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Twenty-five adults mites were placed onto treated filter paper that is soaked with plant extract and been tested at different concentrations (50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50%, 6.25% and 3.13%) and exposure times (24hrs, 48hrs, 72hrs and 96 hrs). All treatments were replicated 7 times, and the experiment repeated once. The topical and contact activities of the two herbs were investigated.
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A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out to assess the knowledge and usage custom of traditional insect/mosquitoes repellent plants among the inhabitants in Addis Zemen Town, Ethiopia.
Infestations with the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae represent a major ectoparasite problem in poultry and affects egg and meat production worldwide. The effects of the neem seed product Mite-Stop against the red poultry mite were investigated. Five primitive poultry farms in two small villages in the Nile Delta and Giza district were selected for the study. The neem extract was diluted 1:40 and 1:50 with tap water just prior to use. Application of the two dilutions of the provided product was performed to soil, cracks and crevices of the examined area as well as to mite-infested birds on day 0 and day 7. Two hours after treatment soil dust was collected from sprayed regions of the stable and from unsprayed control regions of the same stable. The treated chickens were also checked for mites 2 h after each treatment. The examination of the chickens 2 h after spraying showed that they were free of mites. The examination of treated soil with the Tullgren funnel apparatus 2 h after the first spraying on day 0 already showed a considerable reduction of living mites compared to controls. Seven days after the first treatment of the soil the number of living mites was reduced for 80% in the treated soil and decreased even more after the second spraying, since those larvae that had hatched from eggs in the meantime were killed. The 1:40 dilution of the neem seed extract with tap water was superior to the 1:50 dilution. These results clearly show a very high killing rate of the extract, if the mites come in direct contact with the compound. However, in order to obtain extinction also of hidden and freshly hatched stages repeated spraying should be done three times within 8-10 days.
Twenty trials were accepted for review. The majority of the results show no differences between the types of intervention. The current evidence indicates that the failure rate of high-viscosity GIG/ART restorations is not higher than, but is similar to that of conventional amalgam fillings after periods longer than six years. There is a risk that these results are affected by bias and confirmation by further trials is recommended.
This study concluded that 40% water soluble azadirachtin is as effective as 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthrinse in reducing the S. mutans count in dental plaque. Hence, a water soluble formulation of azadirachtin may provide the maximum benefit to mankind to prevent dental caries.
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Azadirachta indica (neem), a Meliaceae family tree, has been used in India for several decades for the treatment of several diseases in medicine and dentistry. Neem has been considered to have antiseptic activity, but still its use for the treatment of gingivitis and periodontitis is not very clear. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of neem based mouth rinse regarding its antigingivitis effect.
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Azadirachtin-A on exposure to UV-light (254 nm) as a thin film on glass surface gave a isomerised (Z)-2-methylbut-2-enoate product. Half-life of azadirachtin-A as thin film under UV light was found to be 48 min. Azadirachtin-A was irradiated along with saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and fatty oils under ultra-violet light as thin film. Saturated fatty acid increased the rate of photodegradation of azadirachtin-A, whereas unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic, linoleic and elaidic acid reduced the rate of degradation. Castor, linseed and olive oil accelerated the rate of degradation, whereas neem oil showed no or little change in the rate of degradation of azadirachtin-A. None of these fatty acids and fatty oils were effective in controlling the rate of degradation of azadirachtin-A under UV-light as thin film.
This work demonstrated in vivo transmission blocking activity of an azadirachtin-enriched neem seed extract at an azadirachtin dose compatible with 'druggability' requisites. These results and evidence of anti-plasmodial activity of neem products accumulated over the last years encourage to convey neem compounds into the drug discovery & development pipeline and to evaluate their potential for the design of novel or improved transmission-blocking remedies.
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The freeze drying method gave the highest yield (51.50%, w/w) of crude extract, while decoction gave the most effective DPPH-scavenging activity (EC(50): 31.4 microg/ml). Thin-layer chromatography analysis was used to screen the leaf extract obtained using decoction, and the chromatogram showed spots corresponding to quercetin and rutin flavonoids which exhibited antioxidant activities (EC(50): 2.29 and 34.67 microg/ml, respectively).
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Crude neem products have earlier shown considerable promise for control of culicine mosquito vectors in rice fields as a by-product of their agricultural use as fertilizers, but suffer from disadvantages of bulkiness and lack of stability in storage. Relatively stable lipid-rich fractions of neem were shown to be as effective as good-quality crude neem products in control of breeding of culicine vectors of Japanese encephalitis, and also produced a slight but significant reduction in populations of anopheline pupae. Neem-based formulations coated over urea significantly increased grain yield, but used alone did not, whereas combining the use of neem-coated urea and water management by intermittent irrigation had a greater effect on grain yield than that of water management alone. The neem fractions were relatively cost-effective, and the combined water management and neem-coated urea strategy is acceptable to farmers, who are already aware of the benefits of the use of neem-coated urea, and of water management. This technology therefore has considerable promise as an environmentally benign method of rice-field mosquito control that could be sustainably implemented by farmers.
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Debridement and disinfection of the root canal is a crucial step in the success of endodontic treatment. Several antimicrobial agents alone or in combination are used to achieve this. The objective of this in vitro study was to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of neem (Azadirachta indica) extract against Enterococcus faecalis.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of herbal, homeopathic and allopathic treatments for parasites in beef heifers during two experimental cycles of 318 and 313 days.
Neem oil inhibits the development of two-cell embryos and attachment and proliferation of the trophectodermal cells of partially hatching blastocysts in vitro. The study encourages the use of this herbal product as a postcoital contraceptive that warrants further research.
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Simultaneous confidence intervals for linear combinations of parameters of generalised linear models provide a useful way to compare the efficiency of two plant protection products. The results for the azadirachtin experiment indicate that large differences between any application effects of either Neem Azal U or Neem Pellet cannot be expected.
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All patients with CM admitted or referred to the Dermatology Unit at the General Hospital, Kalutara, over 18 months starting from July 1997, and all patients with CM from the orthopedic and surgical wards of the National Hospital of Sri Lanka in Colombo over 6 months from July 1997, were studied. Details of the history and examination were recorded on specially designed forms. Maggots extracted were identified at the Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo. The modalities of treatment employed in the patients were recorded. In the Department of Parasitology, a colony of Chrysomya megacephala was maintained. Homogenized leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica (neem) and Pongamia pinnata (Indian beech) and mineral turpentine (active ingredient--low aromatic white spirits) were tested for efficacy in killing C. megacephala larvae in vitro. Leaf extracts were not used directly on patients.
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Repellent properties of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. Syn. Z. alatum Roxb. (Timur), Curcuma aromatica (Jungli haldi) and Azadirachta indica (Neem) oils were evaluated against mosquitoes in mustard (Brassica sp.) and coconut (Cocos sp.) oil base and compared with synthetic repellent. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP) as standard. Timur and jungli haldi afforded better protection in the both the base at all the concentrations. Tepellents in mustard oil gave longer protection time than those in coconut oil. At 0.57 mg/cm2 concentration timur oil gave significantly higher protection both in mustard (445 min) as well as coconut oil (404 min) than the other repellents and DMP.
The effects of azadirachtin A, a tetranortriterpenoid from the neem tree Azadirachta indica J., on both development and interaction between Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease, and its vector Rhodnius prolixus were studied. Given through a blood meal, a dose-response relationship of azadirachtin was established using antifeedant effect and ecdysis inhibition as effective parameters. A single dose of azadirachtin A was able to block the onset of mitosis in the epidermis and ecdysteroid titers in the hemolymph, determined by radioimmuneassay, were too low for an induction of ecdysis. The survival of T. cruzi was also studied in R. prolixus treated with the drug. If the trypomastigotes were fed in presence of azadirachtin A the number of parasites drastically decreased. If the drug was applied after infection of the bug with T. cruzi, the parasite was still abolished from the gut. If the insect was pretreated with azadirachtin A before infection the same observation was obtained. A single dose of azadirachtin A was enough for a permanent resistance of the insect host against its reinfection with T. cruzi and for blocking the ecdysis for a long time. The effects of azadirachtin A on the hormonal balance of the host and growth inhibition of the parasite will be discussed on the basis of the present results.
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We have shown that neem leaf glycoprotein (NLGP) inhibits the regulatory T cell (Tregs) induced suppression of tumoricidal functions of CD14(+)CD68(+) monocyte/macrophages (MO/Mφ) from human peripheral blood. Cytotoxic efficacy of MO/Mφ toward macrophage sensitive cells, U937, is decreased in presence of Tregs (induced), however, it was increased further by supplementation of NLGP in culture. Associated Treg mediated inhibition of perforin/granzyme B expression and nitric oxide release from MO/Mφ was normalized by NLGP. Altered status of signature cytokines, like, IL-12, IL-10, IL-6, TNFα from MO/Mφ under influence of Tregs is also rectified by NLGP. Tregs significantly enhanced the expression of altered marker, mannose receptor (CD206) on CD68(+) cells that was downregulated upon NLGP exposure. In addition to tumoricidal functions, antigen presenting ability of MO/Mφ is hampered by Treg induced downregulation of CD80, CD86 and HLA-ABC. NLGP upregulated these molecules in MO/Mφ even in the presence of Tregs. Treg mediated inhibition of MO/Mφ chemotaxis in contact dependent manner was also normalized partially by NLGP, where participation of CCR5 was documented. Overall results suggest that Treg influenced pro-tumor MO/Mφ functions are rectified in a significant extent by NLGP to create an anti-tumor immune environment.
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The 192-day-old broiler chicks were procured. These chicks were divided into two groups (A and B) containing 96 birds each on the 1(st) day. Diet of all the chicks of Group A was supplemented with 10%NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were given feed and water devoid of NLE supplementation throughout the experiment. After rearing for 1 week, chicks of both the groups (A and B) were again divided into two subgroups (Group A into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2) of 54 and 42 birds, respectively. At the age of 7 days all the chicks of groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 10(7) CFU/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Blood samples were collected from six chicks from each group at day 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 days post-infection and serum was separated for biochemical studies.
An alternate approach to vasectomy for long-term male contraception following a single intra-vas application of a traditional plant (Azadirachta indica) product having immunomodulatory properties is described. Male Wistar rats of proven fertility were given a single dose (50 microliters) of neem oil in the lumen of the vas deferens on each side; control animals received the same volume of peanut oil. Animals were put on continuous mating 4 weeks after the treatment, with females of proven fertility. While the control animals impregnated the female partners, all males treated with neem oil remained infertile throughout the 8 months of observation period. Epididymal and vas histology were normal without any inflammatory changes or obstruction. The intra-vas administration of neem oil resulted in a block of spermatogenesis without affecting testosterone production; the seminiferous tubules, although reduced in diameter, appeared normal and contained mostly early spermatogenic cells. No anti-sperm antibody could be detected in the serum. Unilateral administration of neem oil in the vas resulted in a significant reduction of testicular size and spermatogenic block only on the side of application; the draining lymph node cells of the treated side also showed enhanced proliferative response to in vitro mitogen challenge. These results indicate that the testicular effects following intra-vas application of neem oil may possibly be mediated by a local immune mechanism.
SPSS version 17, one-way ANOVA, Bonferroni post-hoc test.
The effect of different pretreatment methods, temperature, and enzyme concentration on ethanol production from 8 lignocellulosic agrowaste by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using recombinant cellulase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. Recombinant cellulase was isolated from E. coli BL21 cells transformed with CtLic26A-Cel5-CBM11 full-length gene from Clostridium thermocellum and produced in both batch and fed-batch processes. The maximum cell OD and specific activity in batch mode were 1.6 and 1.91 U/mg, respectively, whereas in the fed-batch mode, maximum cell OD and specific activity were 3.8 and 3.5 U/mg, respectively, displaying a 2-fold increase. Eight substrates, Syzygium cumini (jamun), Azadirachta indica (neem), Saracens indica (asoka), bambusa dendrocalmus (bamboo), Populas nigra (poplar), Achnatherum hymenoides (wild grass), Eucalyptus marginata (eucalyptus), and Mangifera indica (mango), were subjected to SSF. Of three pretreatments, acid, alkali, and steam explosion, acid pretreatment Syzygium cumini (Jamun) at 30°C gave maximum ethanol yield of 1.42 g/L.
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The effect of major nutrients on growth and azadirachtin-related limonoids (AZRL) production in plant cell culture of Azadirachta indica (neem) was studied with the objective to increase the yield of AZRL, one of the major group of pesticidal compounds found in intact neem trees. We report the novel online monitoring of plant cell respiration activities in a new parallel shake flask measuring device. Results obtained using three standard plant cell culture media showed non-growth-associated production characteristics for AZRL. These findings were supported by the oxygen uptake rate data. Further investigations on AZRL production in a modified MS medium with different concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus sources resulted in 0.25 mg.g(-1) dry weight of AZRL, compared to no detectable AZRL production in standard MS media. These characteristics suggest the necessity of a two-stage process for the production of AZRL in plant cell culture. Compared to the single-stage process, an almost twofold increase in the volumetric productivity of AZRL was achieved using the two-stage process.
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Experiments on air and biomonitoring were conducted to evaluate pollution impact on the vegetation along the road in Jalgaon City, Maharashtra. The plantation along the roads and mainly includes neem (Aadirachta indica), peepal (Ficus religiosa), banyan (Ficus benghalensis), almond (Terminalia catapa). For biomonitoring, leaf area, total chlorophyll, plant protein were analyzed to study the impact of air pollutants. It was observed that vegetation at roadside with heavy traffic and markets was much affected by vehicular emission. Significant decrease in total chlorophyll and protein content was observed with reduced leaf area. It is concluded that plants can be used as indicators for urban air pollution, and there is need to protect the roadside plants from air pollution.
Toothbrushes in regular use can become heavily contaminated with microorganisms, which can cause infection or reinfection. There is a need for toothbrush disinfection methods, which are rapidly effective, cost-effective, nontoxic, and that can be easily implemented.
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Molecular docking identified three potential compounds (Nimbaflavone, Rutin, and Hyperoside) having perfect binding with reported conserved residues (ASP302, SER50) of influenza virus nucleoprotein that is involved in the binding of drugs. Further analysis showed Hyperoside as a universal drug against various influenza strains. Some chemical drugs were also evaluated through screening against nucleoprotein. The results showed six drugs (OMS, CBX, LGH, Naproxen, BMS-883559, and BMS-885838) which were interacting with same conserved residues (ASP302, TYR52, SER50, GLY288, SER376, and ARG99) as were found in the case of neem phytochemicals. Hyperoside from neem leaf extract along with drugs LGH, Naproxen, BMS-885838, and BMS-883559 showed best interactions with conserved residues of nucleoprotein.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of the aqueous extracts of leaves of Siamese neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss var. siamensis Valeton) from several extracting and drying methods using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-scavenging assay.
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Both neem and babool extracts had antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans, while antimicrobial activity was significantly higher in neem aqueous extract than babool aqueous extract.