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Indocin (Indomethacin)
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Indocin

Indocin is an effective medication which helps to fight with pain or inflammation caused by many conditions such as gout, ankylosing spondylitis, arthritis, bursitis, or tendinitis. Indocin acts by reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body. It is nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

Other names for this medication:

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Also known as:  Indomethacin.

Description

Indocin is a perfect remedy, which helps to fight against pain or inflammation caused by many conditions such as gout, ankylosing spondylitis, arthritis, bursitis, or tendinitis.

Indocin acts by reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body.

Indocin is also known as Indometacin, Indocid, Inmecin, Indochron E-R, Indocin-SR, Flexin Continus, Indolar, Indomax, Indomod, Pardelprin, Rheumacin, Rimacid, Slo-Indo.

It is nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

Dosage

Shake the liquid form of Indocin before using.

Take Indocin tablets and liquid form orally with water.

Take Indocin once or twice a day at the same time.

Do not crush or chew it.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Indocin suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Indocin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Indocin overdosage: vomiting, migraine, lightheadedness, confusion, extreme tiredness, feeling of numbness, pricking, burning, creeping on the skin, convulsions, dyspepsia.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Indocin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Indocin if you are allergic to Indocin components.

Do not take Indocin if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Be careful with Indocin if you are taking angiotensin ii receptor antagonists such as candesartan (atacand), eprosartan (teveten), irbesartan (avapro), losartan (cozaar), olmesartan (benicar), telmisartan (micardis), and valsartan (diovan); beta blockers such as atenolol (tenormin), labetalol (normodyne), metoprolol (lopressor, toprol xl), nadolol (corgard), and propranolol (inderal); cyclosporine (neoral, sandimmune); digoxin (lanoxin); diuretics ('water pills') such as triamterene (dyrenium, in dyazide); lithium (eskalith, lithobid); methotrexate (rheumatrex); phenytoin (dilantin); and probenecid (benemid), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ace) inhibitors such as benazepril (lotensin), captopril (capoten), enalapril (vasotec), fosinopril (monopril), lisinopril (prinivil, zestril), moexipril (univasc), perindopril (aceon), quinapril (accupril), ramipril (altace), and trandolapril (mavik).

It can be dangerous to use Indocin if you suffer from or have a history of seizures, parkinson's disease, depression or mental illness, or liver or kidney disease.

Be careful with Indocin if you are planning to use indomethacin suppositories.

Be careful with Indocin if you had proctitis (inflammation of the rectum) or have recently had rectal bleeding, asthma, frequent stuffed or runny nose or nasal polyps (swelling of the lining of the nose).

Avoid alcohol.

Be careful with Indocin if you are going to have a surgery.

Avoid driving machine.

Do not stop take it suddenly.

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Primary nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a genetic, chronic disease characterised by lack of distal renal tubule to antidiuretic hormone. The condition produces polyuria, polydipsia, and consequently, reduced caloric intake and growth failure. There is very scarce information on physical growth of affected children. The objective of the paper is to describe long-term growth of 14 patients from 11 families, studied retrospectively and followed for 3-16 years (median 11.6 years). Diagnosis was made on the basis of clinical and laboratory data and concentration test under pitressin. Patients were treated with indomethacin, thiazides, and amiloride. Weight and standing height was measured periodically at the Laboratory of Anthropometry, following standardised techniques. Information was obtained from clinical notes. The majority of children grew below the third centile of local standards, and many showed improvement of weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) over time. Mean height, weight, and BMI gain during follow-up was 1.72, 1.06, and 1.46 standard deviations (SDs), respectively. Three children who did not adhere to treatment showed growth delay. Height gain during the first 2 years of follow-up was inversely associated with height deficit at diagnosis. Further studies on growth at adolescence and in different mutations are recommended.

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Studies with pokeweed mitogen indicate that interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha) and IL-1beta are necessary for optimal IgG1 and IgG2 production and that prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) selectively promote IgG2, which is a major component of the anti-A. actinomycetemcomitans response in vivo. The pokeweed mitogen results suggest that these proinflammatory cytokines would also be necessary for optimal production of IgG specific for A. actinomycetemcomitans.

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Up until now indomethacin is the most extensively evaluated non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in neonatal medicine. If used with due consideration to the physiologic role of prostaglandins, a 90 success rate can be reached and serious adverse drug effects prevented.

indocin medication

The aim of this study was to develop a powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) quantification method for investigating the purity of cocrystals. The method developed was employed to study the formation of indomethacin-saccharin (IND-SAC) cocrystals by mechanochemical methods.

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The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of the atomic pair-wise distribution function (PDF) to detect the extension of disorder/amorphousness induced into a crystalline drug using a cryo-milling technique, and to determine the optimal milling times to achieve amorphisation. The PDF analysis was performed on samples of indomethacin obtained by cryogenic ball milling (cryo-milling) for different periods of time. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarised light microscopy (PLM) and solid state nuclear magnetic resonances (ss-NMR) were also used to analyse the cryo-milled samples. The high similarity between the γ-indomethacin cryogenic ball milled samples and the crude γ-indomethacin indicated that milled samples retained residual order of the γ-form. The PDF analysis encompassed the capability of achieving a correlation with the physical properties determined from DSC, ss-NMR and stability experiments. Multivariate data analysis (MVDA) was used to visualize the differences in the PDF and XRPD data. The MVDA approach revealed that PDF is more efficient in assessing the introduced degree of disorder in γ-indomethacin after cryo-milling than MVDA of the corresponding XRPD diffractograms. The PDF analysis was able to determine the optimal cryo-milling time that facilitated the highest degree of disorder in the samples. Therefore, it is concluded that the PDF technique may be used as a complementary tool to other solid state methods and that further investigations are warranted to elucidate the capabilities of this technique.

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The formalin, hot plate, and tail immersion tests as well as acetic acid-induced writhing were used to investigate the antinociceptive activity in mice.

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We used the patch-clamp technique to examine the effect of adenosine on epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activity in rat cortical collecting duct (CCD). Application of adenosine inhibits ENaC activity, and the effect of adenosine was mimicked by cyclohexyladenosine (CHA), an A(1) adenosine-receptor agonist that reduced channel activity from 1.32 to 0.64. The inhibitory effect of CHA on ENaC was mimicked by cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), which reduced channel activity from 1.1 to 0.55. In contrast, application of CGS-21680, an A(2a) adenosine-receptor agonist, had no effect on ENaC and increased channel activity from 0.96 to 1.22. This suggests that the inhibitory effect of adenosine analogs resulted from stimulation of the A(1) adenosine receptor. Inhibition of PLC with U-73122 failed to abolish the effect of CHA on ENaC. In contrast, the inhibitory effect of CHA on ENaC was absent in the presence of the PLA(2) inhibitor arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone (AACOCF(3)). This suggests a role of arachidonic acid (AA) in mediating the effect of adenosine on ENaC. To determine the metabolic pathway of AA responsible for the effect of adenosine, we examined the effect of CHA in the presence of indomethacin or N-methylsulfonyl-6-(2-propargyloxyphenyl)hexanamide (MS-PPOH). Inhibition of cytochrome P-450 (CYP) epoxygenase with MS-PPOH blocked the effect of CHA on ENaC. In contrast, CHA reduced ENaC activity in the presence of indomethacin. This suggests that CYP epoxygenase-dependent metabolites of AA mediate the effect of adenosine. Because 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (11,12-EET) inhibits ENaC activity in the CCD (Wei Y, Lin DH, Kemp R, Yaddanapudi GSS, Nasjletti A, Falck JR, and Wang WH. J Gen Physiol 124: 719-727, 2004), we examined the role of 11,12-EET in mediating the effect of adenosine on ENaC. Addition of 11,12-EET inhibited ENaC channels in the CCD in which adenosine-induced inhibition was blocked by AACOCF3. We conclude that adenosine inhibits ENaC activity by stimulation of the A(1) adenosine receptor in the CCD and that the effect of adenosine is mediated by 11,12-EET.

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The present study concerns the production and characterization of monooleine (MO) dispersions as drug delivery systems for indomethacin, taken as model anti-inflammatory drug.

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The cured and markedly effective rate of 96.8% in the observation group was better than that of 81.8% in the control group (P < 0.05), and improvements of pain, pruritus, burning sensation and sleep in the observation group were superior to those of the control group (all P < 0.01).

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Although the contraction capacity of the smooth muscle was not affected, the motility of the distal colon deteriorated owing to the defective secretion of presynaptic neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, nitric oxide, and neuropeptides.

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Angiotensin II (AngII) prevents the inhibitory effect of follicular cells on oocyte maturation, but its involvement in LH-induced meiotic resumption remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the involvement of AngII in LH-induced meiotic resumption and of prostaglandins (PGs) in the action of AngII. In the experiment I, seven cows were superovulated, intrafollicularly injected with 10 muM saralasin (a competitive AngII antagonist) or saline when the follicles reached a diameter larger than 12 mm, and challenged with a GnRH agonist to induce an LH surge. Fifteen hours after GnRH, the animals were ovariectomized and the oocytes were recovered to determine the stage of meiosis. The oocytes from follicles that received saline were in germinal vesicle (GV) breakdown (30.8%) or metaphase I (MI; 69.2%) stage while those that received saralasin were in the GV stage (100%; P<0.001) 15 h after GnRH agonist. In another experiment, oocytes were co-cultured with follicular hemisections for 15 h to determine whether PGs mediate the effect of AngII on meiotic resumption. Indomethacin (10 microM) inhibited AngII-induced meiotic resumption (13.4 vs 77.5% MI without indomethacin; P<0.001). Furthermore, the GV oocytes progressed to MI at a similar rate when PGE(2), PGF(2alpha) or AngII was present in the co-culture system with follicular cells (PGE(2) 77.4%, PGF(2alpha) 70.0%, and AngII 75.0% MI). In conclusion, our results provide strong evidence that AngII mediates the resumption of meiosis induced by an LH surge in bovine oocytes and that this event is dependent on PGE(2) or PGF(2alpha) produced by follicular cells.

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Gastric mucosal cells synthesize a large number of eicosanoids (including leukotrienes) which are distinctively involved in ulcerogenesis. This experimental study investigated the effect of 4 leukotriene receptors' antagonists on indomethacin(IND)-induced ulcer in rats.

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Reactive oxygen species are implicated in pulmonary hypertension and hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. We examined the effects of low concentrations of peroxide on intrapulmonary arteries (IPA). IPAs from Wistar rats were mounted on a myograph for recording tension and estimating intracellular Ca2+ using Fura-PE3. Ca2+ sensitization was examined in alpha-toxin-permeabilized IPAs, and phosphorylation of MYPT-1 and MLC(20) was assayed by Western blot. Peroxide (30 microM) induced a vasoconstriction with transient and sustained components and equivalent elevations of intracellular Ca2+. The transient constriction was strongly suppressed by indomethacin, the TP-receptor antagonist SQ-29584, and the Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632, whereas sustained constriction was unaffected. Neither vasoconstriction nor elevation of intracellular Ca2+ was affected by removal of extracellular Ca2+, whereas dantrolene suppressed the former and ryanodine abolished the latter. Peroxide-induced constriction of permeabilized IPAs was unaffected by Y-27632 but abolished by PKC inhibitors; these also suppressed constriction in intact IPAs. Peroxide caused translocation of PKCalpha, but had no significant effect on MYPT-1 or MLC(20) phosphorylation. We conclude that in IPAs peroxide causes transient release of vasoconstrictor prostanoids, but sustained constriction is associated with release of Ca2+ from ryanodine-sensitive stores and a PKC-dependent but Rho kinase- and MLC(20)-independent constrictor mechanism.

indocin 50 mg

In this double-blinded, randomized, controlled study, 60 patients undergoing elective gastric laparotomy were allocated to receive either oxycodone or fentanyl for postoperative intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (potency ratio 60:1). The patients received ketorolac 60 mg before the end of anesthesia and then continued with patient-controlled analgesia for 48 hours postsurgery. Pain severity, side effects and respiration rate were recorded 30 minutes, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours after the surgery. Cumulative opioid requirements and patient satisfaction were also measured.

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Although the mechanism of action of acetaminophen (AAP) is not fully understood, some studies suggest that AAP and phenacetin (PHE) are selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-3 inhibitors. To examine the participation of COX-3 in memory formation, water maze performance was studied in mice treated with AAP, PHE or other COX inhibitors. Mice received intraperitoneal injections of drugs immediately after each training session. Administration of high-dose AAP [302.3 mg/kg (IC50 for COX-2)] or PHE [179.2 mg/kg (IC50 for COX-2)] and of non-specific (indomethacin: 20 mg/kg) or specific COX-2 (NS-398: 10 mg/kg) inhibitor impaired the performance in hidden platform (HP) not visible platform (VP) tasks, whereas low-dose (15.1 mg/kg) AAP facilitated performance in HP and VP tasks. The facilitation of performance by low-dose AAP was reversed by co-administration with a 5-HT(1/2) receptor antagonist (methysergide: 0.47 mg/kg). The middle-dose [69.5 mg/kg (IC50 for COX-3)] of AAP, the PHE [17.9 mg/kg (IC50 for COX-3)] and a specific COX-1 inhibitor (piroxicam: 10-20 mg/kg) did not influence performance in either task. These results suggest that the memory impairment by high-dose AAP and PHE and facilitation of performance by low-dose AAP could involve endogenous COX-2 and serotonergic neuronal activity, but not COX-3, respectively.

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indocin buy online 2015-12-12

AL-Na significantly reduced indomethacin-induced ulcer size and myeloperoxidase activity in the stomach and small intestine. AL-Na prevented increases in microvascular permeability, superoxide dismutase content, glutathione peroxidase activity and catalase activity in small intestinal injury induced by indomethacin. AL-Na also prevented decreases in red indocin buy blood cells and white blood cells in small intestinal injury induced by indomethacin. Moreover, AL-Na suppressed mucin depletion by indomethacin and inhibited infiltration of enterobacteria into the small intestine.

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One hundred cases of acute gouty arthritis were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group. The observation group were treated with local blocking and electroacupuncture at Yinbai (SP 1), Taichong (LR 3), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Zusanli (ST 36), Fenglong (ST 40), Yinlingquan (SP 9) and Ashi points, and the control group were treated with oral administration of 25 mg Indomethacin, thrice each day, and 100 mg Allopurinol, thrice daily. The therapeutic effects and indocin buy changes of pain score, serum uric acid were observed in the two groups.

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Cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha (cPLA(2alpha), now known as PLA2G4A) is the enzyme catalyzing the formation of the rate-limiting substrate, arachidonic acid, for prostaglandin (PG) synthesis. The increasing expression of PLA2G4A toward term gestation in human amnion fibroblasts is believed to be the crucial event in parturition. Human amnion fibroblasts produce cortisol, progesterone and express glucocorticoid receptor (GR), progesterone receptor A (PGRA) form at term. The roles of progesterone and PGRA in the induction of PLA2G4A by cortisol via GR in the amnion fibroblasts remain largely unknown. Using cultured human term amnion fibroblasts, we found that cortisol induced the expression of PGRA, which was attenuated by inhibiting PG synthesis with indomethacin. Knockdown of PGRA expression or inhibition of endogenous progesterone production with trilostane significantly enhanced the induction of PLA2G4A by cortisol, whereas overexpression of PGRA attenuated the induction of PLA2G4A by cortisol. Although exogenous progesterone did not alter PLA2G4A expression under basal conditions, it attenuated cortisol-induced PLA2G4A expression at concentrations about tenfold higher, which might be achieved by competition with cortisol for GR. In conclusion, PGRA in the presence of endogenous progesterone is a transdominant repressor of the Duphaston 60 Mg induction of PLA2G4A by cortisol. High level of progesterone may compete with cortisol for GR, thus further inhibiting the induction of PLA2G4A by cortisol. Moreover, increased PG synthesis by cortisol may feed back on the expression of PGRA leading to attenuation of cortisol-induced PLA2G4A expression. The above findings may be pertinent to the inconsistent effects of glucocorticoids on parturition in humans.

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It is possible to predict the dissolution properties of pharmaceutical preparations using both DRNIR and TNIR chemoinformetric methods. Cialis Brand Name The TNIR method was more accurate for predictions of the dissolution behavior of tablets than the DRNIR method.

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Anise aqueous suspension possesses significant cytoprotective and anti-ulcer activities against experimentally-induced gastric lesions. The anti-ulcer effect of anise is possibly prostaglandin-mediated and/or through its anti-secretory Inderal 3 Mg and antioxidative properties.

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Oral administration of all extracts (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg) 30 min before formalin injection had no effect against the acute phase (0-5 min Elavil Pill Identification after formalin injection) of the formalin-induced licking time, but hexane fraction (200 mg/kg) caused a significant effect (p < 0.001) on the chronic phase (15-60 min after formalin injection). Total water and diethyl ether extracts at a dose of 400 mg/kg showed a very significant analgesic activity on the chronic phase (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively).

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Indomethacin is a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) which is capable of producing injury to gastric mucosa. To prevent of NSAID-induced gastropathy, it is important Evista 50 Mg to evaluate the risk factors. One of them is steroid. The aim is to study time dependent effects of glucocorticoids (GC) on indomethacin induced gastric ulcer.

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Among a select group of VLBW infants with a PDA at initial hospital discharge Cytoxan Online , spontaneous closure during early infancy occurred in most infants.

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In microvessels of patients Cefixime Tablets Use with coronary artery disease (CAD), flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is largely dependent upon the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor H2O2. The goal of this study is to examine the influence of age and presence or absence of disease on the mechanism of FMD. Human coronary or adipose arterioles (~150 µm diameter) were prepared for videomicroscopy. The effect of inhibiting COX [indomethacin (Indo) or NOS (L-NAME), eliminating H2O2 (polyethylene glycol-catalase (PEG-CAT)] or targeting a reduction in mitochondrial ROS with scavengers/inhibitors [Vitamin E (mtVitamin E); phenylboronic acid (mtPBA)] was determined in children aged 0-18 years; young adults 19-55 years; older adults >55 years without CAD, and similarly aged adults with CAD. Indo eliminated FMD in children and reduced FMD in younger adults. This response was mediated mainly by PGI2, as the prostacyclin-synthase-inhibitor trans-2-phenyl cyclopropylamine reduced FMD in children and young adults. L-NAME attenuated dilation in children and younger adults and eliminated FMD in older adults without CAD, but had no effect on vessels from those with CAD, where mitochondria-derived H2O2 was the primary mediator. The magnitude of dilation was reduced in older compared to younger adults independent of CAD. Exogenous treatment with a sub-dilator dose of NO blocked FMD in vessels from subjects with CAD, while prolonged inhibition of NOS in young adults resulted in a phenotype similar to that observed in disease. The mediator of coronary arteriolar FMD evolves throughout life from prostacyclin in youth, to NO in adulthood. With the onset of CAD, NO-inhibitable release of H2O2 emerges as the exclusive mediator of FMD. These findings have implications for use of pharmacological agents, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents in children and the role of microvascular endothelium in cardiovascular health.

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The gross ulcer index and damage area increased with age in the presence of three NSAIDs (p<0.05). The increases in MPO levels induced by diclofenac and aspirin were significantly higher in 1-year-old than 7-week-old rats (p<0 Atarax Generic Form .05). cPLA(2) expression induced by indomethacin (10 and 40 mg/kg) was greater in the 1-year-old rats, compared with 7-week-old rats (p<0.05).

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In 68 (53%) of 129 infants who were treated with indomethacin, ductal closure occurred during intermediate-dose indomethacin therapy (up to 1.5 mg/kg total dose Cytoxan Drug Class ). In the 61 initial nonresponders, the continuation of indomethacin led to ductal closure in 59 infants. When infants who were treated with an intermediate dose were compared with the initial nonresponders, no differences in the incidences of renal or electrolyte abnormalities, gastrointestinal bleeding, intraventricular hemorrhage, or periventricular leukomalacia were found.

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Green tea has been receiving considerable attention as a possible preventive agent against cancer and cardiovascular disease. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a major polyphenol component of green tea. Using digital calcium imaging and an assay for [3H]-inositol phosphates, we determined whether EGCG increases intracellular [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) in non-excitable human astrocytoma U87 cells. EGCG induced concentration-dependent increases in [Ca2+]i. The EGCG-induced [Ca2+]i increases were reduced to 20.9% of control by removal of extracellular Ca2+. The increases were also inhibited markedly by treatment with the non-specific Ca2+ channel inhibitors cobalt (3 mM) for 3 min and lanthanum (1 mM) for 5 min. The increases were not significantly inhibited by treatment for 10 min with the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine (100 nM). Treatment with the inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase thapsigargin (1 micro M) also significantly inhibited the EGCG-induced [Ca2+]i increases. Treatment for 15 min with the phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor neomycin (300 micro M) attenuated the increases significantly, while the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein (30 micro M) had no effect. EGCG increased [3H]-inositol phosphates formation via PLC activation. Treatment for 10 min with mefenamic acid (100 micro M) and flufenamic Crestor 10mg Medication acid (100 micro M), derivatives of diphenylamine-2-carboxylate, blocked the EGCG-induced [Ca2+]i increase in non-treated and thapsigargin-treated cells but indomethacin (100 micro M) did not affect the increases. Collectively, these data suggest that EGCG increases [Ca2+]i in non-excitable U87 cells mainly by eliciting influx of extracellular Ca2+ and partly by mobilizing intracellular Ca2+ stores by PLC activation. The EGCG-induced [Ca2+]i influx is mediated mainly through channels sensitive to diphenylamine-2-carboxylate derivatives.

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A total of 405 consecutive patients who Moduretic Tablet Dosage underwent primary lumbar posterolateral intertransverse process fusion with pedicle screw instrumentation were included in this retrospective study. A subtotal of 228 patients received Toradol after surgery for adjunctive analgesia. Each patient received a mandatory dose of 30 mg intravenously every 6 hours for 48 hours. The same surgeon performed the fusion procedure on all of these patients. Historical controls included 177 patients who did not receive Toradol after surgery. The minimum follow-up period was 24 months. Nonunions were diagnosed by analyzing sequential radiographs, flexion-extension radiographs, and computed tomography with multiplanar reconstructions. The gold standard of surgical exploration was performed in symptomatic patients with diagnostic ambiguity or nonunions diagnosed by imaging.

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Glibenclamide's effects on agonist-induced constrictions are unlikely to be via an inhibition of ATP-sensitive K+ channels, and with U46619- and U44069-induced constrictions, glibenclamide may be acting as a competitive antagonist of Dabur Neem Tablets thromboxane receptors.

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To determine if certain non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events Astelin Drug Class : acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke, and death from coronary heart disease (CHD).

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Pharmaceutical compounds have been detected not only in the aqueous phase but also in suspended particles; it is important, therefore, to have a holistic approach in future environmental fate investigation of pharmaceuticals. For example, more research is needed to assess the storage and long-term record of pharmaceutical residues in aquatic sediments by which benthic organisms will be most affected. Aquatic colloids have been shown to account for the accumulation of major fractions of total pharmaceutical concentrations in the aquatic environment, demonstrating unequivocally the importance of aquatic colloids as a sink for such residues in the aquatic systems. As aquatic colloids are abundant, ubiquitous, and highly powerful sorbents, they are expected to influence the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of such chemicals by aquatic organisms. It is therefore critical for colloids to be incorporated into water quality models for prediction and risk assessment purposes.

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The aim of the present study was to scientifically investigate whether Trichosanthes cucumerina Linn (Family: Cucurbitaceae) has gastroprotective activity.

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Oral administration of hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) at the highest dose of 3000 mg/ Kg body weight resulted in no mortalities or evidence of significant behavioral changes. Histological examination revealed normal architecture and no significant adverse effects were observed on the liver, kidney, heart, lung or ovaries and testicles. The results suggest that the oral administration of hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) from Lampaya medicinalis did not produce any toxic effect in rats. Hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in dose - response relationship, at test doses of 37.5, 75, 150 and 300 mg/Kg body weight. Maximum inhibition (61.98 ± 2.69%) was noted at 300 mg/Kg after 2 h of drug treatment carrageenan induced paw edema, whereas indomethacin produced 47.90 ± 1.16% of inhibition. The inhibitory values of edema at 3 h postcarrageenan were 31.04 ± 0.75%, 40.51 ± 2.36%, 48.97 ± 1.14% and 56.87 ± 0.41% for 37.5, 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg of extract respectively. Indomethacin (10 mg/Kg) gave a percentage inhibition of 49.44 ± 1.44. HAE (300 and 150 mg/kg) induced an anti-inflammatory effect greater than (or comparable) with the effect of indomethacin from 2nd to 4th hours of the experiment.

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Coronary flow velocity decreased markedly in premature born lambs given a bolus dose of IND.

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Level III, comparative case series.

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Patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with suspected biliary colic often require intravenous (IV) analgesia. The choice of IV analgesia typically includes opioids and ketorolac. Although ultrasound (US) is the initial diagnostic study in these patients, nondiagnostic scans and a high clinical suspicion may require the patient to undergo hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HIDA). Opioids such as morphine interfere with the HIDA scan and thus may limit its value as an analgesic in the ED for these patients. Analgesics that do not interfere with HIDA scanning include ketorolac and butorphanol, an opioid agonist-antagonist. This study evaluates the efficacy of IV ketorolac compared to butorphanol for the treatment of biliary colic pain in the ED.

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The effect of chronic daidzein, a soybean isoflavone, on aortic reactivity of streptozotocin-diabetic rats was studied. Male diabetic rats received daidzein for 7 weeks a week after diabetes induction. Contractile responses to KCl and phenylephrine (PE) and relaxation response to acetylcholine (ACh) were obtained from aortic rings. Maximum contractile response of endothelium-intact rings to PE was significantly lower in daidzein-treated diabetic rats relative to untreated diabetic rats, and endothelium removal abolished this difference. Endothelium-dependent relaxation to ACh was significantly higher in daidzein-treated diabetic rats as compared with diabetic rats and pretreatment of rings with nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester and/or indomethacin attenuated it. Two-month diabetes also resulted in an elevation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and daidzein treatment significantly reversed the increased MDA content and reduced activity of SOD. Therefore, chronic treatment of diabetic rats with daidzein could prevent some abnormal changes in vascular reactivity in diabetic rats through nitric oxide and prostaglandin-related pathways, and via attenuation of oxidative stress in aortic tissue and endothelium integrity seems essential for this effect.

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Standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group were used. Trials identified by the search strategy were independently reviewed by each author and assessed for eligibility and trial quality. Data were then extracted independently by each author and compared, with any differences resolved following discussion. Any additional information required was requested from trial authors. Only published data was available for review. Results are expressed as typical relative risk and typical risk difference for dichotomous outcomes, and weighted mean difference for continuous variables.

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Maytenus ilicifolia (Celastraceae) is a native plant from Tropical Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica, Brazil) called 'espinheira-santa'. This plant is traditionally used as anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antiulcerogenic. Many studies focusing pharmacological and toxicological aspects of the plant have been performed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy (anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities and protection against gastric lesions, including cytoprotection and healing) and phytochemical profile of hexane and ethylacetate extracts of Maytenus ilicifolia. Per os administration of these extracts inhibited nociception and formaldehyde-induced paw oedema in mice and carrageenin-induced paw oedema in rats. Severity of gastric lesions induced by cold-restraint stress (-18 degrees C for 45 min) method was also clearly reduced in rats considering both cytoprotection and healing aspects. Administration of the extracts led to volume gastric and pH increase. These results suggest that hexane and ethylacetate extracts of Maytenus ilicifolia may represent an important clinical alternative in anti-inflammatory and antiulcerogenic therapeutics, though, further experiments should be performed to confirm this assertion.

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To determine the efficacy of a single dose of oral indometacin compared with placebo in treating acute postoperative pain in adults, and to analyse information relating to adverse events.

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Diabetes in humans and animals is accompanied by chronic low-grade inflammation, which could be a possible mediator of developing neuropathology and neurobehavioral deficits. The objective of the present study determined if decreasing inflammation could reverse diabetes-induced decreases in hippocampal cell proliferation, one aspect of hippocampal neurogenesis. C57BL/6J mice were made diabetic by administering streptozotocin (STZ; 195 mg/kg). STZ mice or vehicle controls received chronic treatment with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin (2 mg/kg for 14 days). Levels of glucose, corticosterone and cytokines were measured from plasma, cell proliferation was measured using BrdU incorporation in the hippocampus and TNF-αR1 and TNF-αR2 mRNA was measured using real-time PCR. STZ-induced diabetes increased plasma levels of glucose and corticosterone and decreased body weight. Cell proliferation in the hippocampus was reduced in diabetic mice by 50 %. The decreased level of cell proliferation was reversed by chronic treatment with indomethacin without changes to corticosterone and glucose levels. Plasma TNF-α levels increased in diabetic mice and were normalized by indomethacin treatment whereas IL-1 and IL-6 levels were unchanged by diabetes or indomethacin. In contrast, plasma levels of the cytokines IL-10 and IFN-gamma decreased in diabetic mice and were not affected by indomethacin treatment. STZ-induced diabetes decreased hippocampal expression of TNF-αR2 but not TNF-αR1 mRNA. Indomethacin ameliorated the effects of STZ on hippocampal neurogenesis independent of corticosterone and glycemic control, possibly by mediating the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α. Inflammation is a potential novel pharmacological target for alleviating neurobehavioral complications arising from diabetes.

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To delineate the differences in clinical characteristics and evaluate the outcome between primary and secondary cough headache, 83 consecutive patients (59M/24F, mean age 61.5 +/- 17.7 years) with cough headache (1.2%) out of 7100 patients in a headache clinic were studied. All of them received brain imaging studies. Most did not have relevant brain lesions (n = 74, 89.2%, primary group) except for nine patients (10.8%, the secondary group). Most of the intracranial lesions were located in the posterior fossa (n = 6, 67%), including only two patients with Chiari malformation. The primary group had a higher response rate to indomethacin than the secondary group (72.7% vs. 37.5 %, P = 0.046). Mild to moderate headache intensity and age onset < 50 years predicted a favourable response. At a mean follow-up of 51.4 months, 83.9% of patients with primary cough headache completely remitted. Inconsistent with the proposed International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edn criteria, 10.8% of patients with primary cough headache had headache duration of > 30 min. Clinical features, neurological examinations and drug response could not safely differentiate primary from secondary cough headache. Neuroimaging studies are required in each patient.

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Ibuprofen improves oxygen-induced retinopathy when administered concurrently with the injury phase without affecting the normal retinal development of the animals.

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Mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) and C-terminal pro-endothelin-1 (CT-proET-1) levels were prospectively measured on the second and sixth days of life (DOL) in 52 preterm infants born before 32weeks of gestation. Echocardiographic indices to define DA patency and significance were simultaneously obtained. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses were used to assess and quantify the biomarkers' diagnostic capacities.

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The aerial parts of Baccharis dracunculifolia D.C., popularly known as "alecrim do campo", are used in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the crude hydroalcoholic extract obtained from leaves of Baccharis dracunculifolia (BdE), which have not been reported.