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Neem is a unique herb with anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and blood purifying properties which is used in skin disorders and keeps the skin healthy. Neem is effective to most epidermal dysfunctions such as acne, psoriasis, eczema, antifungal.

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Neem is a high-quality herbal medication which is used in skin problems like mild acne, itchy skin, flakey scalp and many other mild dermatological problems. Neem inhibits the growth of microbes and protect the skin.

Neem also fights minor skin eruptions, reduces oiliness and inflammation, stimulates the skin’s circulation and cell renewal. It gently cleanses the skin and maintains moisture balance.

The growth of acne-causing bacteria such as propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) and staphylococcus epidermidis is also inhibited by Neem. The role of Neem in acne is further supported by studies which have shown that it exhibits anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing P. acnes-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-a and IL-8.

Neem's main ingredient are: Neem components and Turmeric.


Neem is available in capsules which are taken by mouth.

It is recommended to take 1 Neem capsule twice a day after meals.


If you overdose Neem and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep this medicine in the original bottle. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

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The most common side effects associated with Neem are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Neem if you are allergic to Neem components.

Do not take Neem if you are pregnant or breast-feeding.

Do not use Neem in children under 12 years of age. It may cause serious side effects such as seizures, coma.

Neem should never be used in place of insulin.

Avoid dehydration.

Always give your health care provider a list of all the medicines, herbs, non-prescription drugs, or dietary supplements you use.

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Twenty-five adults mites were placed onto treated filter paper that is soaked with plant extract and been tested at different concentrations (50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50%, 6.25% and 3.13%) and exposure times (24hrs, 48hrs, 72hrs and 96 hrs). All treatments were replicated 7 times, and the experiment repeated once. The topical and contact activities of the two herbs were investigated.

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A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out to assess the knowledge and usage custom of traditional insect/mosquitoes repellent plants among the inhabitants in Addis Zemen Town, Ethiopia.

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Infestations with the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae represent a major ectoparasite problem in poultry and affects egg and meat production worldwide. The effects of the neem seed product Mite-Stop against the red poultry mite were investigated. Five primitive poultry farms in two small villages in the Nile Delta and Giza district were selected for the study. The neem extract was diluted 1:40 and 1:50 with tap water just prior to use. Application of the two dilutions of the provided product was performed to soil, cracks and crevices of the examined area as well as to mite-infested birds on day 0 and day 7. Two hours after treatment soil dust was collected from sprayed regions of the stable and from unsprayed control regions of the same stable. The treated chickens were also checked for mites 2 h after each treatment. The examination of the chickens 2 h after spraying showed that they were free of mites. The examination of treated soil with the Tullgren funnel apparatus 2 h after the first spraying on day 0 already showed a considerable reduction of living mites compared to controls. Seven days after the first treatment of the soil the number of living mites was reduced for 80% in the treated soil and decreased even more after the second spraying, since those larvae that had hatched from eggs in the meantime were killed. The 1:40 dilution of the neem seed extract with tap water was superior to the 1:50 dilution. These results clearly show a very high killing rate of the extract, if the mites come in direct contact with the compound. However, in order to obtain extinction also of hidden and freshly hatched stages repeated spraying should be done three times within 8-10 days.

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Twenty trials were accepted for review. The majority of the results show no differences between the types of intervention. The current evidence indicates that the failure rate of high-viscosity GIG/ART restorations is not higher than, but is similar to that of conventional amalgam fillings after periods longer than six years. There is a risk that these results are affected by bias and confirmation by further trials is recommended.

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This study concluded that 40% water soluble azadirachtin is as effective as 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthrinse in reducing the S. mutans count in dental plaque. Hence, a water soluble formulation of azadirachtin may provide the maximum benefit to mankind to prevent dental caries.

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Azadirachta indica (neem), a Meliaceae family tree, has been used in India for several decades for the treatment of several diseases in medicine and dentistry. Neem has been considered to have antiseptic activity, but still its use for the treatment of gingivitis and periodontitis is not very clear. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of neem based mouth rinse regarding its antigingivitis effect.

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Azadirachtin-A on exposure to UV-light (254 nm) as a thin film on glass surface gave a isomerised (Z)-2-methylbut-2-enoate product. Half-life of azadirachtin-A as thin film under UV light was found to be 48 min. Azadirachtin-A was irradiated along with saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and fatty oils under ultra-violet light as thin film. Saturated fatty acid increased the rate of photodegradation of azadirachtin-A, whereas unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic, linoleic and elaidic acid reduced the rate of degradation. Castor, linseed and olive oil accelerated the rate of degradation, whereas neem oil showed no or little change in the rate of degradation of azadirachtin-A. None of these fatty acids and fatty oils were effective in controlling the rate of degradation of azadirachtin-A under UV-light as thin film.

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This work demonstrated in vivo transmission blocking activity of an azadirachtin-enriched neem seed extract at an azadirachtin dose compatible with 'druggability' requisites. These results and evidence of anti-plasmodial activity of neem products accumulated over the last years encourage to convey neem compounds into the drug discovery & development pipeline and to evaluate their potential for the design of novel or improved transmission-blocking remedies.

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The freeze drying method gave the highest yield (51.50%, w/w) of crude extract, while decoction gave the most effective DPPH-scavenging activity (EC(50): 31.4 microg/ml). Thin-layer chromatography analysis was used to screen the leaf extract obtained using decoction, and the chromatogram showed spots corresponding to quercetin and rutin flavonoids which exhibited antioxidant activities (EC(50): 2.29 and 34.67 microg/ml, respectively).

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Crude neem products have earlier shown considerable promise for control of culicine mosquito vectors in rice fields as a by-product of their agricultural use as fertilizers, but suffer from disadvantages of bulkiness and lack of stability in storage. Relatively stable lipid-rich fractions of neem were shown to be as effective as good-quality crude neem products in control of breeding of culicine vectors of Japanese encephalitis, and also produced a slight but significant reduction in populations of anopheline pupae. Neem-based formulations coated over urea significantly increased grain yield, but used alone did not, whereas combining the use of neem-coated urea and water management by intermittent irrigation had a greater effect on grain yield than that of water management alone. The neem fractions were relatively cost-effective, and the combined water management and neem-coated urea strategy is acceptable to farmers, who are already aware of the benefits of the use of neem-coated urea, and of water management. This technology therefore has considerable promise as an environmentally benign method of rice-field mosquito control that could be sustainably implemented by farmers.

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Debridement and disinfection of the root canal is a crucial step in the success of endodontic treatment. Several antimicrobial agents alone or in combination are used to achieve this. The objective of this in vitro study was to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of neem (Azadirachta indica) extract against Enterococcus faecalis.

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of herbal, homeopathic and allopathic treatments for parasites in beef heifers during two experimental cycles of 318 and 313 days.

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Neem oil inhibits the development of two-cell embryos and attachment and proliferation of the trophectodermal cells of partially hatching blastocysts in vitro. The study encourages the use of this herbal product as a postcoital contraceptive that warrants further research.

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Simultaneous confidence intervals for linear combinations of parameters of generalised linear models provide a useful way to compare the efficiency of two plant protection products. The results for the azadirachtin experiment indicate that large differences between any application effects of either Neem Azal U or Neem Pellet cannot be expected.

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All patients with CM admitted or referred to the Dermatology Unit at the General Hospital, Kalutara, over 18 months starting from July 1997, and all patients with CM from the orthopedic and surgical wards of the National Hospital of Sri Lanka in Colombo over 6 months from July 1997, were studied. Details of the history and examination were recorded on specially designed forms. Maggots extracted were identified at the Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo. The modalities of treatment employed in the patients were recorded. In the Department of Parasitology, a colony of Chrysomya megacephala was maintained. Homogenized leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica (neem) and Pongamia pinnata (Indian beech) and mineral turpentine (active ingredient--low aromatic white spirits) were tested for efficacy in killing C. megacephala larvae in vitro. Leaf extracts were not used directly on patients.

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Repellent properties of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. Syn. Z. alatum Roxb. (Timur), Curcuma aromatica (Jungli haldi) and Azadirachta indica (Neem) oils were evaluated against mosquitoes in mustard (Brassica sp.) and coconut (Cocos sp.) oil base and compared with synthetic repellent. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP) as standard. Timur and jungli haldi afforded better protection in the both the base at all the concentrations. Tepellents in mustard oil gave longer protection time than those in coconut oil. At 0.57 mg/cm2 concentration timur oil gave significantly higher protection both in mustard (445 min) as well as coconut oil (404 min) than the other repellents and DMP.

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The effects of azadirachtin A, a tetranortriterpenoid from the neem tree Azadirachta indica J., on both development and interaction between Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease, and its vector Rhodnius prolixus were studied. Given through a blood meal, a dose-response relationship of azadirachtin was established using antifeedant effect and ecdysis inhibition as effective parameters. A single dose of azadirachtin A was able to block the onset of mitosis in the epidermis and ecdysteroid titers in the hemolymph, determined by radioimmuneassay, were too low for an induction of ecdysis. The survival of T. cruzi was also studied in R. prolixus treated with the drug. If the trypomastigotes were fed in presence of azadirachtin A the number of parasites drastically decreased. If the drug was applied after infection of the bug with T. cruzi, the parasite was still abolished from the gut. If the insect was pretreated with azadirachtin A before infection the same observation was obtained. A single dose of azadirachtin A was enough for a permanent resistance of the insect host against its reinfection with T. cruzi and for blocking the ecdysis for a long time. The effects of azadirachtin A on the hormonal balance of the host and growth inhibition of the parasite will be discussed on the basis of the present results.

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We have shown that neem leaf glycoprotein (NLGP) inhibits the regulatory T cell (Tregs) induced suppression of tumoricidal functions of CD14(+)CD68(+) monocyte/macrophages (MO/Mφ) from human peripheral blood. Cytotoxic efficacy of MO/Mφ toward macrophage sensitive cells, U937, is decreased in presence of Tregs (induced), however, it was increased further by supplementation of NLGP in culture. Associated Treg mediated inhibition of perforin/granzyme B expression and nitric oxide release from MO/Mφ was normalized by NLGP. Altered status of signature cytokines, like, IL-12, IL-10, IL-6, TNFα from MO/Mφ under influence of Tregs is also rectified by NLGP. Tregs significantly enhanced the expression of altered marker, mannose receptor (CD206) on CD68(+) cells that was downregulated upon NLGP exposure. In addition to tumoricidal functions, antigen presenting ability of MO/Mφ is hampered by Treg induced downregulation of CD80, CD86 and HLA-ABC. NLGP upregulated these molecules in MO/Mφ even in the presence of Tregs. Treg mediated inhibition of MO/Mφ chemotaxis in contact dependent manner was also normalized partially by NLGP, where participation of CCR5 was documented. Overall results suggest that Treg influenced pro-tumor MO/Mφ functions are rectified in a significant extent by NLGP to create an anti-tumor immune environment.

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The 192-day-old broiler chicks were procured. These chicks were divided into two groups (A and B) containing 96 birds each on the 1(st) day. Diet of all the chicks of Group A was supplemented with 10%NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were given feed and water devoid of NLE supplementation throughout the experiment. After rearing for 1 week, chicks of both the groups (A and B) were again divided into two subgroups (Group A into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2) of 54 and 42 birds, respectively. At the age of 7 days all the chicks of groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 10(7) CFU/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Blood samples were collected from six chicks from each group at day 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 days post-infection and serum was separated for biochemical studies.

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An alternate approach to vasectomy for long-term male contraception following a single intra-vas application of a traditional plant (Azadirachta indica) product having immunomodulatory properties is described. Male Wistar rats of proven fertility were given a single dose (50 microliters) of neem oil in the lumen of the vas deferens on each side; control animals received the same volume of peanut oil. Animals were put on continuous mating 4 weeks after the treatment, with females of proven fertility. While the control animals impregnated the female partners, all males treated with neem oil remained infertile throughout the 8 months of observation period. Epididymal and vas histology were normal without any inflammatory changes or obstruction. The intra-vas administration of neem oil resulted in a block of spermatogenesis without affecting testosterone production; the seminiferous tubules, although reduced in diameter, appeared normal and contained mostly early spermatogenic cells. No anti-sperm antibody could be detected in the serum. Unilateral administration of neem oil in the vas resulted in a significant reduction of testicular size and spermatogenic block only on the side of application; the draining lymph node cells of the treated side also showed enhanced proliferative response to in vitro mitogen challenge. These results indicate that the testicular effects following intra-vas application of neem oil may possibly be mediated by a local immune mechanism.

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SPSS version 17, one-way ANOVA, Bonferroni post-hoc test.

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The effect of different pretreatment methods, temperature, and enzyme concentration on ethanol production from 8 lignocellulosic agrowaste by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using recombinant cellulase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. Recombinant cellulase was isolated from E. coli BL21 cells transformed with CtLic26A-Cel5-CBM11 full-length gene from Clostridium thermocellum and produced in both batch and fed-batch processes. The maximum cell OD and specific activity in batch mode were 1.6 and 1.91 U/mg, respectively, whereas in the fed-batch mode, maximum cell OD and specific activity were 3.8 and 3.5 U/mg, respectively, displaying a 2-fold increase. Eight substrates, Syzygium cumini (jamun), Azadirachta indica (neem), Saracens indica (asoka), bambusa dendrocalmus (bamboo), Populas nigra (poplar), Achnatherum hymenoides (wild grass), Eucalyptus marginata (eucalyptus), and Mangifera indica (mango), were subjected to SSF. Of three pretreatments, acid, alkali, and steam explosion, acid pretreatment Syzygium cumini (Jamun) at 30°C gave maximum ethanol yield of 1.42 g/L.

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The effect of major nutrients on growth and azadirachtin-related limonoids (AZRL) production in plant cell culture of Azadirachta indica (neem) was studied with the objective to increase the yield of AZRL, one of the major group of pesticidal compounds found in intact neem trees. We report the novel online monitoring of plant cell respiration activities in a new parallel shake flask measuring device. Results obtained using three standard plant cell culture media showed non-growth-associated production characteristics for AZRL. These findings were supported by the oxygen uptake rate data. Further investigations on AZRL production in a modified MS medium with different concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus sources resulted in 0.25 mg.g(-1) dry weight of AZRL, compared to no detectable AZRL production in standard MS media. These characteristics suggest the necessity of a two-stage process for the production of AZRL in plant cell culture. Compared to the single-stage process, an almost twofold increase in the volumetric productivity of AZRL was achieved using the two-stage process.

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Experiments on air and biomonitoring were conducted to evaluate pollution impact on the vegetation along the road in Jalgaon City, Maharashtra. The plantation along the roads and mainly includes neem (Aadirachta indica), peepal (Ficus religiosa), banyan (Ficus benghalensis), almond (Terminalia catapa). For biomonitoring, leaf area, total chlorophyll, plant protein were analyzed to study the impact of air pollutants. It was observed that vegetation at roadside with heavy traffic and markets was much affected by vehicular emission. Significant decrease in total chlorophyll and protein content was observed with reduced leaf area. It is concluded that plants can be used as indicators for urban air pollution, and there is need to protect the roadside plants from air pollution.

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Toothbrushes in regular use can become heavily contaminated with microorganisms, which can cause infection or reinfection. There is a need for toothbrush disinfection methods, which are rapidly effective, cost-effective, nontoxic, and that can be easily implemented.

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Molecular docking identified three potential compounds (Nimbaflavone, Rutin, and Hyperoside) having perfect binding with reported conserved residues (ASP302, SER50) of influenza virus nucleoprotein that is involved in the binding of drugs. Further analysis showed Hyperoside as a universal drug against various influenza strains. Some chemical drugs were also evaluated through screening against nucleoprotein. The results showed six drugs (OMS, CBX, LGH, Naproxen, BMS-883559, and BMS-885838) which were interacting with same conserved residues (ASP302, TYR52, SER50, GLY288, SER376, and ARG99) as were found in the case of neem phytochemicals. Hyperoside from neem leaf extract along with drugs LGH, Naproxen, BMS-885838, and BMS-883559 showed best interactions with conserved residues of nucleoprotein.

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The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of the aqueous extracts of leaves of Siamese neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss var. siamensis Valeton) from several extracting and drying methods using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-scavenging assay.

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Both neem and babool extracts had antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans, while antimicrobial activity was significantly higher in neem aqueous extract than babool aqueous extract.

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neem juice buy 2016-03-28

This retrospective, non-controlled analysis supports ONE as a simple-to-use and neem buy safe treatment option for scalp wounds with exposed bone. Treatment costs compare favorably to those published for other treatment modalities.

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In this report the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on peroxidase (POD) activity during leaf senescence was studied with and without phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) pre-treatment in detached neem (Azadirachta indica A. juss) leaf chloroplasts. Increased POD activity was detected in natural and H2O2-promoted senescent leaf chloroplasts compared to untreated control mature green leaf chloroplasts. However, under H2O2 POD activity markedly increased at 1 day, and then significantly decreased until 4 days. In the presence of H2O2, PMSF, the induction of POD activity was alleviated neem buy at 1 day, whereas reduced after 4 days. In contrast, in the presence of H2O2, cycloheximide (CX), the induction of POD activity was reduced at 1 day, whereas alleviated after 4 days. The was a partial reduction in H2O2-induced POD activity with PMSF and CX, indicating the presence of pre-existing inactive PODs in chloroplasts. We also propose a new role for chloroplastidial proteases as activators of pre-existing inactive PODs during leaf senescence.

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Immunomodulatory effects of neem oil were studied in mice. The animals were treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with neem oil; control animals received the emulsifying agent with or without peanut oil. Peritoneal lavage, collected on subsequent days, showed a maximum number of leukocytic cells Voltaren 25mg Capsules on day 3 following treatment with neem oil; peritoneal macrophages exhibited enhanced phagocytic activity and expression of MHC class-II antigens. Neem oil treatment also induced the production of gamma interferon. Spleen cells of neem oil-treated animals showed a significantly higher lymphocyte proliferative response to in vitro challenge with Con A or tetanus toxoid (TT) than that of the controls. Pre-treatment with neem oil, however, did not augment the anti-TT antibody response. The results of this study indicate that neem oil acts as a non-specific immunostimulant and that it selectively activates the cell-mediated immune (CMI) mechanisms to elicit an enhanced response to subsequent mitogenic or antigenic challenge.

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One new compound, 2H, 3H-cyclopent[b] furo [2',3':4,5] naphtho [2,4-d] heptlactone-[3,7] furan-6aceticacid, 3-(acetyloxy)-8-(3-furyl)-2a, 4a, 4b, 4c,5,5a, 6, 6a, 8 Ventolin With Alcohol , 9,9a, 10a,10b-13 hydrogen-2a,5a,6a,5-tetramethyl-3-[[(2E)-2-methyl-1-oxo-2-butenyl]oxy]-methyl ester, named azadirachta R (1), along with 10 known ones, Azadirachta A, AZ-B, AZ-D, AZ-H, AZ-I, nimbin, deacetylnimbin, salannin, deacetylsalannin and azadiradione were isolated from the crude extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seeds, which were determined by UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS and NMR data analyses. According to the in vitro antibacterial activity experimental results, this compound showed good antibacterial activity to two bacteria, the minimum inhibitory concentration and the minimum bactericidal concentration of compound 1 to two kinds of bacteria are 50 and 25 mg/L, respectively, which were determined by resazurin colour-micro-dilution method. The experimental results provide a theoretical basis for the comprehensive utilisation of azadirachtin compounds in the future.

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Our results indicated that because of its emergence inhibition activity, NeemAzal Flagyl Medicine T/S 1.2 per cent EC could be a promising candidate for the use in integrated vector management programme and replace chemical insecticides.

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Two-component and multivariate calibration techniques were developed for the simultaneous quantification of total azadirachtin-related limonoids (AZRL) and simple terpenoids (ST) in neem extracts using vanillin assay. A mathematical modeling method was also developed to aid in the analysis of the spectra and to simplify the calculations. The mathematical models were used in a two-component calibration (using azadirachtin Diamox Generic Cost and limonene as standards) for samples containing mainly limonoids and terpenoids (such as neem seed kernel extracts). However, for the extracts from other parts of neem, such as neem leaf, a multivariate calibration was necessary to eliminate the possible interference from phenolics and other components in order to obtain the accurate content of AZRL and ST. It was demonstrated that the accuracy of the vanillin assay in predicting the content of azadirachtin in a model mixture containing limonene (25% w/w) can be improved from 50% overestimation to 95% accuracy using the two-component calibration, while predicting the content of limonene with 98% accuracy. Both calibration techniques were applied to estimate the content of AZRL and ST in different parts of the neem plant. The results of this study indicated that the relative content of limonoids was much higher than that of the terpenoids in all parts of the neem plant studied.

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HISTORY AND OBJECTIVES: From the ancient time, neem used to be the traditional Lasix Generic Brand medicine for many diseases and was mainly used for cleaning the oral cavity. The incidence of dental caries was less a few decades ago but now the incidence of caries is very aggressive. This might be due to change in dietary habits, life style and more tendency toward processed food. The objective of this study is to find out the truth that if the neem is really efficacious against caries-inducing microorganisms, mainly Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguis.

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Many reports have been published about the biogenesis of silver nanoparticles using several plant extracts such as Pelargonium graveolens (P.graveolens- geranium) and Azadirachta indica (neem) but the capacity of their natural reducing constituents to form silver nanoparticles has not yet been studied. In this research the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using geraniol has been investigated. We successfully synthesized uniformly dispersed silver nanoparticles with a uniform size and shape in the range of 1 to 10 nm with an average size of 6 nm. Also the cytotoxicity of the prepared silver nanoparticles was investigated using a cancer cell line (Fibrosarcoma-Wehi 164). The cytotoxicity analysis of the sample shows a direct dose-response relationship; cytotoxicity increased at higher concentrations. At concentration of 1 µg/ml, silver nanoparticles was able to inhibit the cell line's growth by less than 30%. Conversly, the presence of 5 µg/ml of silver Aldactone 60 Mg nanoparticlse significantly inhibited the cell line's growth (>60%). The concentration necessary to produce 50% cell death was 2.6 µg/ml for this silver nanoparticles preapared with geraniol.

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A refutation of radical philosophical scepticism to clinical evidence may be achieved, if and only if such evidence is based on the logical and empirical coherence of multiple systematic review results. Practical application also requires focus on the Celebrex Tab quality of the systematic reviews and reviewed trials.

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The need to protect our food supply from predatory insect attack using Tab Lasix 5mg more ecologically acceptable methods has led to a rapidly growing interest in behavior-modifying chemicals from natural sources. Compounds which deter insects from feeding (antifeedants) are attracting special attention owing to their potential use in integrated pest control management systems. We have been studying the synthesis of plant-derived compounds that display antifeedant properties. The aim of the work is to understand more precisely the feeding mechanisms of insects at a molecular level so as ultimately to be able to design simpler compounds capable of mimicking the activity of the natural products. Our synthetic studies on the sesquiterpenoid antifeedants, polygodial and warburganal, and on the diterpenoid clerodane, ajurgarin I, have shown the promise of this approach. Current effort is directed towards structure-activity studies and synthesis of the extraordinarily potent antifeedant and growth-disrupting agent azadirachtin, isolated from the Neem tree, Azadirachta indica (A. Juss). This work has led to the correct structure assignment for azadirachtin and afforded many compounds for biological evaluation. It is of special significance that incorporation of the hydroxydihydrofuran portion of azadirachtin in a simple model system formed a compound with antifeedant activity comparable to that of the natural product.

neem juice buy 2015-01-09

Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Paraguay tea ampul) is one of the most important pests of Paraguay tea plants, and prohibition of synthetic insecticide use for control of this pest has led to the search for alternative methods. This laboratory study aimed to compare different control strategies for G. spegazziniana, utilizing a commercial neem seed oil product. Paraguay tea seedlings were treated with neem oil solution both pre- and post-infestation with 5th instar nymphs. The systemic action of neem oil was also evaluated by treating plant soil with the neem oil solution, followed by transfer of the insects to plants 24 h post-treatment. Spray treatments were effective against the pest, especially Paracetamol Dosage post-infestation (80% mortality), demonstrating the potential of neem oil for control of the Paraguay tea ampul. No significant effects were observed with respect to systemic activity.

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Here we report a simple, rapid, environment friendly approach for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) fungal endophyte, which based upon morphological and cultural characteristics was eventually identified as Fusarium oxysporum. The aqueous precursor (HAuCl4) solution when reacted Sustiva Dosage Form with endophytic fungus resulted in the biosynthesis of abundant amounts of well dispersed gold nanoparticles of 10-40 nm with an average size of 22nm. These biosynthesized gold nanoparticles were then characterized by standard analytical techniques such as UV-Visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Cytotoxic activity of these nanoparticles was checked against three different cell types including breast cancer (ZR-75-1), Daudi (Human Burkitt's lymphoma cancer) and normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), where it was found that our gold nanoparticles are anti-proliferative against cancer cells but completely safe toward normal cells. In addition to this, assessment of toxicity toward human RBC revealed less than 0.1 % hemolysis as compared to Triton X-100 suggesting safe nature of our biosynthesized gold nanoparticles on human cells. Also, our nanoparticles exhibited no anti-fungal (against Aspergillus niger) or anti-bacterial [against Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis & Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli & Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria] activity thus suggesting their non-toxic, biocompatible nature. The present investigation opens up avenues for ecofriendly, biocompatible nanomaterials to be used in a wide variety of application such as drug delivery, therapeutics, theranostics and so on.

neem juice buy 2017-11-01

Extracted human Celebrex Usual Dosage mandibular premolars were biomechanically prepared, vertically sectioned, placed in tissue culture wells exposing the root canal surface to C. albicans grown on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar to form a biofilm. At the end of 2 days, all groups were treated with test solutions and control for 10 min and evaluated for Candida growth and number of colony forming units. The readings were subjected to statistical analysis using analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey tests.

neem juice buy 2017-12-03

Commercial oil-yielding seeds (castor, coconut, neem, peanut, pongamia, rubber and sesame) were collected from different places in the state of Tamil Nadu (India) from which 1279 endophytic fungi were isolated. The oil-bearing seeds exhibited rich fungal diversity. High Shannon-Index H' was observed with pongamia seeds (2.847) while a low Index occurred for coconut kernel-associated mycoflora (1.018). Maximum Colonization Frequency (%) was observed for Lasiodiplodia theobromae (176). Dominance Index (expressed in terms of the Simpson's Index D) was high (0.581) for coconut kernel-associated fungi, and low for pongamia seed-borne fungi. Species Richness (Chao) of the fungal isolates was high (47.09) in the case of neem seeds, and low (16.6) for peanut seeds. All 1279 fungal isolates were screened for lipolytic activity employing a zymogram method using Tween-20 in agar. Forty isolates showed strong lipolytic activity, and were morphologically identified as belonging to 19 taxa (Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chalaropsis, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Curvularia, Drechslera, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor, Penicillium, Pestalotiopsis, Phoma, Phomopsis, Phyllosticta, Rhizopus, Sclerotinia, Stachybotrys and Trichoderma). These isolates also exhibited amylolytic, proteolytic and cellulolytic activities. Five fungal isolates (Aspergillus niger, Chalaropsis thielavioides, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Phoma glomerata) exhibited highest lipase activities, and the best producer was Lasiodiplodia theobromae (108 U/mL), which was characterized by genomic sequence analysis of the ITS region of 18S rDNA.

neem juice buy 2015-12-25

Cyanobacteria have established dominant aquatic populations around the world, generally in aggressive environments and under severe stress conditions, e.g., intense solar radiation. Several marine strains make use of compounds such as the polyenic molecules for their damage protection justifying the range of colours observed for these species. The peridinin/chlorophyll-a/protein complex is an excellent example of essential structures used for self-prevention; their systems allow to them surviving under aggressive environments. In our simulations, few protective dyes are required to the initial specimen defense; this is an important data concern the synthetic priority in order to supply adequate damage protection. Raman measurements obtained with 1064 and 514.5 nm excitations for Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and Microcystis aeruginosa strains shows bands assignable to the carotenoid peridinin. It was characterized by bands at 1940, 1650, 1515, 1449, 1185, 1155 and 1000 cm(-1) assigned to ν(C=C=C) (allenic vibration), ν(C=C/CO), ν(C=C), δ(C-H, C-18/19), δ(C-H), ν(C-C), and ρ(C-CH3), respectively. Recognition by Raman spectroscopy proved to be an important tool for preliminaries detections and characterization of polyene molecules in several algae, besides initiate an interesting discussion about their synthetic priority.

neem juice buy 2016-04-29

The aim of this study was to find out the role and mechanism of action of neem oil as a postcoital fertility blocker in mouse.

neem juice buy 2016-03-23

Trees with larvicidal activity may be found in Thailand. We conducted this study to evaluate the efficacy and length of efficacy of Thai neem (Azadirachta siamensis) oil emulsion and an alginate bead of Thai neem oil formulation against early fourth stage Aedes aegypti larvae using a dipping test. The Thai neem oil emulsion had significantly greater larvicidal activity than the alginate bead formulation at 12 to 60 hours post-exposure (p < 0.01). The Thai neem oil formulation resulted in 100% mortality among the early fourth stage Aedes aegypti larvae at 48 hours, while the alginate bead formulation resulted in 98% larval mortality at 84 hours and 100% mortality at 96 hours. The mean larval mortality using the Thai neem oil emulsion dropped to < 25% by 12 days and with the alginate beads dropped to < 25% by 15 days of exposure.

neem juice buy 2017-02-27

Neem (Azadirachta indica) has attracted the attention of researchers worldwide due to its repellent properties and recognized effects on the morphology and physiology of arthropods, including ticks. Therefore, this study aimed to demonstrate the effects of neem seed oil enriched with azadirachtin on salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, targets of great veterinary interest because of their ability to transmit pathogens to dogs. For this, R. sanguineus semi-engorged females were subjected to treatment with neem seed oil, with known azadirachtin concentrations (200, 400 and 600ppm). After dissection, salivary glands were collected and evaluated through morphological techniques in light microscopy, confocal scanning laser microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, so that the possible relation between neem action and further impairment in these ectoparasites feed performance could be established. Neem oil demonstrated a clear dose-dependent effect in the analyzed samples. The agranular (type I) and granular acini (types II and III) showed, particularly in individuals treated with the highest concentrations of the product, cells with irregular shape, intense cytoplasmic disorganization and vacuolation, dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum lumen, besides alterations in mitochondrial intermembrane space. These morphological damages may indicate modifications in salivary glands physiology, demonstrating the harmful effects of compounds present in neem oil on ticks. These results reinforce the potential of neem as an alternative method for controlling R. sanguineus ticks, instead of synthetic acaricides.

neem juice buy 2016-03-24

In An. coluzzii, the ingestion of NA in bloodmeals offered by membrane feeding resulted in (i) primary antifeedancy; (ii) decreased longevity; and (iii) reduced response to host odours. In G. palpalis gambiensis, NA caused (i) a knock-down effect; (ii) decreased or increased longevity depending on the dose; and (iii) reduced response to host stimuli. In both cases, NA did not affect the anthropophilic rate of activated insects. Overall, the most significant effects were observed with NA treated bloodmeals at a dose of 2000 μg/ml for mosquitoes and 50 μg/ml for tsetse flies. Although no mortality in mice was observed after 14 days of follow-up at oral doses of 3.8, 5.6, 8.4 and 12.7 g/kg, behavioural alterations were noticed at doses above 8 g/kg.

neem juice buy 2016-11-10

Polytene chromosomes were prepared from the ovarian nurse cells of semi-gravid females of ten insecticide-resistant strains of Anopheles stephensi. Altogether, 16 heterozygous paracentric inversions, namely b/+ (11D-16C) in alphamethrin; i/+ (14B-18A) and h/+ (27B-28A) in DDT; j/+ (14A-16B) in chlorpyrifos; k/+ (11D-16B) in cyfluthrin; l/+ (11A-16C) in deltamethrin; m/+ (14B-15C) and e/+ (32A-33B) in bifenthrin; n/+ (12D-14B), f/+ (33A-36A) and g/+ (33C-34A) in propoxur; o/+ (11A-12D), h/+ (37A-37C) and i/+ (31C-32C) in temephos; d/+ (33D-35C) in carbofuran and a/+ (41C-43B) in neem strains, were reported. No inversions were observed in X chromosome so far. The frequency of inversions in different insecticides was found to be highest in the 2R arm, followed by the 3R arm. Such inversions were not reported in the corresponding susceptible strains or in the parental stocks.

neem juice buy 2016-08-25

The removal of dyes present in industrial effluent has received great attention in the past few years. This is partly due to increasing environmental awareness and the implementation of ever stricter environmental rules. However, some treatments for color removal from these effluents do not guarantee the absence of other secondary toxic substances, often originating from the treatment process itself. The aim of this study is to evaluate the toxicity level of the adsorbent Neem, used in adsorption processes for color removal, as well as that of the dye solution before and after the adsorption process. The toxicity tests were carried out according to the Environment Agency FATMA regulation no. 017/02. They consisted of exposing representative microorganisms from the environment, for a certain time interval, to several concentrations of one or more substances, under different environmental conditions, and then evaluating the toxic effects. The results show that the Neem leaf extract had a harmful affect on the test organism used. Thus, it is recommended that the leaf extract is removed prior to effluent treatment, since the results of this study indicate that this will reduce the toxicity of the effluent and also improve the efficiency of the adsorption process.

neem juice buy 2015-02-15

In the field in south-central Sweden, we tested by randomised, standardised methodology the potential anti-tick repellent activity of two concentrations of MyggA Natural spray (containing PMD) (4.2 and 3.2 g/m2) and one of RB86 (with 70% neem oil containing azadirachtin) (3 g/m2) to host seeking nymphs of Ixodes ricinus. Each substance was applied separately to 1 m2 cotton flannel cloths. Nymphal ticks on the cloths, pulled over the vegetation, were recorded at 10-m stops. Nymphal numbers recorded differed significantly between treated cloths [4.2 or 3.2 g MyggA Natural spray/m2 and 3 g RB86/m2] and the untreated control (df = 3, chi2 = 112.74, P < 0.0001). Nymphal numbers also differed significantly among collectors (df = 3, chi2 = 15.80, P < 0.001). Repellency of treated cloths, i.e., 4.2 or 3.2 g MyggA Natural spray/m2 and 3 g RB 86/m2 declined from day 0 (i.e. the day of impregnation) to day 3 after impregnation from 77 to 24%, 58 to 16% and 47 to 0.5%, respectively. This study suggests that all three treatments have significant repellent activities against I. ricinus nymphs.

neem juice buy 2015-09-20

Storage of neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds is difficult because of their sensitivity to chilling stress at moisture contents (MC) > or =10% or imbibitional stress below 10% MC. The hypothesis was tested that an elevated gel-to-liquid crystalline phase transition temperature (Tm) of membranes is responsible for this storage behaviour. To this end a spin probe technique, Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy, and electron microscopy were used. The in situ Tm of hydrated membranes was between 10 degrees C and 15 degrees C, coinciding with the critical minimum temperature for germination. During storage, viability of fresh embryos was lost within two weeks at 5 degrees C, but remained high at 25 degrees C. The loss of viability coincided with an increased leakage of K+ from the embryos upon imbibition and with an increased proportion of cells with injured plasma membranes. Freeze-fracture replicas of plasma membranes from chilled, hydrated axes showed lateral phase separation and signs of the inverted hexagonal phase. Dehydrated embryos were sensitive to soaking in water, particularly at low temperatures, but fresh embryos were not. After soaking dry embryos at 5 degrees C (4 h) plus 1 d of further incubation at 25 degrees C, the axis cells were structurally disorganized and did not become turgid. In contrast, cells had a healthy appearance and were turgid after soaking at 35 degrees C. Imbibitional stress was associated with the loss of plasma membrane integrity in a limited number of cells, which expanded during further incubation of the embryos at 25 degrees C. It is suggested that the injuries brought about by storage or imbibition at sub-optimal temperatures in tropical seeds whose membranes have a high intrinsic Tm (10-15 degrees C), are caused by gel phase formation.

neem juice buy 2016-05-07

Use of purified Neem extracts containing immunomodulators stimulating Th1 cells and macrophages; test animals, rats, baboons, and monkeys, onset of pregnancy confirmed by surgery and counting of implants on day 7 in rats and by chorionic gonadotropin (CG) and progesterone assays in primates; termination defined by complete resorption on day 15 in rats and by bleeding and decline of CG and progesterone in baboons.

neem juice buy 2016-07-01

Entomopathogenic fungi are potential candidates for use in integrated vector management and many isolates are compatible with synthetic and natural insecticides. Neem oil was tested separately and in combination with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against larvae of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. Our aim was to increase the effectiveness of the fungus for the control of larval mosquito populations.

neem juice buy 2015-10-15

Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis are commonly found in avocado and persimmon orchards in northern Parana state. However, their abundance depends on whether insecticides are used or not to control the key lepidopteran pests Stenoma catenifer (Wals.) (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and Hypocala andremona (Stoll) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), respectively. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of an aqueous neem seed extract (ANSE) at 15, 3 and 1.5%, and of an emulsifiable concentrate neem oil (ECNO) at 2.5, 0.5 and 0.25% on lifetime parameters of these trichogrammatids as a way of testing the feasibility of integrating the biological and chemical control methods. Chemicals were applied on Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs before or after parasitization (one, three or five days). ANSE was more deleterious to both parasitoid species than ECNO, regardless of the concentration and the time of application. The chemicals acted on a concentration and time dependent manner. Treating the host with neem before parasitism was less deleterious to wasp emergence, especially for T. annulata. Pre-treatments (24h) of the host eggs with ECNO at concentrations varying from 0.5% to 0.25% did not affect T. pretiosum longevity, but 2.5% reduced T. annulata survival. Feeding wasps with honey mixed with 0.25% ECNO negatively affected T. annulata survival.

neem juice buy 2016-03-03

The sticks were sun dried, ground into a coarse powder, and weighed into 5 gm, 10 gm, and 50 gm amounts. These were added to 100 ml of deionized distilled water. After soaking for 48 h at 4 degrees C, the water was filtered. The filtrate was inoculated onto blood agar plates containing individual species of microorganisms and incubated at 37 degrees C for 48 h.

neem juice buy 2015-06-08

Hamsters were divided into four groups. The right buccal pouches of animals in group 1 were painted with 0.5% DMBA three times a week. Animals in group 2 painted with DMBA as in group 1, received in addition, intragastric administration of ENLE (200 mg/kg bw) on days alternate to DMBA application. Group 3 animals were given ENLE (200 mg/kg bw) alone. Animals in group 4 served as control. All the animals were sacrificed after an experimental period of 14 weeks. The expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cytokeratin, Bcl-2 and p53 in the buccal pouch tissues were investigated using immunohistochemical staining. In addition, the expression of p53 was confirmed by Western blot analysis.

neem juice buy 2017-11-04

A quantitative ethnobotanical approach to antimalarial drug discovery led to the identification of Lansium domesticum Corr. Ser. (Meliaceae) as an important antimalarial used by Kenyah Dyak healers in Indonesian Borneo. Triterpenoid lansiolides with antimalarial activity were isolated from the bark and shown to have activity in both in vitro bioassays with Plasmodium falciparum, and in mice infected with P. berghei. A survey of African and tropical American Meliaceae led to further development of the limonoid gedunin from the traditionally used medicinal plants, tropical cedar, Cedrela odorata L., and neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Gedunin has significant in vitro activity but initially showed poor in vivo activity. In vivo activity was improved by (1) incorporation into an easy to absorb suspension, (2) preparation of a more stable compound, 7-methoxygedunin; and (3) synergism with dillapiol, a cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitor. The results show the potential for both antimalarial drug and phytomedicine development from traditionally used plants.

neem juice buy 2017-11-02

Chemoprevention by medicinal plants has evolved as a practical strategy to control the incidence of cancer. Azadirachta indica (neem) containing various bioactive components is a promising candidate for chemoprevention. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the chemopreventive efficacy of the bioactive subfractions ethyl acetate chloroform insoluble fraction (ECIF) and the methanol ethyl acetate insoluble fraction (MEIF) following activity-guided fractionation of neem leaf extract. Analysis of the mechanism of chemoprevention revealed multitargeted mode of action that involved modulation of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of mitochondrial apoptosis, and abrogation of NF-κB signaling. HP-TLC, GC-MS and LC-MS analyses indicated the presence of several polar phytochemical entities in the neem leaf subfractions that might be responsible for their potent chemopreventive efficacy.

neem juice buy 2017-10-24

The present article describes the analysis of an n-hexane soluble fraction of fresh flowers of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Neem), possessing larvicidal activity against Anopheles stephensi Liston, a vector of malarial parasite. Forty-one compounds were identified in non-polar to less-polar fraction as well as in essential oil. These identifications were basically made through GC-EIMS. Thus 5 sesquiterpenes, 3 aromatics, 17 fatty acids, 5 fatty acid esters, three steroids and 8 hydrocarbons were identified. The compounds 1-5, 10, 14-17, 21a and 36-38 were reported previously from different parts of the tree including flowers. The rest of the compounds are reported for the first time from flowers.