for recurrence in the discontinuing NSAIDs users was 0.06 after adjusting for age>70 years, right-sided diverticula, history of hypertension, and hemodialysis. No patients developed cerebrocardiovascular events during follow-up.
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t is always advisable not to combine liposuction with other procedures to avoid exceeding the recommended dosage of lignocaine. However, such combinations may be attempted if the total required dose of lignocaine does not exceed the maximum dose indicated above. The recommended cannula size for liposuction is not to be larger than 3.5 mm in diameter. The recommended volume of fat removed is in proportion to the fat content and/or size and/or weight of the patient being treated. It is recommended that the volume of fat removed not exceed 5000 mL in a single operative session. arge volume liposuctions or mega-liposuctions are not recommended.
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Oral administration of cisapride facilitated the absorption of colostral IgG and protein. The effect of cisapride on abomasal emptying rate could not be evaluated because cisapride appeared to interfere with acetaminophen metabolism. Based on the total IgG and total protein concentration-time relationships, the beneficial effects of cisapride appeared to occur early after oral administration and were transient.
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Randomized controlled trials comparing NSAID to placebo using visual analogue scale (VAS) scores.
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c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation promotes hepatocyte death during acetaminophen overdose, a common cause of drug-induced liver failure. While mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatase (Mkp)-1 is a critical negative regulator of JNK MAPK, little is known about the role of Mkp-1 during hepatotoxicity. In this study, we evaluated the role of Mkp-1 during acute acetaminophen toxicity. Mkp-1⁺/⁺ and Mkp-1⁻/⁻ mice were dosed ip with vehicle or acetaminophen at 300 mg/kg (for mechanistic studies) or 400 mg/kg (for survival studies). Tissues were collected 1-6 hr post 300 mg/kg dosing to assess glutathione levels, organ damage, and MAPK activation. Mkp-1⁻/⁻ mice exhibited more rapid plasma clearance of acetaminophen than did Mkp-1⁺/⁺ mice, indicated by a quicker decline of plasma acetaminophen level. Moreover, Mkp-1⁻/⁻ mice suffered more severe liver injury, indicated by higher plasma alanine transaminase activity and more extensive centrilobular apoptosis and necrosis. Hepatic JNK activity in Mkp-1⁻/⁻ mice was higher than in Mkp-1⁺/⁺ mice. Finally, Mkp-1⁻/⁻ mice displayed a lower overall survival rate and shorter median survival time after dosing with 400 mg/kg acetaminophen. The more severe phenotype exhibited by Mkp-1⁻/⁻ mice indicates that Mkp-1 plays a protective role during acute acetaminophen overdose, potentially through regulation of JNK.
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In 2011 the medical directors of EMS in the German state of Rhineland- Palatinate (4 million inhabitants) developed and implemented a standard operating procedure (SOP) for paramedics related to the prehospital parenteral administration of paracetamol for patients with isolated limb trauma. After a 2 h training session and examination, paramedics were authorized to administer 1 g of paracetamol to patients with a pain score > 5 points on an 11-point numerical rating scale (NRS). For purposes of quality management, every administration of paracetamol had to be prospectively documented on a specific electronic mission form.
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Previous studies and systematic reviews have not provided conclusive evidence on the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in non-acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure (NAI-ALF). We aimed to study the value of intravenous NAC in reducing liver transplantation and mortality in NAI-ALF.
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Using data from the Slone Survey, we sought to define the prevalence of over-the-counter and prescription medication use among US children <12 years of age and to determine the prevalence and patterns of use of the most commonly used medications.
Finally, we review the potential applications of NAC to facilitate recovery after traumatic brain injury, cerebral ischemia, and in treatment of cerebrovascular vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage.
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To describe incidence, aetiology and outcome data for Scotland since the inception of the Scottish Liver Transplant Unit (SLTU) in 1992.
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Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment for paracetamol overdose are typically anaphylactoid in origin and occur in 2-48% of treated patients. We explored the incidence and management of NAC ADR in our unit.