A retrospective cohort study was conducted, involving women who delivered live-born singletons (N = 21 914) at the WCH between January 2004 and December 2008. Women dispensed domperidone were identified using WCH pharmacy dispensing records. Maternal and infant clinical data were obtained from the WCH Perinatal Statistics Collection. Relationships between maternal/infant demographic and clinical variables and the use of domperidone were examined through univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses.
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Ten patients with Parkinson's disease and urinary symptoms underwent urodynamic assessments before and after subcutaneous administration of the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine. Voiding efficiency improved after apomorphine injection, with an increase in mean and maximum flow rates in nine patients and reduction in post-micturition residual volume in six. Although the effect on detrusor behaviour was variable, subcutaneous apomorphine may be of use in both the assessment and treatment of voiding dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease.
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A case is reported of neoplastic TSH hypersecretion in a 62-year-old man with severe hyperthyroidism and cardiovascular disease. He had been known to be hyperthyroid for 14 yr, and had been treated by thyreostatic drugs and subtotal thyroidectomy without satisfactory results. When he was referred to our Center, he was frankly hyperthyroid with both TSH (14 microU/ml) and thyroid hormone serum levels (TT4 24 micrograms/dl, TT3 370 ng/dl, FT41 7.9) above the normal range. alpha-subunit serum level was markedly increased (7.2 ng/ml), while beta-subunit was only 0.3 ng/ml. Skull X-ray showed an enlarged sella turcica with destruction of the dorsum and an intrasellar tumor was visualized on conventional and computer tomography. TSH response was absent after TRH and domperidone, while TSH serum levels decreased by 25% after bromocriptine. Methimazole therapy temporarily decreased serum thyroid hormones to normal levels, while TSH levels rose to 34 microU/ml, thus indicating that pituitary-thyroid feed-back was maintained at a higher set point. Surgical attempt failed because of cardiac problems during anesthesia. Radiotherapy plus methimazole was begun and TSH serum levels first increased markedly, up to 140 microU/ml, and then progressively decreased without reaching normal values. After methimazole withdrawal hyperthyroidism recurred.
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Symptom scores, stool data, and the transit of a standard, solid meal were measured in 25 patients with irritable bowel syndrome during baseline conditions and after four weeks treatment with placebo and domperidone in the form of a double-blind cross-over trial. All patients had previously undergone a comprehensive series of diagnostic investigations and had failed to respond to dietary supplementation with coarse wheat bran (10-30 g daily). Compared with placebo treatment, domperidone had no significant effect on gastric emptying, small bowel or whole gut transit times, stool weight, frequency, or consistency. Most symptoms improved significantly with both placebo and domperidone treatments, compared with the baseline period, but there was no significant difference between placebo and domperidone for any of the symptoms. Abdominal distension, however, was reported on more days per week during domperidone treatment (p = 0.02). The findings in this study do not support the use of domperidone in the management of irritable bowel syndrome.
In Langendorff perfused rabbit hearts, domperidone significantly prolonged the action potential duration starting at 30 nM. It induced proarrhythmic TRIaD from 100 nM on. Since therapeutic free drug concentrations extend to 19 nM, the safety ratio for domperidone equals 100/19 = 5.25, i.e., far below the minimum safety ratio of 30. Hence, widespread use of domperidone cannot be without danger; especially since it is frequently used as an over the counter medication.
Prospective randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of self- or parent-administered drug treatments in children (under 18 years of age) who had received a diagnosis of migraine were included.
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We applied the Caco-2VCR cells to a 96-well plate-based calcein AM extrusion assay. The Caco-2VCR cells were cultured as monolayers and incubated with calcein AM with/without addition of Pgp modulators. Fourteen known Pgp modulators were tested in the assay (chloropromazine, cyclosporin A, domperidone, digoxin, ivermectin, ketoconazole, loperamide, metoprolol, propranolol, progesterone, quinidine, quinine, verapamil and vincristine). For each compound an EC50 value was calculated. Protein and mRNA levels of the efflux transporters were analysed by Western blot and polymerase chain reaction techniques.
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In nonrestrained dogs that had not been given chemicals and that were in the fasted and fed state, gastroesophageal sphincter pressure (GESP) was measured; results were compared with GESP induced in the same dogs by drugs that modified activity at cholinergic, adrenergic, histaminic, and gastrin receptors. Atropine reduced GESP from 38.5 +/- 1.3 (mean +/- SE) and 55.5 +/- 2.0 mm of Hg to 11.3 +/- 2.0 and 14.5 +/- 2.4 mm of Hg in fasted and fed dogs, respectively. Histamine induced phasic contractions that were not affected by anticholinergics or cimetidine. Iphenhydramine eliminated the phasic contractions and reduced GESP to 18.2 +/- 3.9 mm of Hg. In fed dogs, diphenhydramine reduced GESP to 37.0 +/- 2.5 mm of Hg, but cimetidine did not. Pentagastrin induced increases in GESP that were inversely related to basal GESP. Pentagastrin given during histamine infusion eliminated histamine-induced phasic contractions. In fed dogs, metoclopramide increased GESP from 48.8 +/- 4.0 mm of Hg to 76.0 +/- 4.0 mm of Hg; this increment was eliminated by diphenhydramine. Administration of atropine after metoclopramide reduced GESP the same as for dogs given atropine alone. An adrenergic amine with only alpha-adrenergic effects induced phasic contractions, and an adrenergic amine with only beta-adrenergic effects reduced GESP. Blockers of alpha and beta effects did not change GESP in fed dogs. Domperidone induced phasic contractions that were eliminated by feeding. Serotonin increased GESP. Canine GESP may be maintained in fed dogs by chemicals interacting with cholinergic, histaminic, gastrin, and serotonin receptors, but not by chemicals interacting with adrenergic receptors.
Intestinal motility is regulated by several neurotransmitters and neuropeptides including dopamine and acetylcholine as well as ghrelin. Metoclopramide and domperidone are long-standing treatment options for dysmotility, and erythromycin is suggested in selected patients. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of mentioned prokinetics on ghrelin levels.
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The completion rate (CR) of small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) has been reported at 81.3% to 84.8%. Prokinetic agents are used to increase CR and (theoretically) diagnostic yield (DY). Domperidone has not been widely used in SBCE; unlike metoclopramide, it lacks extrapyramidal adverse effects.
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Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine whether prolactin (PRL) could exert a negative feedback on it's own secretion during pregnancy and following ovariectomy, and to determine the possible mechanism by which this feedback acts. Implantation of ovine PRL into the arcuate nucleus-median eminence area of the hypothalamus completely inhibited the nocturnal PRL surge during pregnancy in the rat, and lowered baseline PRL to almost undetectable levels in the ovariectomized rat. When ovariectomized rats implanted with ovine PRL in the hypothalamus were injected with the dopamine receptor blocker domperidone the PRL response was significantly lower than in control rats implanted with albumin. Pregnancy increased the ability of domperidone to cause PRL release following ovine PRL implantation compared to what occurred in ovariectomized rats. These results suggest that PRL implantation increases the secretion of dopamine from the tuberoinfundibular neurons, resulting in a decrease in PRL secretion.
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A standardized protocol using subcutaneous apomorphine and rectal domperidone was used in two PD patients who underwent abdominal surgery. Excellent control of parkinsonian symptomatology was obtained without side effects. The simplicity of the protocol was emphasized in our second patient who required urgent reoperation; the surgery nursing staff was able to restart the apomorphine immediately without having to wait for neurological follow-up assessment.
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The curative group had better effects than the control group in lowering the blood sugar and the level of 5-HT(2A)R content (P < 0.01). And there was significant difference between the curative group and control group (P < 0.05).
The effects of intravenous infusions of dopamine (0.1 to 1 mg kg-1h-1) and bromocriptine (10 to 40 micrograms kg-1h-1) on colonic motility were investigated in fasted dogs fitted with permanent strain gauges on the ascending, transverse and descending colon. Infused at rates of 0.5 and 1 mg kg-1h-1 during 1 h, dopamine immediately stimulated the motility of the descending colon; after a delay of 40 to 60 min this effect was balanced by an inhibition of the motility of the ascending and transverse colon. Bromocriptine infused intravenously at doses of 10 to 40 micrograms kg-1h-1 stimulated the motility of the whole colon but these effects were limited to the duration of the infusion (60 min). Both propranolol (0.5 mg kg-1) and tolazoline (2 mg kg-1) failed to block the effects of dopamine and bromocriptine whereas phentolamine (0.1 mg kg-1) and prazosin (0.2 mg kg-1) partially reduced the inhibitory effects of dopamine on the proximal colon. Haloperidol at doses higher than 0.2 mg kg-1 and domperidone blocked the bromocriptine-induced stimulation of colonic motility which was unaffected by previous treatment with alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor blocking agents. These results suggest that in the dog, dopamine and bromocriptine stimulate colonic motility through specific dopamine receptors. However, they suggest that the inhibitory effects of dopamine on the proximal colon which are blocked by dopamine antagonists are also partially due to an effect on alpha 1-adrenoceptors.
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Periodic breathing (PB) is an instability of the respiratory control system believed to be mediated principally by the peripheral chemoreceptors. We hypothesised that domperidone, a dopamine D(2)-receptor antagonist that increases carotid body sensitivity to O(2) and CO(2), would promote PB through an increase in the loop gain (LG) of the respiratory control system. Domperidone significantly increased controller gain for oxygen (p<0.05) and gave rise, following post-hyperventilation apnea, to an increased incidence of PB (14% vs. 86%), an increased PB epoch duration, and a decrease in duty ratio of PB (p<0.001); these changes are consistent with domperidone increasing LG. Although domperidone increased controller gain for CO(2) (p<0.05), the contribution of Pa(CO)(2) oscillations to the genesis of PB in the lamb remained small. We conclude that domperidone increases LG in the lamb via an increase in controller gain for oxygen. Our study demonstrates that a quantitative understanding of the factors that determine LG provides insight into the cause of PB.
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Ventilatory acclimatization to sustained hypoxia (VASH) is the time-dependent increase in ventilation that occurs during prolonged exposure to hypoxia. We tested the hypothesis that carotid body (CB) dopaminergic mechanisms are down-regulated during VASH, which would allow CB afferent discharge and ventilation to increase beyond the initial response to hypoxia. Domperidone (DOM; 1.0 mg.kg-1) was administered intravenously to block CB dopamine (DA) receptors after VASH was complete in awake goats. DOM caused a significant augmentation of the ventilatory response to hypoxia in acclimatized goats, failing to support the hypothesis. We conclude that inhibitory CB dopaminergic function is not significantly reduced following prolonged hypoxia, and that down-regulation of CB dopaminergic mechanisms may not be involved in VASH in the goat.
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A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for determining domperidone in human plasma. The analyte and internal standard (IS; mosapride) were isolated from plasma samples by protein precipitation with methanol (containing 0.1% formic acid). The chromatographic separation was performed on an Xterra MS C(18) Column (2.1 x 150 mm, 5.0 microm) with a gradient programme mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.30 mL/min. The total run time was 4.0 min. The analyses were carried out by multiple reaction monitoring using the parent-to-daughter combinations m/z 426 --> 175 and m/z 422 --> 198 (IS). The areas of peaks from the analyte and IS were used for quantification of domperidone. The method was validated according to the FDA guidelines on bioanalytical method validation. Validation results indicated that the lower limit of quantification was 0.2 ng/mL, and the assay exhibited a linear range of 0.2-60.0 ng/mL and gave a correlation coefficient (r(2)) of 0.999 or better. Quality control samples (0.4, 0.8, 15 and 50 ng/mL) in six replicates from three different analytical runs demonstrated an intra-assay precision (RSD) 4.43-6.26%, an inter-assay precision 5.25-7.45% and an overall accuracy (relative error) of <6.92%. The method can be applied to pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence studies of domperidone.
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The goal of this study was to determine whether the dopamine D3 receptor in limbic structures plays a role in the shell-specific and dopamine-dependent display of turning behaviour in rats. When combined with the dopamine D1 receptor agonist (+/-)-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1 H-3-benzazepine-7,8-diol (SKF-38393, 5 micrograms), the putative dopamine D3 receptor agonist (+/-)-7-hydroxy-N,N-di-n-propyl-2-aminotetralin (7-OH-DPAT, 1, 5 and 10 micrograms) elicited contralateral turning in a dose-dependent manner following unilateral injection into the shell, but not the core, of the nucleus accumbens. The turning pattern displayed was identical to that reported previously after intra-accumbens administration of the cocktail of SKF-38393 and the dopamine D2 receptor agonist quinpirole. The behaviour under study was dose-dependently attenuated by local administration of the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist R(+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3- methyl-I-phroyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine (SCH 23390: 10 and 100 ng), the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist domperidone (25 and 50 ng) or the dopamine D2/3 receptor antagonist l-sulpiride (5 and 25 ng). Combined blockade of both dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the shell with a dose of either antagonist alone that produced just a moderate reduction (10 ng SCH 23390 and 50 ng domperidone) completely antagonized the turning behaviour elicited by the cocktail of SKF-38393 and 7-OH-DPAT. Replacing 7-OH-DPAT by another putative dopamine D3 receptor agonist,S(+)-(4aR, 10bR)-3,4,4a,10b-tetrahydro-4-propyl-2H,5H-benzopyrano[4, 3-b]-1, 4-oxazin-9-ol (PD 128,907, 10 micrograms), in the cocktail did produce no turning behaviour at all. It is concluded that mesolimbic dopamine D3 receptors play no role in the dopamine-dependent and shell-specific turning behaviour: the contribution of 7-OH-DPAT in the cocktail of SKF-38393 and 7-OH-DPAT to the display of turning behaviour is solely due to its ability to activate dopamine D2 receptors.
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Swallowing disorders are common in Parkinson's disease but are of obscure and complex nature and pathophysiology. The effect of central dopaminergic stimulation on disordered swallowing is not well known. We studied the effects of apomorphine (in combination with domperidone) on buccolinguofacial motoricity and on various swallowing stages by using videofluoroscopy in eight patients with dysphagia. Swallowing abnormalities more frequently encountered were vallecular stasis (n = 7), fragmentation of the bolus (n = 7), and buccal stagnation of the bolus. Apomorphine improved vallecular stasis and fragmentation in about half the cases and improved buccal stagnation in all cases. Direct laryngeal penetration was found in three cases and improved in two of them. The total swallowing duration was improved by apomorphine in a subset of patients (n = 5). This improvement correlated with an improvement of the buccolinguofacial motoricity and was combined with an improvement of pharyngeal transit time. Thus central dopaminergic stimulation by apomorphine improved swallowing in a subgroup of patients, mainly in its early stages.
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Gastroparesis is a disorder of gastric emptying that occurs in the absence of mechanical obstruction. Its cardinal features include nausea, vomiting, bloating, early satiety and discomfort. Weight loss, dehydration, electrolyte disturbances and malnutrition may develop in severe cases. The majority of cases is idiopathic, long standing diabetes mellitus is responsible for about 25-30% of cases. Diabetic gastroparesis may render glucose control extremely difficult, its treatment represents a major challenge. Besides frequent, small meals and psychological support, several drug options are available, however, their efficacy is limited and only a few randomized studies have been performed to date. Prokinetic agents (erythromycin, domperidone, metoclopramide) and antiemetics (phenothiazines, serotonin antagonists, butyrophenones) are the most wide-spread medicaments. Among the novel, recently developed agents, 5-HT4 serotonin receptor agonists and dopamine D2 receptor antagonists are the most promising. Injection of botulinum toxin into the pyloric sphincter resulted in faster gastric emptying and symptom alleviation in some studies. Gastric electric stimulation appears to be one of the most effective options, both low and high-frequency stimulation may alleviate symptoms. Gastrostomy/jejunostomy and other surgical interventions are considered as "last resort".
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The use of antiemetics for vomiting in acute gastroenteritis in children is still a matter of debate. We conducted a double-blind randomized trial to evaluate whether a single oral dose of ondansetron vs domperidone or placebo improves outcomes in children with gastroenteritis. After failure of initial oral rehydration administration, children aged 1-6 years admitted for gastroenteritis to the pediatric emergency departments of 15 hospitals in Italy were randomized to receive one oral dose of ondansetron (0.15 mg/kg) or domperidone (0.5 mg/kg) or placebo. The primary outcome was the percentage of children receiving nasogastric or intravenous rehydration. A p value of 0.014 was used to indicate statistical significance (and 98.6% CI were calculated) as a result of having carried out two interim analyses. 1,313 children were eligible for the first attempt with oral rehydration solution, which was successful for 832 (63.4%); 356 underwent randomization (the parents of 125 children did not give consent): 118 to placebo, 119 to domperidone, and 119 to ondansetron. Fourteen (11.8%) needed intravenous rehydration in the ondansetron group vs 30 (25.2%) and 34 (28.8%) in the domperidone and placebo groups, respectively. Ondansetron reduced the risk of intravenous rehydration by over 50%, both vs placebo (RR 0.41, 98.6% CI 0.20-0.83) and domperidone (RR 0.47, 98.6% CI 0.23-0.97). No differences for adverse events were seen among groups. In a context of emergency care, 6 out of 10 children aged 1-6 years with vomiting due to gastroenteritis and without severe dehydration can be managed effectively with administration of oral rehydration solution alone. In children who fail oral rehydration, a single oral dose of ondansetron reduces the need for intravenous rehydration and the percentage of children who continue to vomit, thereby facilitating the success of oral rehydration. Domperidone was not effective for the symptomatic treatment of vomiting during acute gastroenteritis.
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Hyperprolactinaemia, as induced by pituitary homografts under the kidney capsule, was accompanied by an inhibition of development of gastric ulcers following the application of cold-plus-restraint stress in male rats. This effect was mimicked by intracisternal administration of a low dose of the hormone. Peripheral injection of the dopamine receptor antagonist, domperidone, also inhibited the development of stress-induced ulcers. However, no effect was found after peripheral injection of another dopamine receptor antagonist, haloperidol. This latter drug appeared to antagonize the cytoprotective effect of prolactin (PRL) on stress-induced ulcers. Furthermore, peripheral injection of the prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor, indomethacin, increased the incidence of gastric ulcers in hyperprolactinaemic rats subjected to cold -plus-restraint stress. These data suggest that the cytoprotective effect of PRL on development of gastric ulcers in stressed animals may involve both central (i.e. dopamine transmission) and peripheral (i.e. prostaglandin synthesis) mechanisms.
At T0 no statistical difference was found for each symptom between medical device and domperidone. At T1 both treatments significantly improved in respect to baseline values all the evaluated gastrointestinal symptoms (P<0.5 for all comparisons) except for vomiting. No difference in gastrointestinal symptoms between the two treatments was found at T1. Regarding SF-36 evaluation, at T0 no statistical differences were found for each SF-36 parameter between the two regimens. At T1 both treatments significantly improved most of the evaluated SF-36 parameters in respect to baseline values. No difference in SF-36 parameters between the two treatments was found at T1.
The present investigation was undertaken with the objective of formulating mouth dissolving film(s) of the antiemetic drug Domperidone to enhance the convenience and compliance by the elderly and pediatric patients. Domperidone is a drug of choice in case of nausea and vomiting produced by chemotherapy, migraine headaches, food poisoning and viral infections. It causes dopamine (D2 and D3) receptor blockage both at the chemoreceptor trigger zone and at the gastric level. It shows high first pass metabolism which results in poor bioavailability (10-15%). In view of high first pass metabolism and short plasma half-life it is an ideal candidate for rapid release drug delivery system. The solid dispersions of Domperidone were prepared with the use β-cyclodextrin in various ratios (1:1, 1:2, 1:3) and solubility study was performed to determine the ratio in which solubility of Domperidone was highest (1:3). The selected solid dispersions were then utilized for the preparation of film by solvent casting method utilizing HPMC E15 as a film forming agent and PEG-400 as plasticizer. Five formulae were prepared and were evaluated for their in vitro dissolution characteristics, in vitro disintegration time, and their physico-mechanical properties. The promising film (F1) showed the greatest drug dissolution (more than 75% within 15 min), satisfactory in vitro disintegration time (45 sec) and physico-mechanical properties that are suitable for mouth dissolving films.
The study was completed by 22 women in the domperidone group and 23 in the placebo group. Compared with day 0, mean increases in milk volume per participant collected on days 1, 2, 3, and 4 were significantly higher in the domperidone (13.6 ± 23.2 mL, 68.5 ± 71.9 mL, 144.5 ± 122.3 mL, and 191.3 ± 136.1 mL) than in the placebo (2.5 ± 4.6 mL, 24.5 ± 26.5 mL, 72.1 ± 55.6 mL, and 91.4 ± 60.3 mL) group. Minor adverse effects were reported by 7 women in the domperidone group.
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Induced spawning of C. batrachus was conducted at different Ovaprim dose and latency period combinations to observe the deformed larvae among the hatchlings. For the purpose, four doses of Ovaprim (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 ml/kg body weight) and five latency periods (11, 14, 17, 20 and 23 hr) were considered in 20 different combinations. There were no deformed larvae in the females injected with all four doses and stripped at 11 hr latency, as the eggs did not hatch. The percentage of deformed larvae (4-7%) did not vary significantly at 1.0-2.0 ml dose level in combination with 14-17 hr latency periods. While increasing the latency period beyond 17 hr at 1-1.5 ml dose level, the percentage of deformed larvae increased significantly and touched as high as 11%. The results indicated that 1-1.5 ml dose in combination with 14-17 hr latency are suitable to reduce the deformed larvae among the hatchlings during induced spawning of C. batrachus.
Systemic administration of apomorphine, angiotensin II, neurotensin and leucine-enkephalin induces emesis in dogs in a dose-dependent fashion. Receptors for Leu-enkephalin and angiotensin II but not apomorphine show receptor desensitization, such that a second systemic administration 5 min after the first is ineffective. Domperidone blocked the emetic response to apomorphine but not to Leu-enkephalin or angiotensin II. Naloxone selectively blocked the Leu-enkephalin response, while saralasin blocked responses to both angiotensin II and Leu-enkephalin, but not apomorphine. Chlorpromazine prevented the emetic response to all agents, suggesting a dopamine receptor in the emetic pathway on the brain side of the blood-brain barrier. In dogs with ablation of the area postrema the emetic response to apomorphine and all peptides was prevented.
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Intravenous (i.v.) infusions of SCH 23390 (R-(+)-8-chloro-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-3-methyl-5-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine-7- ol) produced dose-related antagonism of dopamine (DA)-induced renal vasodilation in phenoxybenzamine-treated dogs at infusion rates of 0.05, 0.15, and 0.5 microgram/kg/min. The highest rate of infusion, 0.5 microgram/kg/min, resulted in pronounced antagonism of this DA1-receptor-mediated response. In contrast, a 10 times higher infusion rate, 5 micrograms/kg/min, did not antagonize the following DA2-mediated responses: increase in femoral blood flow produced by apomorphine and piribedil in untreated dogs; and N,N-di-n-propyl DA (DPDA)-induced inhibition of the tachycardia produced by cardiac accelerator nerve stimulation. Infusions of 0.5 micrograms/kg/min or greater of SCH 23390 did not affect the actions of agonists of alpha1-, alpha2-, beta1-, and beta2-adrenergic, histamine, serotonin, and cholinergic receptors, or the vasodilation produced by bradykinin. At the infusion rates used in these studies, SCH 23390 did not affect arterial blood pressure or heart rate. These data indicate that SCH 23390 is the most specific and selective antagonist of DA1 receptors thus far described. Accordingly, SCH 23390 should be extremely useful in investigations of potential physiological and pathological roles of DA and in the classification of DA receptors.
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Modulation of the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) by dopamine D(2)-receptors (D(2)-R) in the carotid body (CB) and central nervous system (CNS) are hypothesized to contribute to ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia. We tested this with blockade of D(2)-R in the CB or CNS in conscious rats after 0, 2 and 8 days of hypoxia. On day 0, CB D(2)-R blockade significantly increased VI and frequency (fR) in hyperoxia (FI(O(2))=0.30), but not hypoxia (FI(O(2))=0.10). CNS D(2)-R blockade significantly decreased fR in hypoxia only. On day 2, neither CB nor CNS D(2)-R blockade affected VI or fR. On day 8, CB D(2)-R blockade significantly increased hypoxic VI and fR. CNS D(2)-R blockade significantly decreased hypoxic VI and fR. CB and CNS D(2)-R modulation of the HVR decreased after 2 days of hypoxia, but reappeared after 8 days. Changes in the opposing effects of CB and CNS D(2)-R on the HVR during chronic hypoxia cannot completely explain ventilatory acclimatization in rats.
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The objective of the present experiments was to determine the specific receptor subtype through which dopamine (DA) receptor agonists relax the lower esophageal sphincter in vitro. Opossum lower esophageal sphincter smooth muscle strips were placed in oxygenated Krebs' solution containing propranolol and cocaine. The tissues were placed at a tension that gave maximum relaxation to electrical field stimulation and were then pretreated with phenoxybenzamine. The effects of DA, and the DA receptor agonists epinine and apomorphine were determined. In addition, agonist responses were studied in the presence of the selective DA2 receptor antagonist domperidone, a mixed DA1/DA2 receptor antagonist metoclopramide, and the selective DA1 receptor antagonists bulbocapnine and SK&F 83566. The DA agonists relaxed the smooth muscle strips in the following order of potency: DA greater than epinine greater than apomorphine. Domperidone did not antagonize DA- or apomorphine-induced relaxation. Metoclopramide failed to alter DA-induced relaxation. Bulbocapnine and SK&F 83566 significantly inhibited the relaxation induced by DA. These data indicate that DA-induced lower esophageal sphincter relaxation in vitro is mediated by DA1 receptors.
The in vitro dopamine-D2 receptor binding profiles of two substituted benzamides (3H-sulpride and 3H-raclopride) and two butyrophenones (3H-spiperone and 3H-domperidone) were compared. 3H-Raclopride, 3H-domperidone and 3H-sulpride labelled approximately the same number of binding sites in the rat striatum, while 3H-spiperone labelled a higher number of binding sites. This latter finding was suggested to be due to the labelling of 5-HT2 receptors in addition to the dopamine-D2 binding sites since the labelling of these 5-HT2 receptors with 3H-spiperone could be avoided by the addition of the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist ketanserin. The inhibition constants (Ki) of the unlabelled compounds were similar to the Kd values obtained in the saturation analyses with 3H-raclopride, 3H-domperidone and 3H-sulpiride but were significantly higher when 3H-spiperone was used as radioligand. Addition of ketanserin to 3H-spiperone made the Ki values more similar to those obtained with the other radioligands. The implications of these findings in testing antidopaminergic activity is discussed.
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Evidence is presented that a low dose of peripherally administered N,N-dipropylamino-5,6-dihydroxytetralin (DiPr-5,6-ADTN) specifically labels dopamine (DA) receptors in rat brain. Concentrations of this potent DA receptor agonist were determined by a highly selective method using reversed phase liquid chromatography and amperometric detection. The binding characteristics satisfy all criteria regarding saturability, stereospecificity, regional distribution and relation with pharmacological effects that are associated with DA receptor interactions. A rough estimation of the density of binding sites in the striatum resulted in values of 60-70 pmol/g. Lesioning the nigrostriatal pathway does not significantly alter the amount of ligand bound, nor do pretreatments with serotonergic, alpha-adrenergic or beta-adrenergic antagonists. DiPr-5,6-ADTN has thus been shown to be a useful ligand for labeling central DA receptors and a powerful tool in the study of DA-ergic mechanisms.
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The goal of this study was to determine whether the dopamine D3 receptor in limbic structures plays a role in the shell-specific and dopamine-dependent display of jaw movements in rats. When combined with the dopamine D1 receptor agonist (+/-)-6-chloro-7,8-dihydroxy-3-allyl-1- phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1 H-3-benzazepine (SKF 82958, 5 micrograms), the putative dopamine D3 receptor agonist (+/-)-7-hydroxy-N, N-di-n-propyl-2-aminotetralin (7-OH-DPAT, 10 micrograms) produced repetitive jaw movements following injection into the shell, but not the core, of the nucleus accumbens. This behaviour was only partially inhibited by local blockade of dopamine D1 receptors (R(+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1 H-3-benzazepine, SCH 23390, 500 ng), dopamine D2 receptors (domperidone, 50 and 100 ng) or dopamine D2/3 receptors (l-sulpiride, 25 ng). Combined blockade of both dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the shell completely antagonized the jaw movements elicited by the cocktail of SKF 82958 and 7-OH-DPAT. Replacing 7-OH-DPAT by another putative dopamine D3 receptor agonist, S(+)-(4aR, 10bR)-3,4,4a,10b-tetrahydro-4-propyl-2H,5H-[I]benzopyrano[4, 3-b]-1, 4-oxazin-9-ol (PD 128,907, 10 micrograms), in the cocktail did not produce jaw movements, when administered into the shell. Injection of the cocktail of SKF 82958 and 7-OH-DPAT into the ventrolateral striatum, which contains nearly no dopamine D3 receptors, also elicited jaw movements. It is concluded that mesolimbic dopamine D3 receptors play no role in the dopamine-dependent and shell-specific jaw movements: the contribution of 7-OH-DPAT in the cocktail of SKF 82958 and 7-OH-DPAT to the display of jaw movements is solely due to its ability to activate dopamine D2 receptors.
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Inflammatory edema was induced by carrageenan in male rats, and hyperprolactinemia was induced by injections of the dopamine receptor antagonist domperidone. The volume of inflammatory edema was measured by plethysmography after carrageenan injection. Additionally, the effects of hyperprolactinemia on body weight and serum corticosterone levels were evaluated.