Between July and October 2002, consecutive patients presenting for upper endoscopy were stratified into GERD and non-reflux patients (control group) with the help of a questionnaire. The endoscopist was blind to the presence of reflux symptoms. Using magnifying endoscopes minimal change esophagitis was defined by the presence of vascular injection or vascular spots above the Z-line, villous mucosal surface and islands of squamous cell epithelium below the Z-line. Targeted and random biopsies were taken below and above the Z-line. Patients with endoscopically visible classical signs of esophagitis (Los Angeles A-D) or histologically proven Barrett's esophagus were not further investigated in the study (drop out). The esophageal specimens were histologically evaluated for erosions, infiltration with leukocytes, hyperplasia of basal cells and length of papillae. Patients with NERD were treated with 20 mg esomeprazole/day for 4 weeks and reevaluated by endoscopy as described before.
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Vonoprazan 20 mg b.d. inhibits acid irrespective of CYP2C19 genotype, more potently than esomeprazole 20 mg b.d., pH 4 and 5 holding time ratios reached 100% and 99%, respectively.
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The prevalence of cutaneous reactions to PPIs varied, ranging from three to 20 per 100,000 of the treated population. Sixty-four patients with a history of reaction to PPIs, and 65 controls were enrolled. Most cutaneous reactions were attributed to omeprazole (n=50; 78.1%), and the most frequently observed cutaneous reaction was maculopapular rash (43.8%). None of the patients experienced a cross-reaction between individual PPIs.
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In 18 (56%) of the 32 patients with dysrhythmia and in none with GERD only, a significant (P < 0.05) correlation between oesophageal pH and LF/HF ratio (oesophagus-heart correlation) was observed. A significant reduction of cardiac symptoms after PPI therapy was observed only in these patients (13/16 vs. 4/11, P < 0.01).
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A 7-day regimen of esomeprazole, metronidazole and clarithromycin is effective and well tolerated for the eradication of H. pylori infection.
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A gradual improvement in all variables over 5 years was noted in both groups, at both the Z-line and 2 cm above. The severity score decreased from baseline at each subsequent time point in both groups (P < 0.001, all comparisons), attaining a normal level by 5 years. Corresponding decreases in Ki-67 expression were observed (P < 0.001, all comparisons). No significant differences were found between esomeprazole treatment and LARS. Neither baseline severity score nor Ki-67 expression predicted the risk of treatment failure.
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To validate a short, simple questionnaire (the Proton pump inhibitor [PPI] Acid Suppression Symptom [PASS] test), in English and French, to identify patients with persistent acid-related symptoms during PPI therapy and document their response to a change in therapy.
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For patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), it is often assumed by treating physicians that the severity of heartburn correlates with the severity of erosive esophagitis (EE).
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To test the hypothesis that esomeprazole 40 mg twice daily is superior to pantoprazole 40 mg twice daily in lowering intragastric acidity.
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Bismuth salts are not available worldwide. It remains unknown whether clarithromycin can replace bismuth salts as an adjuvant agent in the rescue regimens for Helicobacter pylori infection. We therefore designed the prospective study to compare the efficacies of two rescue therapies for H. pylori infection after standard triple therapies.
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Between February 2005 and November 2006, 123 consecutive H. pylori positive patients were enrolled in this study. The first 59 patients were treated with esomeprazole, amoxicillin and levofloxacin (group I). The next 64 patients were treated with esomeprazole, clarithromycin, and levofloxacin (group II ). Both therapies were compared for efficacy and tolerability.
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Dysphagia is common in patients with erosive esophagitis but is not a reliable clinical predictor of severe erosive esophagitis. Dysphagia resolved with PPI therapy in most cases, but persistent dysphagia may indicate failed healing.
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The adjusted direct medical costs of a 6-month OD treatment with esomeprazole 20 mg in uninvestigated patients with symptoms of GERD were significantly lower compared with a continuous treatment with E 20 mg once a day. The OD therapy represents a cost-saving alternative to the continuous treatment strategy with E.
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The aims of this study were to assess the relative bioavailability and pharmacokinetic properties of 2 formulations (test and reference) of esomeprazole 40 mg.
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Endoscopic abnormalities are common in GU patients and persist after proton-pump inhibitor-based triple therapy for H. pylori eradication, which is associated with large, sustained improvements in histological variables. Follow-up endoscopy and histology may be necessary, even in patients with apparently non-malignant GU, to improve the detection rate of gastric malignancy in populations with a high prevalence of gastric cancer.
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Resistance to antitumor agents is a major cause of treatment failure in patients with cancer. Some mechanisms of tumor resistance to cytotoxic drugs may involve increased acidification of extracellular compartments. We investigated whether proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), currently used in the anti-acid treatment of peptic disease, could inhibit the acidification of the tumor microenvironment and increase the sensitivity of tumor cells to cytotoxic agents.
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To compare the efficacy of 14- and 7-d bismuth-based quadruple therapies as second-line eradication treatment for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection.
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Treatment of GERD had a significant impact on the reduction of the apnea-hypopnea index, snoring, and daytime sleepiness. Elimination of GERD should be part of a comprehensive treatment plan for patients with OSAHS.
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This study aimed to determine the effect of administration of a single-dose proton pump inhibitor (PPI) on gastric intramucosal pH (pHi), gastric juice volume and gastric pH in critically ill patients.
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Intravenous ilaprazole is more potent than oral ilaprazole against indomethacin- or stress-induced gastric lesions, with faster and longer inhibition of acid secretion.
Successful 24-h pH recording was accomplished in 84 of the 90 subjects, while the symptom association probability was calculable in 74. The symptom association probability was positive in 70% of the subjects. The sensitivity of the proton pump inhibitor test was 0.91 (CI 0.78-0.96) and the specificity was 0.26 (CI 0.10-0.49). The mean likelihood ratio was 1.2 (CI 0.9-1.6) with little variation over the 13 consecutive proton pump inhibitor test days. The likelihood ratios of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptoms were comparable, ranging around 1.
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Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are commonly overused in hospitalized patients. The objectives of this study were to determine the extent of their inappropriate initiation in patients with low risk for gastrointestinal hemorrhage, factors associated with their continuation on discharge and potential cost of this trend.
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A 74-year-old female patient was admitted to hospital following a road accident with pains in the chest, abdomen, waist, back, nose, left wrist and lower limbs. After 1 week, the patient presented with gastrointestinal bleeding, and thus was treated with protein pump inhibitors (PPIs), including lansoprazole, esomeprazole and omeprazole enteric-coated tablets, in order to inhibit acid secretion and attenuate bleeding. However, the patient developed skin rashes on the chest and right lower limb and foot 28 days following treatment initiation. The skin rashes spread and ulcerated after 3 days, and were associated with tracheal mucosal injury and hemoptysis. Subsequently, treatment of the patient with PPIs was terminated, after which the tracheal hemoptysis and skin rashes markedly improved. In addition, no new skin rashes appeared following termination of the PPI treatment. In the present case, long-term treatment of an elderly patient with PPIs may have induced exfoliative dermatitis, due to hepatic ischemia, hypoxia and acute renal failure, which may have decreased the metabolism of PPIs, resulting in the accumulation of PPI metabolites.
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Once daily esomeprazole 20 mg was better than that taken on-demand for maintaining healed erosive oesophagitis, regardless of baseline Los Angeles grade.
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Follow-up was available in 209 of 232 patients (age range 3.1-17.9 years, 118 females). Primary resistance occurred for clarithromycin in 30 of 209 (14.4%), for metronidazole in 32 (15.3%), for both antibiotics in 7 (3.3%), and culture failed in 6 (2.9%). Eradication was achieved in 168 of 209 children (80.4%, 95% CI 75.02-85.78), in 85.8% with no resistance, 72.6% with single resistance, and 28.6% with double resistance. Independent factors affecting eradication rate included resistance to clarithromycin (adjusted ORs 0.27 (0.09-0.84), p = .024), to metronidazole (0.25 (0.009-0.72), p = .010) or to both (0.04 (0.01-0.35), p = .004), and intake of ≤ 90% of prescribed drugs (0.03 (0.01-0.18), p < .001).
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SSR rates were lower in both the overweight and obese groups than in the control group (P < 0.001). During on-demand therapy, the mean number of tablets used per 4-wk period was lower in the control group than in either the overweight or the obese group (13.2 vs 15.3 or 16.2, P < 0.05). The failure rate of on-demand therapy increased with increasing BMI-2.4%, 5.3%, and 14.2%, respectively, for the control, overweight, and obese groups (P= 0.002).
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To compare the efficacy of pantoprazole and esomeprazole for the treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease- (GERD-) related symptoms.
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The pharmacologic profile of the new proton pump inhibitor esomeprazole has demonstrated advantages over omeprazole that suggest clinical benefits for patients with acid-related disease.
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Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are used extensively for the treatment of gastric acid-related disorders, often over the long term, which raises the potential for clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving concomitant medications. These drug-drug interactions have been previously reviewed. However, the current knowledge is likely to have advanced, so a thorough review of the literature published since 2006 was conducted. This identified new studies of drug interactions that are modulated by gastric pH. These studies showed the effect of a PPI-induced increase in intragastric pH on mycophenolate mofetil pharmacokinetics, which were characterised by a decrease in the maximum exposure and availability of mycophenolic acid, at least at early time points. Post-2006 data were also available outlining the altered pharmacokinetics of protease inhibitors with concomitant PPI exposure. New data for the more recently marketed dexlansoprazole suggest it has no impact on the pharmacokinetics of diazepam, phenytoin, theophylline and warfarin. The CYP2C19-mediated interaction that seems to exist between clopidogrel and omeprazole or esomeprazole has been shown to be clinically important in research published since the 2006 review; this effect is not seen as a class effect of PPIs. Finally, data suggest that coadministration of PPIs with methotrexate may affect methotrexate pharmacokinetics, although the mechanism of interaction is not well understood. As was shown in the previous review, individual PPIs differ in their propensities to interact with other drugs and the extent to which their interaction profiles have been defined. The interaction profiles of omeprazole and pantoprazole sodium (pantoprazole-Na) have been studied most extensively. Several studies have shown that omeprazole carries a considerable potential for drug interactions because of its high affinity for CYP2C19 and moderate affinity for CYP3A4. In contrast, pantoprazole-Na appears to have lower potential for interactions with other medications. Lansoprazole and rabeprazole also seem to have a weaker potential for interactions than omeprazole, although their interaction profiles, along with those of esomeprazole and dexlansoprazole, have been less extensively investigated. Only a few drug interactions involving PPIs are of clinical significance. Nonetheless, the potential for drug interactions should be considered when choosing a PPI to manage gastric acid-related disorders. This is particularly relevant for elderly patients taking multiple medications, or for those receiving a concomitant medication with a narrow therapeutic index.
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Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are gastric acid-suppressing agents widely prescribed for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Recently, several studies in patients with acute coronary syndrome have raised the concern that use of PPIs in these patients may increase their risk of major adverse cardiovascular events. The mechanism of this possible adverse effect is not known. Whether the general population might also be at risk has not been addressed.