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Positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/computed tomography (PET-CT) studies with (11)C- or (18)F-labeled choline derivatives are used for PET imaging in glioblastoma patients. However, the nature of the choline transport system in glioblastoma is poorly understood. In this study, we performed a functional characterization of [methyl-(3)H]choline uptake and sought to identify the transporters that mediate choline uptake in the human glioblastoma cell lines A-172 and U-251MG. In addition, we examined the influence of anti-cancer drugs and central nervous system drugs on the transport of [methyl-(3)H]choline. High- and low-affinity choline transport systems were present in A-172 cells, U-251MG cells and astrocytes, and these were Na(+)-independent and pH-dependent. Cell viability in A-172 cells was not affected by choline deficiency. However, cell viability in U-251MG cells was significantly inhibited by choline deficiency. Both A-172 and U-251MG cells have two different choline transporters, choline transporter-like protein 1 (CTL1) and CTL2. In A-172 cells, CTL1 is predominantly expressed, whereas in U-251MG cells, CTL2 is predominantly expressed. Treatment with anti-cancer drugs such as cisplatin, etoposide and vincristine influenced [methyl-(3)H]choline uptake in U-251MG cells, but not A-172 cells. Central nervous system drugs such as imipramine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, reboxetine, citalopram and donepezil did not affect cell viability or [methyl-(3)H]choline uptake. The data presented here suggest that CTL1 and CTL2 are functionally expressed in A-172 and U-251MG cells and are responsible for [methyl-(3)H]choline uptake that relies on a directed H(+) gradient as a driving force. Furthermore, while anti-cancer drugs altered [methyl-(3)H]choline uptake, central nervous system drugs did not affect [methyl-(3)H]choline uptake.
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Numerous neuroimaging studies have suggested that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients had a neurobiological abnormality in the frontal-subcortical circuits. On the other hand, there are distinct differences in the responses to pharmacological treatment among OCD patients. In the present study, we measured the concentration of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), a putative marker of neuronal viability, with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in OCD patients with different pharmacological responses. Participants comprised 20 patients and 26 healthy control subjects. OCD patients were divided into three groups according to the pharmacological response; responders to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) (group A: n=7), responders to SSRI with an atypical antipsychotic (group B: n=8) and non-responders to either SSRI or SSRI with an atypical antipsychotic (group C: n=5). Short echo proton MRS was used to measure NAA concentrations in the anterior cingulate, the left basal ganglia and the left prefrontal lobe of subjects. A significantly lower NAA concentration was observed only in group B compared with control subjects in the anterior cingulate. Our results suggest that a subgroup of OCD patients who respond to an SSRI with an atypical antipsychotic have distinct biological abnormalities in the anterior cingulate.
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This meta analysis provides evidence of the clinical efficacy of venlafaxine in achieving therapeutic response and remission in patients with major depression. Venlafaxine appears more effective than SSRIs, and at least as effective as tricyclic antidepressants, in the treatment of major depressive episode. Venlafaxine appeared more effective than comparators in treatment resistant depression. In addition, venlafaxine effective in reducing relapse when given long term after major depressive episode.
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Fluvoxamine is a new antidepressant which potently and specifically inhibits neuronal reuptake of serotonin. In the absence of other major pharmacological effects it appears that its antidepressant activity stems from facilitation of serotoninergic neurotransmission as a result of reuptake inhibition. Studies suggest that fluvoxamine has overall therapeutic efficacy comparable with that of imipramine and clomipramine in depressive illness. It causes fewer anticholinergic-type and cardiovascular side effects than the tricyclic antidepressants but it is associated with a higher incidence of nausea and vomiting. Elderly patients also respond well to fluvoxamine. Studies are now required to compare fluvoxamine with other second generation antidepressants and to establish whether some types of depressive illness respond more readily to fluvoxamine than other agents. Thus, in patients with depressive illness, fluvoxamine offers a suitable alternative to tricyclic antidepressants and may be especially valuable in patients with concomitant cardiovascular disease, and those unresponsive to or unable to tolerate tricyclic antidepressants.
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In most of the OCD cases analysed, CSF 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and homovanillic acid concentrations do not significantly differ from age-corrected controls. However, a relationship appears to exist between pre-treatment levels of these metabolites and clinical response to drugs acting on the serotonin transporter. Abnormalities in CSF arginine vasopressin, corticotropin-releasing hormone, oxytocin and somatostatin levels have been reported in OCD. Long-term treatment with high-doses of clomipramine, fluvoxamine, and fluoxetine tend to correct these neuropeptide abnormalities.
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The eligible cohort comprised 52,129 patients. Hazard ratios were 1.14 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94-1.38) for bleeding events, 1.03 (95% CI, 0.87-1.21) for ischemic or thromboembolic events, and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.72-1.14) for mortality. Results were consistent across individual component outcomes, different warfarin stabilization periods, and subgroup analyses.
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As shown in 3 short term placebo-controlled trials in patients with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, oral paroxetine 10 to 60 mg/day is significantly more effective than placebo for most variables measuring reduction in panic attack frequency. The drug also produced significantly greater improvements in various anxiety and depression scales than placebo. An extension phase of one of the placebo-controlled studies showed that the efficacy of paroxetine in reducing panic attack frequency is maintained during up to 6 months' treatment and that the drug reduces the risk of relapse. Oral paroxetine 10 to 60 mg/day was at least as effective as clomipramine 10 to 150 mg/day in a comparative study. During weeks 7 to 9 of treatment, 51% of paroxetine recipients had no full panic attacks, compared with 37% of clomipramine recipients. The onset of action appeared to be more rapid for paroxetine than for clomipramine. The 2 drugs were equally effective in improving generalised anxiety, phobic avoidance and social, family and work interactions. In patients who elected to continue treatment for a further 36 weeks in an extension phase of the above study, response rates increased further in all groups, including the placebo group. During weeks 34 to 36 of extended treatment, 85% of paroxetine recipients, 72% of clomipramine recipients and 59% of placebo recipients had no panic attacks. The difference between paroxetine and placebo was statistically significant at this time point; however, there was no significant difference between groups at the primary efficacy endpoint (weeks 22 to 24).
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The present study describes an association between some drugs and reports of dilated cardiomyopathies. This relationship involves not only some already suspected drugs (anthracyclines, antiretrovirals), but also other drugs (antipsychotics, lithium, antidepressants, retinoids) less known to induce such an ADR. Despite the mandatory limits of this kind of study (underreporting, confounding factors . . .), these data represent a pharmacovigilance signal and could contribute to establish further prospective studies in order to confirm such signals.
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We prolonged from 24 to 48 months a follow-up study of unipolar subjects with high recurrence rate treated with fluvoxamine (N=25) and sertraline (N=22). During the two-year additional period a significant risk of recurrences was observed during the third year of follow-up, without differences in the two long-term therapy groups. During the fourth year no patients showed new episodes of illness.
The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) voltage-gated K(+) channels are located in heart cell membranes and hold a unique selectivity filter (SF) amino acid sequence (SVGFG) as compared to other K(+) channels (TVGYG). The hERG provokes the acquired long QT syndrome (ALQTS) when blocked, as a side effect of drugs, leading to arrhythmia or heart failure. Its pore domain - including the SF - is believed to be a cardiotoxic drug target. In this study combining solution and solid-state NMR experiments we examine the structure and function of hERG's L(622)-K(638) segment which comprises the SF, as well as its role in the ALQTS using reported active drugs. We first show that the SF segment is unstructured in solution with and without K(+) ions in its surroundings, consistent with the expected flexibility required for the change between the different channel conductive states predicted by computational studies. We also show that the SF segment has the potential to perturb the membrane, but that the presence of K(+) ions cancels this interaction. The SF moiety appears to be a possible target for promethazine in the ALQTS mechanism, but not as much for bepridil, cetirizine, diphenhydramine and fluvoxamine. The membrane affinity of the SF is also affected by the presence of drugs which also perturb model DMPC-based membranes. These results thus suggest that the membrane could play a role in the ALQTS by promoting the access to transmembrane or intracellular targets on the hERG channel, or perturbing the lipid-protein synergy.
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British Columbia residents who had antidepressant therapy initiated and had a recorded diagnosis of depression.
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Our case (36-year old) has suffered schizophrenia (DSM-IV) for 5 years and used these drugs (risperidone, quetiapine, mirtazapine, thioridazine, diazepam, hydroxyzine, clomipramine, fluvoxamine, alprazolam, carbamazepine, biperiden, haloperidol, ampicillin+sulbactam, enoxaparin, oxerutine) in her third pregnancy. Because of her psychotic condition, Mrs. N.B. was not aware of her pregnancy until 22nd week and the pregnancy could not be terminated. She had a female infant (3000 g, 50 cm) with APGAR scores of 8-9 at the first and fifth minutes at 37th week with an uncomplicated vaginal delivery. The baby was normal.
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Risperidone or olanzapine are recommended as first-line agents for schizophrenia due to accumulating controlled trials and clinical experience. Quetiapine should be considered with partial response or if EPS develop, and clozapine is an option with treatment-refractory patients. Atypical agents may contribute to a better quality of life, but conventional neuroleptics are the first choice for strictly cost considerations.
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Reinforcement magnitude modulates the effects of the antidepressants fluvoxamine and desipramine in the pigeon. Increasing reinforcement magnitude diminishes the rate-dependent effects of these drugs. Whether this is also the case in other species is unknown. Rats were trained to respond under a multiple fixed-interval (FI 300 s) schedule of reinforcement. In one FI component, rats earned two food pellets, and in the other component they earned 10 food pellets when they completed the FI requirement. The effects of fluvoxamine (3, 5.6, 10, and 17.8 mg/kg) or desipramine (1, 3, 5.6, 10, 30 mg/kg) given 30 min presession (intraperitoneally) on overall response rate were examined. Local rates of responding (during each 10th of the component) increased throughout the FI as is typical, and were higher during the component reinforced with 10 pellets. Fluvoxamine and desipramine decreased overall response rates similarly in both components. Both drugs exerted limited rate-dependent effects, shown by a negative slope for the regression of log (drug rate/control rate) on log (control rate) using data from each 10th of the FI. The slope for the two-pellet condition was, however, significantly steeper than the slope for the 10-pellet condition after 3 and 10 mg/kg fluvoxamine and after 30 mg/kg desipramine. This result is consistent with those obtained in pigeons and shows that reinforcement magnitude can modulate rate-dependent effects of fluvoxamine and perhaps desipramine in rats.
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To inform clinicians of the possibility that seizures due to therapeutic doses of fluvoxamine may not be as rare as previously considered.
The N-hydroxylation of carcinogenic arylamines represents an initial step in their metabolic activation. Animal studies have shown that this reaction is catalyzed by the cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes P450 1A1 and P450 1A2. In this study, utilizing enzymes expressed in Escherichia coli (and purified) or in human B-lymphoblastoid cells, the catalytic activities of recombinant human P450 1A1, P450 1A2, and P450 3A4 for N-hydroxylation of several carcinogenic arylamines were determined. P450 1A2 from both expression systems catalyzed the N-hydroxylation of 4-aminobiphenyl and the heterocyclic amines, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f/quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Rates were similar, with values of 1.1-7.8 nmol/min/nmol P450. In contrast, P450 1A1 catalyzed N-hydroxylation of only PhIP, and no activity was observed with P450 3A4. Further kinetic analysis with purified P450 1A2 showed similar Km and Vmax values for N-hydroxylation of the arylamines. Furafylline and fluvoxamine, inhibitors of P450 1A2 activity in human liver microsomes, were found to be inhibitory of the recombinant P450 1A2 N-hydroxylation activity. Results from this study are supportive of a major role for human P450 1A2 in the metabolic activation of arylamines.
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Our analyses indicated a significantly higher rate of total and specific treatment-emergent SD and specific phases of dysfunction compared with placebo for the following drugs in decreasing order of impact: sertraline, venlafaxine, citalopram, paroxetine, fluoxetine, imipramine, phenelzine, duloxetine, escitalopram, and fluvoxamine, with SD ranging from 25.8% to 80.3% of patients. No significant difference with placebo was found for the following antidepressants: agomelatine, amineptine, bupropion, moclobemide, mirtazapine, and nefazodone.
To determine the pharmacokinetics of fluvoxamine in children and adolescents and to compare pharmacokinetic data from adolescents to adults from a previous study.
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Some antidepressants, as well as antiepileptics, are effective for treating pain of varying etiology. The present study was designed to characterize the antinociceptive effects of imipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant, fluvoxamine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, milnacipran, a serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, and carbamazepine, an antiepileptic drug, using the acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice. Imipramine (1.25-10 mg/kg, i.p.), fluvoxamine (5-40 mg/kg, i.p.) and milnacipran (2.5-20 mg/kg, i.p.) all dose-dependently and significantly reduced the number of writhes induced by the injection of acetic acid (0.8% (v/v)), although the maximal effect of milnacipran was weaker than those of imipramine and fluvoxamine. Similarly, carbamazepine (5-20 mg/kg, i.p.) also showed a dose-dependent and significant antinociceptive effect. In combination studies, the co-administration of a sub-effective dose of carbamazepine (5 mg/kg, i.p.) with imipramine (1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg, i.p.), fluvoxamine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or milnacipran (1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced the number of writhes. Additionally, the hole-board test revealed that the medications with significant antinociceptive effects barely produced changes in motor activity that could possibly affect writhing behavior. Thus, the present study demonstrated that the antinociceptive effect of carbamazepine is enhanced by combination with imipramine, fluvoxamine and milnacipran. Therefore, the combined therapy using antidepressants and carbamazepine may be useful clinically for the control of pain.
Fluvoxamine resulted in a significantly greater percent improvement in overall gambling severity on the PG Clinical Global Impression (PG-CGI) scale. There was a significant drug effect on gambling urge and behavior as measured by the PG modification of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and PG-CGI scale improvement scores; however, there was a significant interaction of drug effect with the order of administration of drug and placebo. Post hoc analysis, treating each phase as a separate trial, demonstrated a significant difference between fluvoxamine and the placebo in the second phase of the trial but not in the first. Fluvoxamine side effects were of only mild intensity and consistent with SSRI treatment and were not associated with early withdrawal from the study.
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The kinetics of phenacetin O-deethylation and its inhibition by fluvoxamine was investigated in a V79 cell line (V79MZh1A2) transfected with human CYP1A2. In four sets of experiments the apparent Km values for phenacetin O-deethylation ranged from 35 to 95 microM and the Ki for fluvoxamine-mediated inhibition of the reaction ranged from 2.7 to 14.5 nM, i.e. comparable to values obtained in human liver microsomes. The kinetic performance of the V79MZh1A2 cell line demonstrates its usefulness as an analytical tool in a variety of toxicological and drug metabolism studies involving CYP1A2.
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Pretreatment cholesterol values of OCD patients were compared with cholesterol levels of thirty panic disorder patients and thirty normal controls. OCD patients had elevated cholesterol levels comparable with those of panic disorder patients. Cholesterol levels decreased significantly from pre- to posttreatment. OCD patients with high cholesterol levels (> or = 240 mg/dl, n = 7) could make best use of the treatment whereas patients with desirable cholesterol levels (< 200 mg/dl, n = 11) did not change their cholesterol during treatment.
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We identified a number of clinically used drugs and biologically active endogenous peptides able to significantly decrease the rate of human plasmatic aminopeptidase (AP) leucine-enkephalin (LEU) degradation. Bacitracin, bestatin, fluvoxamine, and each of 4 peptides tested significantly increased, in a dose-dependent manner (10-10 M), LEU degradation half-life (t1/2) in each of 5 plasma samples studied. Each sample was obtained by pooling equal volume of 6 randomly selected, individual plasmas (4 male and 2 female healthy, drug-free volunteers). Thirty subjects (20 females and 10 males) participated in this study. With the exception of fluvoxamine, this inhibitory effect was lacking in various other commonly used drugs with widely different chemical structures and pharmacological profiles, eg, antidepressants (SSRIs, imipramine-like tricyclics, MAOIs), acute antimigraine agents (triptan class drugs), the nonselective beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol, and serotonin receptor agonists and antagonists. Agents (concentration 10 M used as illustration), listed in decreasing order of LEU-AP inhibitory activity: substance P > angiotensin III > methionine-enkephalin > angiotensin II > fluvoxamine > bestatin gave t1/2 values (+/- SD) of 39.3 +/- 1.1, 29.4 +/- 0.8, 28.3 +/- 0.8, 27.4 +/- 0.7, 24.5 +/- 1.5, and 23.6 +/- 0.9 minutes, respectively. Control, bacitracin, and fluphenazine (known LEU-AP inhibitors were used for comparison) values of 11.8 +/- 1.0, 31.3 +/- 0.7, and 19.6 +/- 1.0 minutes, respectively. As expected, these drugs significantly decreased the initial velocity of peptide degradation; Iv values (+/- SD) of: 0.17 +/- 0.1 (0.02 +/- 0.01), 0.23 +/- 0.2 (0.02 +/- 0.01), 0.25 +/- 0.2 (0.02 +/- 0.01), 0.26 +/- 0.2 (0.03 +/- 0.01), 0.31 +/- 0.1 (0.03 +/- 0.01), and 0.33 +/- 0.1 (0.03 +/- 0.01), respectively; control, bacitracin, and fluphenazine: 1.10 +/- 0.3 (0.12 +/- 0.03), 0.20 +/- 0.1 (0.02 +/- 0.01), and 0.82 +/- 0.2 (0.08 +/- 0.02) pg LEU/min (pg LEU/mg protein/min), respectively. Results emphasize the selective nature of chemical structures required to significantly inhibit AP activity and provided information that could help the rational design of agents with high specificity in a biologic milieu containing multiple peptidases. In this case, targeted modulation of the bioavailability of LEU and other endogenous AP-degraded hormonal and nonhormonal peptides could be useful in the treatment of the pathophysiology associated with various disease conditions. Whether their development could find useful pharmacological applications remains to be explored.
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Paroxetine is well absorbed after oral administration. It undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism and is rapidly distributed into tissue. Only about 1% of the paroxetine dose remains in the systemic circulation. Approximately 95% of paroxetine is protein bound in the plasma. Steady-state concentrations are reached after 7 to 14 days of oral administration and the terminal elimination half-life (t1/2βr) is approximately 24 hours. However, there is a great deal of interindividual variation in the pharmacokinetics of paroxetine. Paroxetine is metabolised by at least 2 enzymes of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system, one of which is CYP2D6. This enzyme is subject to genetic polymorphism, and thus the pharmacokinetics of paroxetine differ between individuals who have the enzyme (extensive metabolisers) and those who do not (poor metabolisers). The metabolites of paroxetine are essentially inactive. Metabolism of paroxetine by CYP2D6 is saturable. Consequently, with repeated administration, bioavailability of paroxetine increases and pharmacokinetics may become nonlinear in some patients, especially when the dosage of paroxetine is increased. Approximately two-thirds of a paroxetine dose is eliminated in the urine and the remainder is excreted in faeces. Almost all of the dose is eliminated as metabolites; lt3% is excreted as unchanged drug. The plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration-time curve of paroxetine are greater, and the t1/2βr prolonged, in elderly patients and those with hepatic or severe renal impairment compared with the general population. Paroxetine distributes into breast milk to produce concentrations similar to those in plasma.
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A retrospective cohort analysis was carried out among depression patients treated in the Department of Psychiatry, Kawasaki Medical School Hospital, Kurashiki, Japan, in 2000. Seventy two patients were identified who were receiving fluvoxamine to treat depression.
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In view of the fact that circulating steroids exert a tonic modulatory effect on σ(1) receptor-mediated effects, the present study examines the effects of fluvoxamine on prefrontal extracellular monoamine levels in adrenalectomized/castrated mice lacking the peripheral sources of steroids.
The serotonin transporter (SERT) is a high-affinity sodium/chloride-dependent neurotransmitter transporter responsible for reuptake of serotonin from the extracellular space. SERT is a selective target of several clinically important antidepressants. In a cross-species analysis comparing human and bovine SERTs, the kinetic parameters for serotonin uptake were found to be similar, however, the pharmacological profiles of the two transporters differ. Following transient expression in COS-1 cells, IC(50) values were determined for several antidepressants and psychostimulants. The potencies of the antidepressants citalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine and imipramine were several-fold higher at hSERT compared with bSERT. No species selectivity was observed for the antidepressants fluvoxamine, and sertraline or for the psychostimulants cocaine, the cocaine analogue beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-iodophenyl)tropane, or for 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Analysis of six hSERT/bSERT chimeras and subsequent species-scanning mutagenesis of each isoform revealed methionine-180, tyrosine-495, and phenylalanine-513 to be responsible for the increase in citalopram and paroxetine potencies at hSERT and methionine-180 and phenylalanine-513 to confer species selectivity at hSERT for fluoxetine and imipramine. Results were obtained by doing the forward, bovine to human, mutations and confirmed by doing the reverse mutations. Citalopram analogues were used to define the roles of methionine-180, tyrosine-495, and phenylalanine-513 and to reveal molecular interactions with individual functional groups of citalopram. We suggest that methionine-180 interacts with the heterocyclic nucleus of citalopram or stabilizes the binding pocket and phenylalanine-513 to be a steric blocker of antidepressant recognition.
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Human liver microsomes (n= 11) were assessed for expression of CYPs 1A2, 2D6 and 3A4, because these enzymes mediate RISP and CLZ oxidation. Inhibition of CLZ oxidation by RISP was assessed. Plasma CLZ elimination was estimated in patients with schizophrenia who received either CLZ alone or the CLZ-RISP combination (n= 10 per group).