Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) presents a major challenge to global TB control. To gain a better understanding of drug-resistant TB epidemiology in Malatya, Turkey, we conducted the present study using 397 Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates collected from Malatya, Turkey, in recent years (2000-2007). Resistance to any anti-TB drug was found in 29% (114 of 397) of the study isolates, while the multidrug resistance (MDR) rate was approximately 4.5% (18 of 397). Resistances to isoniazid (15.5%) and streptomycin (13.4%) were about twice as high as resistance to rifampin (RMP) (6.3%) and ethambutol (EMB) (6.0%). Importantly, 28% (7 of 25) of the RMP-resistant isolates were non-MDR isolates, as when a significant proportion of RMP-resistant isolates in a population are non-MDR, the predictive value of molecular detection of RMP resistance for MDR can be significantly reduced. Both identical and varied drug resistance patterns were seen in the same genotyping-defined clusters, suggesting that both primary and acquired resistance have contributed to the drug-resistant TB epidemic in Malatya, Turkey. In addition, drug-resistant cases were found to be more likely to be males (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.82 [1.13, 2.94]), suggesting a potential role of gender in the epidemiology of drug-resistant TB in the study population. This study demonstrates that the integration of drug susceptibility testing with genotyping and epidemiological data analysis represents a useful approach to studying the epidemiology of drug-resistant TB.
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M. smegmatis cells grown in the presence of combination of ethambutol (EMB) and sparfloxacin (SPX) had decreased level of total cellular lipids as compared to control as well as cells grown in the presence of sub-inhibitory concentration (MIC50) of individual drugs. Amongst various phospholipids analyzed, maximum decrease was observed in the content of phosphatidylinositolmannosides (PIMs) of the cells grown in combination of EMB and SPX. In contrast, the subcellular distribution of phospholipids revealed a significant increase in PIMs content of both cell wall and cell membrane of the cells grown in the presence of combination of drugs as compared to control as well as individual drugs. Mycolic acids of M. smegmatis cells were found to be main targets as combination of drugs resulted in significant decrease in total cellular as well as cell wall mycolic acids as compared to control and individual drugs. Changed lipid composition of M. smegmatis cells grown in the presence of MIC50 of EMB, SPX and combination resulted in significant surface changes as was evident from decreased limiting fluorescence (Fmax) intensity of 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate (ANS). Thus, the results of this study suggested that ethambutol and sparfloxacin in combination exerted their antimycobacterial effect principally due to their action on phosphatidylinositolmannosides (PIMs) and mycolic acids, which form the permeability barrier of mycobacteria.
The overall outcome was good, with 92% favourable response (cure) and 4.8% relapse in 450 patients including 103 who did not receive extension of intensive phase for positive smear, 38 with initial H-resistant cultures, 4 with MDR TB and 15 who received less than 75% of chemotherapy. In 392 patients with drug-susceptible cultures, 96%were cured and only 4% relapsed. There was no emergence of MDR TB among failures and relapses; toxicity was low.
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A community-based tuberculosis case-finding and short-course chemotherapy program was conducted in a suburb of Manila and featured 1 month of daily isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF), ethambutol (EMB), and pyrazinamide (PZA) followed by 7 months of twice-weekly, high dose, directly observed INH + EMB + PZA. Church-affiliated lay workers obtained 1,990 sputum specimens from subjects who complained of chronic cough or wasting symptoms; 207 of the specimens were positive on Ziehl-Neelsen smears. On culture, 176 yielded a significant growth of M. tuberculosis. Of these 176 patients, 144 were selected to enter the study; 10 were lost because of withdrawal or death and four (2.7%) because of drug toxicity. This left 130 patients who were followed long-term. Remarkably, 80% (104) were initially shedding drug-resistant organisms; 26% (34) were resistant to one drug, 30% (40) were resistant to two drugs, and 24% (30) were resistant to three or more drugs. Responses to therapy corresponded closely to the extent of drug resistance: 80% (48 of 60) of patients with drug-susceptible or single resistance had a favorable outcome; 43% (28 of 65) were resistant to two or three drugs, and 0% (0 of 5) of those were resistant to four or more drugs. Notable findings of this study were the success of a community-based program in conducting prolonged, directly observed treatment, the unexpectedly high prevalence of multiple-drug-resistant organisms in this population, and the inadequacy of INH + PZA + EMB during the continuation phase of therapy in this setting.
Currently recommended RMP dosages in childhood tuberculosis lead to serum levels lower than those recommended for adults, probably due to different pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in children. In children, it appears to be more valid to calculate RMP dosage on the basis of body surface area rather than body weight, leading to higher dosages especially in younger children.
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Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH), TB Control Program.
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Portugal has the fourth highest tuberculosis (TB) incidence rate in the European Union (EU). Thirty-nine percent of all cases originate in Lisbon Health Region. Portugal also presents high levels of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) (1.5%, primary rate and 2.4%, in retreatment cases). In the present study we have characterized 58 MDR-TB clinical isolates by: (i) determining the resistance profile to first- and second-line drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis; (ii) genotyping all isolates by MIRU-VNTR; (iii) analyzing mutations conferring resistance to isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin, and ethambutol, in katG, mabA-inhA, rpoB, rpsL, rrs, and pncA genes. We have therefore established the prevalence of the most common mutations associated with drug resistance in the Lisbon Health Region: C-15T in mabA-inhA for isoniazid; S531L in rpoB for rifampicin; K43R in rpsL for streptomycin; and V125G in pncA for pyrazinamide. By genotyping all isolates and combining with the mutational results, we were able to assess the isolates' genetic relatedness and determine possible transmission events. Strains belonging to family Lisboa, characterized several years ago, are still responsible for the majority of the MDR-TB. Even more alarming is the high prevalence of extensive drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) among the MDR-TB isolates, which was found to be 53%. The TB status in Portugal therefore requires urgent attention to contain the strains continuously responsible for MDR-TB and now, XDR-TB.
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A new C-8-methoxyl fluoroquinolone, gatifloxacin (GFLX), and a new C-8-chloro fluoroquinolone, sitafloxacin (STFX), in combination with other drugs were examined for their activities against extracellular growing MTB organisms and those replicating in RAW264.7 macrophages (RAW-M phis s).
The high prevalence of rifampicin resistance and resistance to multiple drugs in the Riyadh region and in other parts of Saudi Arabia is a major challenge to the control of tuberculosis in this country. Efforts should be made to prevent the emergence of further antituberculosis drug resistance.
A hospital based retrospective study was used to assess the pattern of anti-TB drug resistance among previously treated TB patients referred to St.Peter's TB Specialized Hospital from January 2004-December 2008 Gregorian calendar(GC) for better diagnosis and treatment. Among 376 culture positive for M. tuberculosis one hundred and two (27.1%) were susceptible to all of the four first line anti-TB drugs -Isoniazid (INH), Rifampicin (RIF), Ethambutol (ETB) & Streptomycin (STM). While 274 (72.9%) were resistant to at least one drug. Any resistance to STM (67.3%) was found to be the most common and the prevalence of MDR-TB was 174 (46.3%). Trend in resistance rate among re-treatment cases from 2004 to 2008 showed a significant increase for any drug as well as for INH, RIF, and MDR resistance (P <0.05 for trend).
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Moxifloxacin improved culture conversion in the initial phase of tuberculosis treatment. Trials to assess whether moxifloxacin can be used to shorten the duration of tuberculosis treatment are justified.
A patient was diagnosed with discitis and sacroiliitis due to Mycobacterium xenopi. He had a history of percutaneous nucleotomy performed 15 years earlier (in 1992) at the Clinique du Sport, Paris, France, during an outbreak of nosocomial M. xenopi infection at that institution. In 1997, magnetic resonance imaging performed as part of the routine follow-up program for patients who had surgery at the Clinique du Sport during the outbreak was not interpreted as indicating discitis; this assessment was confirmed by our review of the images. Bone and joint infections due to atypical mycobacteria are rare and can develop very slowly. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of M. xenopi discitis with secondary extension to the sacroiliac joint in an immunocompetent patient.
This report describes a first case due to a genetically distinct and relatively rare "Beijing-like" strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from a 15 years old female patient who died shortly after the initiation of antituberculous therapy with second-line drugs. Positive cultures obtained from lung, kidney and adrenal glands upon autopsy were identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex characterized by an identical 15-banded IS6110-RFLP pattern, and were found to be resistant to all the 4 first-line antituberculous drugs tested (rifampin, isoniazid, ethambutol and streptomycin). Spoligotyping followed by comparison with the SITVIT2 database revealed that the isolate belonged to a rare pattern identified as Spoligotype International Type SIT190, which represents only 1.7% of all the Beijing strains worldwide. We present data on its worldwide distribution and present an evolutionary scenario based on available MIRU typing data.
In 1995, 463 patients were admitted in the medical service of Perugia (Sanitary District n. 6). Only 20% of them were enrolled in the TBC programme. Mantoux was: < 10 mm in 35%, 10-15 mm in 25%, > 15 mm in 40%. Chest Rx in 30 subjects demonstrated: normality in 19; old TBC in 7, active TBC in 4 (miliary, bilateral upper lobe pneumonitis, left subapical upper lobe pneumonitis and right lobitis of the upper lobe). All patients were admitted in hospital and showed positive sputum culture for Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. They were treated with isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol/streptomycin for 2 months and with isoniazid, rifampin for other 4-8 months. Two patients showed Mycobacterium tuberculosis with isoniazid resistance. Seven patients were treated with isoniazid chemoprophylaxis without side effects. Migrants should receive information about health care service and be encourage to register themselves with a general practitioner. Skin test screening and chest radiographs for those with positive results should be provided at a convenient location.
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The frequency of nontuberculous mycobacteria pulmonary disease in HIV-negative patients is increasing; the most common pathogen in Korea is the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). However, few studies have evaluated the treatment outcome of MAC pulmonary disease in Korea.