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Procyclidine was administered to 25 chronic psychotic inpatients, stabilised on chlorpromazine, haloperidol or fluphenazine decanoate injection. We observed a significant reduction in mean serum levels of all three neuroleptic drugs which was reversed on stopping procyclidine and was inversely correlated with mean serum procyclidine levels. No significant alterations occurred on the BPRS scores or in serum prolactin levels throughout the study in any of the three groups. Possible mechanisms of this interaction and its clinical relevance are discussed.
A pretreatment for organophosphorus (OP) anticholinesterase (e.g., soman) intoxication should prevent lethality and convulsions (CNV) at 2 LD50s and be behavioral-decrement-free when given alone. Behavioral-deficit-free pretreatment regimens (PRGs) for guinea pigs consisted of Physostigmine (0.15 mg/kg, im) and adjunct. Adjuncts [mg/kg, im] tested were akineton [0.25], aprophen , trihexyphenidyl , atropine , azaprophen , benactyzine [1.25], cogentin , dextromethorphan [7.5], ethopropazine , kemadrin , memantine , promethazine , scopolamine [0.08] and vontrol . PRGs were given 30 min before soman (60 micrograms/kg, sc; 2 LD50s) or other OP agents. Animals were then observed and graded for signs of intoxication, including CNV at 7 time points and at 24 hr. Physostigmine alone reduced the incidence of CNV and lethality induced by 2 LD50s of soman by 42 and 60%, respectively. All of the PRGs tested abolished lethality and 12 shortened recovery time to 2 hr or less. Also, PRGs including azaprophen or atropine prevented CNV. When selected PRGs were tested against intoxication by sarin, tabun or VX, the efficacy was generally superior to that for soman. The data show that several PRGs are effective against soman intoxication in guinea pigs.
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The effects of eight antiparkinsonian anticholinergic drugs on motor activity in mice were studied. Trihexyphenidyl, biperiden, benztropine, etybenztropine, procyclidine and tropacine clearly stimulated motor activity. Orphenadrine did not change motor activity, and profenamine had sedative properties. The classification of these drugs by order of their effect on this animal model does not agree with the classification proposed by Deniker et al (1980).
During treatment with thioxanthenes or phenothiazines of schizophrenic patients non-protein nitrogen in urine was measured. The values were calculated in relation to the excretion of creatinine. a) Flupentixol or fluphenazine applied in optimal dosage, increased the excretion of urea and the amino acids asp, glu + gln, and gly. b) Moreover, if the drug induced a parkinsonoid (thioridazine) the excretion of ser and thr was increased, too. The usual desalting procedure by ion-exchanging resins before chromatography increases the contents of several amino acids, e.g. asp, asn, ala, gly, cys, ser, thr, indicating a breakdown of some instable products.
In order to facilitate direct comparisons of anticholinergic drug effects on activity, nine drugs were tested in one laboratory using a standardized procedure.
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Based on currently available information, no confident statement can be made about the effectiveness of anticholinergics to treat people with neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia. The same applies for the withdrawal of such medications. Whether the withdrawal of anticholinergics may benefit people with neuroleptic-induced TD, this should be evaluated in a parallel-group, placebo-controlled randomised trial, with adequate sample size and at least 6 weeks of follow up.
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Eighteen of twenty patients successfully discontinued their anticholinergic medication; two did not because of akathisia. Repeated measures analysis of variance did not show a significant effect of anticholinergic discontinuation on total Extrapyramidal Symptoms Rating Scale score or on the Parkinsonism, Akathisia, Dystonia or Tardive Dyskinesia subscales. However, significant improvement was found on the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia composite z score at weeks 6, 8 and 12 compared with baseline. Significant improvements were seen on the motor and the symbol-coding tasks. No significant effects were observed on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impression - Severity and Clinical Global Impression - Improvement scales.
A case of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome in a mildly mentally retarded adult female is described. The clinical features, natural history and response to treatment were typical of the condition but the association with mental retardation, epilepsy and psychotic phenomena were unusual.
It has been demonstrated that a triple regimen consisting of procyclidine (6 mg/kg), diazepam (10 mg/kg) and pentobarbital (30 mg/kg) can effectively terminate soman-induced (1 x LD50) seizures/convulsions in rats when administered 30-40 min following onset. However, convulsive activity lasting for only 45 min can result in marked neuronal pathology. The purpose of the present study was to examine potential cognitive impairments of such brain lesions. The results showed that the neuronal pathology (assessed with Fluoro-Jade B) varied from none at all to 30% damage in the index areas (hippocampus, amygdala, piriform cortex). Cognitive deficits were seen in a novelty test (11 days post-exposure) and retention of a brightness discrimination task (28 days post-exposure) among the rats with neuropathology. Furthermore, significant correlations between neuropathology scores and behavioral measures were found for the animals that convulsed. Among these rats, the mortality rate was relatively high (60%) compared with rats in a previous study that had undergone implantation of hippocampal electrodes (17%). Neither the soman poisoning in the absence of convulsions nor the triple regimen alone affected behavior. It is concluded that early management of soman-induced convulsions is of major importance in preventing neuropathology and accompanying cognitive impairments.
The classification of muscarinic receptors into M1 and M2 subtypes and the involvement of guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G-proteins) as major mediators of receptor information transduction in the cholinergic and other neurotransmitter systems have prompted us to undertake studies both at receptor and postreceptor levels that may shed light on the importance of these new findings to the pharmacotherapy of manic-depressive illness and of extrapyramidal syndromes. We searched for patterns of muscarinic selectivity among the commonly used anticholinergics (biperiden, procyclidine, trihexyphenidyl, benztropine, and methixen) through radioligand receptor studies in various rat tissues. The drugs showed a range of selectivity, from the totally nonselective methixen to the highly M1-selective biperiden. Sinus arrhythmia measurements were undertaken in psychiatric patients treated with different antiparkinsonian anticholinergics. The extent of sinus arrhythmia suppression was inversely correlated with the degree of M1 selectivity of the drugs used, advocating the use of M1-selective antiparkinsonian anticholinergics like biperiden in the treatment of extrapyramidal side effects. The implications of muscarinic receptor subclassification were further extended to include postreceptor phenomena. We have directly studied G-protein function by measuring cholinergic agonist-induced increases in guanosine triphosphate (GTP) binding to these proteins. This cholinergic agonistic effect was shown to be exerted by G-proteins other than Gs (the adenylate cyclase stimulatory G-protein), i.e., Gi (the adenylate cyclase inhibitory G-protein) or Gp [the G-protein activating phosphatidylinositol (PI) turnover], as ribosylation by pertussis toxin abolished this cholinergic effect, whereas it was unaffected by cholera toxin. Pertussis toxin-blockable, carbamylcholine-induced increases in GTP binding capacity were found to be mediated through M1 muscarinic receptors, as M1-selective antagonists were 100-fold more effective than M2 selective antagonists in blocking carbamylcholine effects. Moreover, carbamylcholine effect was exclusively detected in tissues predominantly populated by M1 receptors. Our results thus suggest that carbamylcholine-induced increases in GTP binding are exerted through M1 receptors interacting with Gp. At therapeutically efficacious concentrations, lithium completely blocked carbamylcholine-induced increases in GTP binding capacity in both in vitro and in vivo experiments.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
1 Procyclidine resembles hyoscine in enhancing the effects of amphetamine on ipsiversive turning by mice with a unilateral central dopamine lesion. 2 The stereospecific index for procyclidine is not greater than 10, in contrast to 173 for acetylcholine receptors in ileum from the same mice. 3 This suggests that although the central effects of procyclidine in this test involve acetylcholine receptors similar to those at peripheral sites, they cannot be identical with them unless there are differences at some secondary site, for example, if the weaker enantiomer were a stronger inhibitor of dopamine uptake or if there were a stereoselective uptake process for procyclidine itself.
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Individuals with schizophrenia, compared to healthy individuals, are known to exhibit deficient prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response as well as reduced performance on the antisaccade task. There is evidence for genetic transmission of both PPI and antisaccadic abnormalities in schizophrenia. It has been suggested that PPI and antisaccade measures identify separate endophenotypes, on the basis of a lack of relationship between PPI and antisaccade deficits in patients with schizotypal personality disorder. However, given that patients with schizotypal personality disorder are unlikely to manifest all the abnormalities associated with schizophrenia, it is important to determine that there is no relationship present between these two abnormalities in people affected with schizophrenia. The main objective of this investigation therefore was to establish the lack of the association between PPI and antisaccade deficits in schizophrenia in two independent studies. Study 1 involved 39 patients with schizophrenia and 14 healthy controls and study 2 involved 35 patients with schizophrenia and 22 healthy controls. PPI (uninstructed paradigm) of the acoustically elicited startle (eye blink) was measured electromyographically. Antisaccadic eye movements (standard, non-overlap version) were measured using infrared oculography. Patients displayed reduced PPI and a lower percentage of correct antisaccades relative to healthy controls in both studies. As expected, no relationship occurred between PPI and the percentage of correct antisaccade responses in either group. It is concluded that PPI and antisaccade abnormalities in schizophrenia represent separate endophenotypes, reflecting the functions of different genetic aetiologies and different or only partially overlapping neural systems.
The tolerance of five central muscarinic receptor antagonists has been studied in experimental animals. According to the effect on orientation-exploratory reaction, drugs were arranged in the following order of increasing toxicity: procyclidine < trihexiphenidyl < benactizine < atropine < scopolamine. For the same therapeutic index, trihexiphenidyl and benactizine were characterized by the maximum tolerance (TD50/ED50 > 10) in mice. Scopolamine and atropine exhibited anticonvulsant activity at doses exceeding the threshold values by a factor of 6.3 and 3.9, respectively. For procyclidine, the average anticonvulsant dose was threefold lower than the threshold value. Benactizine and procyclidine had maximum tolerance levels in rats. The TD50/ED50 ratio for these drugs was greater than 3 (against 0.5 - 0.7 in groups treated with trihexiphenidyl, atropine and scopolamine).