Ten normal subjects and 22 obese subjects were studied. Normal controls were within 10% of their ideal body weight. Obese subjects had a body mass index of 37.1 +/- 1.1 (mean +/- SEM).
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None of the therapeutic regimens applied demonstrated any advantage over the others. All three regimens used were found to be effective and should be applied depending on the circumstances prevailing. Patients with myasthenic crisis must undergo careful cardiac monitoring, and temporary pace-making should be provided where clinically indicated.
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An 18-year-old-woman developed symptoms of generalized myasthenia gravis (MG). Antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor were found in her serum, but electrodiagnostic testing showed abnormalities typical of the Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS). Following thymectomy, the thymus gland showed thymic hyperplasia typical of MG, and the patient responded to treatment with 3,4-diaminopyridine and pyridostigmine. There have been few reports in the literature of MG and LEMS coexisting in the same patient. In this case, electrodiagnostic tests, antibody studies, thymus pathology, and response to treatment suggest that both disorders contributed to the patient's symptoms. Thymic hyperplasia, so far only known to be associated with MG, provides strong evidence that both diseases were symptomatic.
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The acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, pyridostigmine, is prophylactically administered to mitigate the toxic effects of nerve gas poisoning. The authors tested the hypothesis that prolonged pyridostigmine administration can lead to neuromuscular dysfunction and even down-regulation of acetylcholine receptors.
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Fifty-six patients scheduled for thyroidectomy or parotidectomy were included in this study and randomized into two groups. At the start of skin suturing, the desflurane concentration was adjusted to 4.2 vol% in both groups. Following this, the pyridostigmine group (group P, n = 28) was administered pyridostigmine 0.2 mg/kg mixed with glycopyrrolate 0.04 mg/kg, while the control group (group C, n = 28) received normal saline. Entropy values (response entropy [RE] and state entropy [SE]), train of four (TOF) ratio, and end-tidal desflurane concentration were recorded from point of drug administration to 15 minutes post-drug administration.
Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass graft operations have, to date, displayed a higher rate of early graft failure than conventional coronary artery bypass procedures using extracorporeal technology. Construction of the coronary artery anastomosis on a beating heart versus a quiescent heart is likely an important factor in this difference between the two approaches. Controlled intermittent asystole induced by vagal stimulation to give transient nonchemically induced asystole for brief intervals sufficient for placement of coronary artery sutures might improve the precision of minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass graft anastomoses and reduce graft failure while increasing the technical ease of operation.
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Large community hospital.
Ocular myasthenia gravis is a localized form of myasthenia in which only the extra-ocular muscles are clinically affected, namely the levator palpebrae superioris and orbicularis oculi. Two years after onset of the ocular condition, it became generalized in 44-53% of the patients.
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These data confirm that subjects with IDDM have reduced serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 and increased IGFBP-1 levels, the latter being directly related to the fasting plasma glucose concentrations. The absence of any relation between changes in the IGF-I system and altered GH neuroregulation after cholinergic modulation suggests that changes in IGF-I are not the sole contributors to the altered GH neuroregulation which occurs in IDDM. We have also shown an acute stimulatory effect of pirenzepine on serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in normal subjects which is not present in IDDM although the underlying mechanisms is unknown.
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The "antidotal effectiveness" of several bispyridinium compounds (HGG 12, HGG 65, HGG 70, HI 6, HLö and HLö 12) against the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor pyridostigmine was evaluated in isolated superior cervical ganglia of the rat. Compound action potential amplitudes were inhibited by pyridostigmine in a concentration-dependent manner. HI 6 and atropine proved to be the most effective compounds in antagonizing the "ganglion blocking" action of pyridostigmine. Their relative effectiveness (PE value) was 5.4 and 4.2, respectively. All of the six bispyridinium compounds inhibited carbachol-induced, nicotinic, ganglionic surface depolarizations. The antinicotinic potencies of HI 6 and HLö 7 were about one order of magnitude lower (apparent KI values: 294 and 330 mumol/l) than the antinicotinic potencies of HGG 12, HGG 65, HGG 70 and HLö 12 (apparent KI values ranging from 19 to 41 mumol/l). The antinicotinic potencies of the bispyridinium compounds did not correlate with their in vitro protection of synaptic transmission in sympathetic ganglia. Moreover, the effectiveness of atropine points to the importance of antimuscarinic properties of possible "antidotes" for the maintenance of ganglionic transmission in cases of AChE poisoning.
Huperzine A is potentially superior to pyridostigmine bromide as a pretreatment for nerve agent intoxication because it inhibits acetylcholinesterase both peripherally and centrally, unlike pyridostigmine, which acts only peripherally. Using rhesus monkeys, we evaluated the time course of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibition following four different doses of -(-)huperzine A: 5, 10, 20, and 40 microg/kg. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition peaked 30 min after intramuscular injection and varied dose dependently, ranging from about 30% to 75%. Subsequently, cognitive-behavioral functioning was also evaluated at each dose of huperzine A using a six-item serial-probe recognition task that assessed attention, motivation, and working memory. Huperzine did not impair performance, but physostigmine did. The results demonstrate that huperzine A can selectively and reversibly inhibit acetylcholinesterase without cognitive-behavioral side effects, thus warranting further study.
Pharmacologically potentiated electrical stimulation of the right vagus nerve achieves controlled intermittent asystole cardiac therapy. The present study examined pathophysiologic consequences of repetitive intermittent asystoles on contractile function, myocardial blood flow, and vagus nerve function and morphology.
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A retrospective review of pregnancy in patients with myasthenia gravis at Duke University was conducted. Twelve new cases of pregnancy in eight myasthenic mothers are reported. In general, thymectomy was the primary treatment modality in these patients and preceded the gestational period in all cases. The clinical course of myasthenia gravis in these pregnancies prompted a literature review of previous case reports. Comparison of clinical symptomatology, course of disease, and maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality revealed that the incidence of clinical exacerbation was less in the thymectomy than in the nonthymectomy group. The role of the thymus in the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis is reviewed. The rationale for the use and timing of thymectomy in the treatment of the myasthenic patient is presented. This review supports the continued use of thymectomy for the initial treatment of the young, nonpregnant myasthenic female patient.
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In patients with myasthenia gravis, vigorous exercise and electric stimulation produce weakness that is usually reversed by rest. We describe a case of persistent weakness in a 31-year-old woman with myasthenia gravis following therapeutic electric stimulation. She was injured in an automobile accident, with cervical and lumbar muscle strain diagnosed by a local emergency room physician. She consulted a chiropractor two days later because her symptoms had not abated. The chiropractic treatment of short-wave diathermy, high-voltage electric stimulation and spinal manipulation continued thrice weekly for six weeks. She then presented to her neurologist, complaining of persistent fatigue, weakness, increased diplopia, cervical and occipital pain, and disrupted sleep. Neck weakness had developed since her last visit. She was admitted to the hospital for evaluation. Neurologic exam showed no other abnormality of strength, sensation, or reflexes. The exacerbation of myasthenia responded to prednisone and increased pyridostigmine. After two months she required only her preinjury dose of pyridostigmine (60 mg q.d. p.r.n.) to prevent diplopia or fatigue, and her strength was normal. Repeated electrically induced muscle contraction is suspected of causing this exacerbation of myasthenia gravis.
A procedure is presented for the unique isolation and determination by liquid chromatography of pyridostigmine and its metabolites in urine and blood. Isolation is accomplished by an extension of paired-ion theory using a reversed-phase chromatographic column. The assay of pyridostigmine is linear in concentrations from 40 to 5000 ng/ml. Separation and quantitation of pyridostigmine and metabolites in urine and blood are rapid. An analysis can be performed in 15 min. The method has been applied to the determination of urinary excretion and plasma levels of pyridostigmine administered intramuscularly in rats and to the isolation of acetylcholine, neostigmine, and edrophonium from aqueous solutions.
We determined the pyridostigmine prescription pattern in a population of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG).
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In normal adults, repeated GHRH administration leads to progressively decreasing somatotrope responses. To verify whether this GH secretory pattern also connotes normal growing children, we have studied the effects of two consecutive (every 120 min) 1 microgram/kg iv GHRH boluses on GH release in normal adults (N = 7, age 23.2-30.6 years) children (N = 6, age 10.4-13.2 years). In the adults, the GH response to the second GHRH bolus (peak, mean +/- SEM; 2.9 +/- 0.8 micrograms/l) was lower (P less than 0.02) than that to the first bolus (15.9 +/- 2.4 micrograms/l). Conversely, in children the GH response to the second GHRH bolus (25.6 +/- 6.3 micrograms/l) overrode the first one (13.6 +/- 6.5 micrograms/l), but this difference did not attain statistical significance. In adults cholinergic enhancement by pyridostigmine, a cholinesterase inhibitor, was previously shown to re-instate, even to potentiate somatotrope responsiveness to consecutive GHRH boluses. Thus, in 5 children GH response to repeated GHRH boluses was retested administering pyridostigmine (60 mg orally) 30 min before the second GHRH bolus. In these subjects, pyridostigmine failed significantly to potentiate the GH responsiveness to the second GHRH bolus (30.3 +/- 4.6 vs 25.0 +/- 7.6 micrograms/l). These data indicate that differently from in adults, in children repeated GHRH administration does not reduce somatotrope responsiveness and that cholinergic enhancement fails to potentiate GH responsiveness to the second GHRH bolus.
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The concept of a barrier system in the brain has existed for nearly a century. The barrier that separates the blood from the cerebral interstitial fluid is defined as the blood-brain barrier, while the one that discontinues the circulation between the blood and cerebrospinal fluid is named the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. Evidence in the past decades suggests that brain barriers are subject to toxic insults from neurotoxic chemicals circulating in blood. The aging process and some disease states render barriers more vulnerable to insults arising inside and outside the barriers. The implication of brain barriers in certain neurodegenerative diseases is compelling, although the contribution of chemical-induced barrier dysfunction in the etiology of any of these disorders remains poorly understood. This review examines what is currently understood about brain barrier systems in central nervous system disorders by focusing on chemical-induced neurotoxicities including those associated with nitrobenzenes, N-methyl-D-aspartate, cyclosporin A, pyridostigmine bromide, aluminum, lead, manganese, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, and 3-nitropropionic acid. Contemporary research questions arising from this growing understanding show enormous promises for brain researchers, toxicologists, and clinicians.
The oral bioavailability of mestinon increases remarkably when administered as mestinon-phospholipid complex.
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The objective of this study is to investigate the risk factors for developing postthymectomy myasthenic crisis in thymoma patients.
Normal coronary arteries: Ninety minutes after three sets of controlled intermittent asystole, LAD blood flow was unchanged from base line (36.6 +/- 4.5 versus 33.0 +/- 4.2 mL/min, p = 0.4), and global left ventricular performance (impedance catheter, end-systolic pressure-volume relations) was similar to baseline (7.4 +/- 1.2 versus 7.2 +/- 1.0 mm Hg/mL, p = 0.1). Left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis model: Ninety minutes after CIA, there were no significant differences versus control animals in regional LAD blood flow (27 +/- 4 versus 29 +/- 5 mL/min, p = 0.4) or fractional shortening of LAD myocardium (sonomicrometry; 6.2% +/- 1.8% versus 5.4% +/- 1.2%, p = 0.1). Vagus nerve conduction and morphology were unchanged from baseline.
Myasthenia gravis (MG) occurs in up to 44% of patients with thymoma. Thirty-three percent of these neoplasms are invasive but extrathoracic disease is rare. Recently, we saw a patient with MG and recurrent, metastasizing mixed lymphoepithelial thymoma, whose disease was resistant to combination chemotherapy and radiotherapy but who responded dramatically to treatment with daily glucocorticoids. Thus, therapy with daily glucocorticoids should be considered in the treatment of invasive or metastatic thymoma associated with MG, including when conventional surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy have failed.
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The mean height in the tall group was 187.7 cm (range 183-197) compared to 163.5 cm (range 160-166) for the short group. No difference existed between groups in the GH response to hypoglycaemia or GHRH with and without pyridostigmine. Area under the curve, pulse number, length and amplitude for spontaneous nocturnal GH secretion showed no significant difference between the tall and short subjects. Serum IGF-I (mean 230.5 +/- 15. 4 vs. 230.6 +/- 18.9 microg/l) did not differ between the groups.
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Hypothesizing that seronegative patients are as sensitive to vecuronium as seropositive patients, we assessed sensitivity in seropositive and seronegative myasthenia gravis (MG) patients and in non-MG patients. They were, indeed, both equally sensitive to vecuronium.
Median age at onset was 26 months. The mean duration of follow-up was 6.5 years (range, 2-15). Presenting signs included ptosis (95%), strabismus (76%), limitation of ductions (17%), and Cogan's lid twitch (76%). The most common form of strabismus was exotropia. Pyridostigmine monotherapy was the initial treatment for all patients. Corticosteroids were added to the therapy for 6 patients. Generalization to systemic disease occurred in 3 patients. Two of those required intravenous immunoglobulin and thymectomy. Complete resolution off of medical therapy occurred in 4 patients. All patients had stabilization of the ocular motor deficits regardless of treatment. Eleven patients were treated for amblyopia; 2 had residual amblyopia.