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Inderal (Propranolol)

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Inderal is an effective medication which helps to fight with hypertension and other heart or circulatory conditions. It is also taken to prevent heart attack and reduce severe headaches. Inderal acts by affecting the heart and circulation.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Propranolol, Innopran XL


Also known as:  Propranolol.


Inderal is a perfect remedy, which helps to fight against hypertension and other heart or circulatory conditions. Its target is to prevent heart attack and reduce severe headaches.

Inderal acts by affecting the heart and circulation. It is beta blocker.

Inderal is also known as Propranolol, Avlocardyl, Deralin, Dociton, Inderalici, InnoPran XL, Sumial, Anaprilinum.

Generic name of Inderal is Propranolol.

Brand names of Inderal are Inderal, Inderal LA, InnoPran XL.


The dosage of Inderal depends on your condition.

Take Inderal tablets and capsules every day at the same time orally with water.

Do not crush or chew it.

The extended-release (long-acting) tablet is usually taken once a day. Immediate-acting Inderal can be taken 2-4 times a day.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Inderal suddenly.


If you overdose Inderal and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Inderal overdosage: shortness of breath, uneven heartbeats, seizure, weakness, fainting, dizziness, bluish-colored fingernails.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Inderal are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Inderal if you are allergic to Inderal components.

Do not take Inderal if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby. Do not use it if you are a nursing mother.

Be careful with Inderal if you are taking heart medicines (such as nifedipine (Procardia, Adalat), reserpine (Serpasil), verapamil (Calan, Verelan, Isoptin), diltiazem (Cartia, Cardizem)), MAO inhibitor (such as isocarboxazid (Marplan), tranylcypromine (Parnate), phenelzine (Nardil), or selegiline (Eldepryl, Emsam)),cold medicines, stimulant medicines or diet pills,medicine for asthma or other breathing disorders (such as albuterol (Ventolin, Proventil), bitolterol (Tornalate), metaproterenol (Alupent), pirbuterol (Maxair), terbutaline (Brethaire, Brethine, Bricanyl) and theophylline (Theo-Dur, Theolair)),a diabetes medication (such as insulin, glyburide (Diabeta, Micronase, Glynase), glipizide (Glucotrol), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), or metformin (Glucophage)), allergy medicine, guanabenz (Wytensin),clonidine (Catapres).

Be careful with Inderal if you suffer from or have a history of bradycardia (<50 beats/minute), uncontrolled congestive heart failure, sick sinus syndrome, atrioventricular block (2 or 3 degree), cocaine toxicity, asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diabetes, depression, liver or kidney disease, myasthenia gravis, Raynaud's syndrome. You can take Inderal on the lower dose.

Be careful with Inderal if you are going to have a surgery.

Do not use potassium supplements or salt substitutes.

If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.

Be very careful when you are driving machine.

Do not stop taking Inderal suddenly.

inderal overdose symptoms

These results suggest that olanzapine might be efficacious for essential tremor. Further clinical trials are indicated to establish the efficacy of olanzapine in patients with ET.

inderal 40 mg

According to this systematic literature review, postmenopausal vasomotor treatments that have been shown to be safe and effective in short-term use include black cohosh, exercise, gabapentin, medroxyprogesterone acetate, SSRIs (ie, paroxetine hydrochloride), and soy protein. Initial, small reports are suggestive for efficacy in menopausal vasomotor symptoms with megestrol acetate and venlafaxine.

inderal 20 mg

We have evaluated the effect of the vanilloid receptor agonists resiniferatoxin (RTX), capsaicin and piperine and of the vanilloid receptor antagonist capsazepine on the resting tone in the isolated rat ileum. Capsazepine (10(-8)-3 x 10(-5) M) produced a concentration-related relaxation (8 +/-3%-49 +/-3%) of the rat ileum. By contrast RTX (up to 10(-8) M), capsaicin (up to 10(-6) M) and piperine (up to 10(-5) M) were without effect. Pre-treatment with capsaicin [either in vivo (50 mg/kg s.c.) or in vitro (10(-6) M)] did not modify the inhibitory effect of capsazepine. The L-type Ca2+ channel antagonist nifedipine (10(-6) M), but not the N-type Ca2+ channel antagonist omega-conotoxin GVIA (3 x 10(-8) M) nor the Na+ channel blocker tetrodotoxin (3 x 10(-7) M), counteracted the inhibitory effect of capsazepine. The NK1 receptor antagonist SR 140333 (10(-7) M), the NK2 receptor antagonist SR 48968 (10(-6) M), the NK3 receptor antagonist SR 142801 (10(-7) M), atropine (10(-6) M), hexamethonium (10(-4) M), phentolamine (10(-6) M) plus propranolol (10(-6) M), N(G)-nitro- L-arginine methyl ester ( L-NAME 3 x 10(-4) M), apamin (10(-7) M), methysergide (10(-6) M), the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) antagonist hCGRP 8-37 (1.5 x 10(-6) M), the VIP antagonist hGRF 1-29 (10(-5) M) did not modify the inhibitory effect of capsazepine. Capsazepine (2.5-40 mg/kg) also decreased upper gastrointestinal transit in vivo. It is concluded that the vanilloid antagonist capsazepine has a direct relaxing effect on rat intestinal smooth muscle which could involve L-type calcium channels. We found no evidence to suggest that capsazepine is antagonizing an endogenous vanilloid.

inderal 25 mg

The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effects of the short-acting beta2-adrenoceptor agonist salbutamol and the long-acting beta2-adrenoceptor agonist salmeterol on hypoxia-induced rat diaphragm force reduction. In vitro diaphragm twitch force (Pt) and maximal tetanic force (Po) of isolated diaphragm muscle strips were measured for 90 min during hyperoxia (tissue bath PO2 83.8 +/- 0.9 kPa and PCO2 3.9 +/- 0.1 kPa) or severe hypoxia (PO2 7.1 +/- 0.3 kPa and PCO2 3.9 +/- 0.1 kPa) in the presence and absence of 1 microM salbutamol or 1 microM salmeterol. During hyperoxia, salbutamol and salmeterol did not significantly alter the time-related decreases in Pt and Po (to approximately 50% of initial values). Salbutamol had no effects on Po or the Pt-to-Po ratio. Salmeterol treatment significantly reduced Po and increased the Pt-to-Po ratio during hyperoxia (P < 0.05 compared with control value). Hypoxia resulted in a severe decrease in Pt (to approximately 30% of initial value) and Po after 90 min. Both salbutamol and salmeterol significantly reduced the decline in Pt during hypoxia (P < 0.05). The reduction in Po was not prevented. Salbutamol increased Pt rapidly but transiently. Salmeterol had a delayed onset of effect and a longer duration of action. Addition of 1 microM propranolol (a nonselective beta-adrenoceptor antagonist) did not alter Pt, Po, or the Pt-to-Po ratio during hypoxia but completely blocked the inotropic effects of salbutamol and salmeterol, indicating that these effects are dependent on beta2-adrenoceptor agonist-related processes.

inderal 5mg tablet

Participating centres entered data on all of their patients who had completed treatment with oral propranolol for IHs, using an online data capture tool.

inderal 30 mg

Adrenergic control of cardiovascular function is a common component of regulation in embryonic birds studied to date. Our goal was to investigate adrenergic and cholinergic cardiovascular regulation in two goose species, the Canada goose (Branta canadensis) and the related domestic goose (Anser anser domesticus) to determine if these species possess similar regulation during embryonic development. We determined mean arterial pressure (Pm) and heart rate (fH) responses to serial blockade of cholinergic, β-adrenergic and α-adrenergic receptors in B. canadensis and A. domesticus at 70 and 90% of total incubation (28days). Both species possessed cholinergic and β-adrenergic tone on fH at 70% of incubation that increased in intensity with development. In addition, a constant α-adrenergic tone on Pm was present in both species. Our findings indicate that these geese species possess both cholinergic and adrenergic cardiovascular regulation providing information needed for speculation regarding the commonalities in the ontogeny of these cardiovascular regulatory elements in birds.

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A literature search of Ovid, Embase, the Cochrane database, Google™ Scholar, and Medline using PubMed as the search engine was performed to identify studies that analysed the effect of propranolol treatment in children with airway haemangiomas. Random-effect meta-analytical techniques were conducted for the outcome measures.

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In young children with unintentional, single drug exposure to the most popular antihypertensive medication (i.e., metoprolol, bisoprolol, ramipril, enalapril, lisinopril, captopril, candesartan, valsartan, amlodipine, and verapamil), only mild symptoms occurred, and hospital evaluation is not a must. However, children with recent exposure to clonidine or moxonidine should be evaluated at a hospital due to an increased likelihood of poisonings of at least moderate severity.

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Tongue tremor is commonly associated with essential tremor, but rarely presents as an initial finding. Essential tremor is the most common movement disorder and is characterised by 4-12 Hz postural and kinetic tremor, but there is no universally accepted diagnostic criterion. It commonly affects the arms, and to a lesser extent, other regions of the body, and signs and symptoms tend to worsen during emotional or physiological stress. We describe a rare isolated presentation of tongue tremor as a part of essential tremor, its management, and the diagnostic dilemma. To our knowledge isolated tongue tremor as a presentation of essential tremor has not previously been described in maxillofacial publications.

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Recent controversial publications, citing studies purporting to show that P-gp mediates the transport of propranolol, proposed that passive biological membrane transport is negligible. Based on the BDDCS, the extensively metabolized-highly permeable-highly soluble BDDCS class 1 drug, propranolol, shows a high passive permeability at concentrations unrestricted by solubility that can overwhelm any potential transporter effects. Here we reinvestigate the effects of passive diffusion and carrier-mediated transport on S-propranolol.

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Changes in maternal catecholamines that accompany the onset of labor analgesia include a decrease in epinephrine (EPI) but no change in norepinephrine (NE). Because EPI exerts predominantly beta-adrenergic, and NE predominantly alpha-adrenergic effects in circulating concentrations, we hypothesized that these changes could lead to uterine arteriole vasoconstriction.

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Basic autonomic nervous function was evaluated in patients with neurocardiogenic syncope (NCS). Atropine, isoproterenol, propranolol, phenylephrine, and phentolamine were administered successively, and parasympathetic nerve activity and beta- (and alpha-) activity, sensitivity, and secretion of the sympathetic nerve were determined in patients with NCS and control subjects. In patients with NCS, beta- and alpha- sensitivity were higher and beta-activity and beta- and alpha-secretion lower than in control subjects. In patients with NCS, the increased basic beta-sensitivity may contribute to induce strong cardiac contractions and augment ventricular mechanoreceptor response, and a compensatory state against diminished neuronal sympathetic activity is suggested by the increased alpha-sensitivity.

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β-Adrenergic signaling could contribute to initiation and progression of breast cancer. This research investigated some potential mechanisms of propranolol in amelioration of progression and survival in breast cancer.

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beta-adrenoceptor-mediated relaxation was investigated in ring preparations of rat isolated thoracic aorta. Rings were pre-constricted with a sub-maximal concentration of noradrenaline (1 microM) and relaxant responses to cumulative concentrations of beta-adrenoceptor agonists obtained. The concentration-response curve (CRC) to isoprenaline was shifted to the right by propranolol (0.3 microM) with a steepening of the slope. Estimation of the magnitude of the shift from EC(50) values gave a pA(2) of 7.6. Selective beta(1)- and beta(2)-adrenoceptor antagonists, CGP 20712A (0.1 microM) and ICI 118551 (0.1 microM), respectively, produced 4 and 14 fold shifts of the isoprenaline CRC. Atypical beta-adrenoceptor agonists also produced concentration-dependent relaxation of aortic rings. The order of potency of the beta-adrenoceptor agonists was (-log EC(50)): isoprenaline (6. 25)>cyanopindolol (5.59)>isoprenaline+propranolol (5.11)>CGP 12177A (4.40)>ZD 2079 (4.24)>ZM 215001 (4.07)>BRL 37344 (3.89). Relaxation to CGP 12177A and ZM 215001 was unaffected by propranolol (0.3 microM). SR 59230A (

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The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) at a 10 microM concentration elicited a stimulation of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation in cultured astrocytes derived from embryonic rat striatum. This accumulation was partially blocked by the beta-adrenergic receptors antagonist propranolol, mimicked by the D(1) agonist SKF 38393 and by the mixed D(1)/D(2) agonist apomorphine. A regional heterogeneity in the magnitude of dopamine-induced cAMP accumulation was observed in cultured astrocytes obtained from different brain areas. The maximum effect was observed in striatal astrocytes, a lower effect in cortical astrocytes, and no increase was detected in cerebellar astrocytes. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) coupled to Southern blot hybridization demonstrated that striatal astrocytes express only D(1) receptor mRNA and Western blot analysis confirmed the expression of the D(1) receptor protein in striatal astrocytes. In contrast to what found in neurons, the D(1)-dependent cAMP formation in striatal astrocytes is partially reduced by pertussis toxin (PTX) treatment. The stimulation of D(1) receptors or the activation of adenylyl cyclase by forskolin led to an increase of cytosolic and nuclear protein kinase A (PKA) catalytic activity. The presence of dopamine D(1) receptors in cultured striatal astrocytes suggests a role of dopamine in the regulation of cellular processes in striatal astrocytes.

inderal 10mg dosage

We searched for compounds that are pharmacologically active on ureteral motility for treating ureteral colic to ease retrograde access into the ureter and improve the clearance of stones or stone particles from the ureter. The effects of the alpha1-adrenergic receptor agonist phenylephrine, the nonselective beta and beta2-adrenergic receptor agonists isoproterenol and fenoterol, and the phosphodiesterase inhibitors papaverine (nonspecific) and rolipram (type IV) on the frequency and amplitude of ureteral contractions when administered intravenously or topically were investigated in pigs.

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inderal buy 2016-02-25

All cell lines expressed β-ARs. ICI118,551 was the most cytotoxic, inderal buy whereas atenolol was the least effective β-AR antagonist for 24, 48, and 72 h. Cell invasion was inhibited by ICI118,551 (45, 46, and 50% for MCF7, HT29, and HepG2, respectively) and propranolol (72, 65, and 90% for MCF7, HT29, and HepG2, respectively). Propranolol, atenolol, and ICI118,551 reduced migration of MCF7, HT-29, and HepG2 cells to varying extents depending on the application concentration and duration. Propranolol and atenolol reduced migration of MCF7 and HT-29 in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas migration of these cells decreased after 48 and 72 h of ICI118,551 applications.

inderal buy 2017-08-26

Both interventions led to significant decreases inderal buy in body weight, fat mass, and fat-free mass (P < 0.001); these decreases did not differ significantly between the D and DE groups. Neither intervention significantly affected VO2max. The effect of the intervention on the respiratory exchange ratio differed significantly between the D and DE groups [two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), P < 0.05]. The effect on the beta-adrenergic-mediated respiratory exchange ratio tended to be different between the 2 groups (two-way ANOVA, P = 0.09).

inderal buy 2017-12-28

Treatment with a combination of Cialis 5mg Generic chlorthalidone and amiloride compared with losartan yielded a greater reduction in BP.

inderal buy 2015-03-10

A fraction of cluster headache (CH) patients face diagnostic Nizoral Generic Shampoo delay, misdiagnosis, undertreatment and mismanagement. Specific data for Flanders are warranted.

inderal buy 2016-05-04

Fifteen papers were included in the review. Of these, 14 reported trials comparing anticonvulsants with placebo, as follows: four trials of divalproex sodium, three trials of topiramate, two trials of sodium valproate, two trials of gabapentin, and one trial each of carbamazepine, clonazepam, and lamotrigine. One paper reported a trial of sodium valproate versus an active comparator, flunarizine, and one trial of divalproex sodium versus placebo included a comparison against propranolol, also an active comparator. Data from 2024 patients were considered. Analysis of data from eight trials (n = 841) demonstrates that anticonvulsants, considered as a class, reduce migraine frequency by about 1.4 attacks per 28 days as compared to placebo (SMD -0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.93 to -0.26). Data from 10 trials (n = 1341) show that anticonvulsants, considered as a class, also more than double the number of patients for whom migraine frequency is reduced by 50% or more, relative to placebo (OR 3.90; 95% CI 2.61 to 5.82; NNT 3.8; 95% CI 3.2 to 4.6). For seven trials of sodium valproate and divalproex sodium, NNHs for Amaryl Generic Equivalent five clinically important adverse events ranged from 6.6 to 16.3. For the three trials of topiramate, NNHs for eight adverse events (100-mg dose) ranged from 2.4 to 32.9.

inderal buy 2015-08-13

Reduction in QT dispersion in patients with heart failure using propranolol may explain the reduction in the risk of sudden cardiac death with Viagra 200mg Dose beta-blocker therapy, in this specific group of patients.

inderal buy 2015-11-27

Ninety-four articles were identified. Seventeen articles met the study criteria. These studies primarily Hyzaar Reviews focused on superficial IHs. Response rates for topical propranolol and topical timolol were not significantly different, 76% [95% confidence interval (CI), 62%-86%] and 83% (95% CI, 65%-93%), respectively (P=0.45). Prospectively conducted studies reported lower response rates compared to retrospective studies for both topical propranolol (P=0.06) and topical timolol (P<0.01). When only prospectively conducted studies were included, response rates for topical propranolol and topical timolol were not significantly different, 72% (95% CI, 57%-83%) and 72% (95% CI, 53%-86%), respectively (P=0.98). Significant adverse effects were rare. Only 1 case of sleep disturbance was reported across 554 patients from all studies.

inderal buy 2016-04-03

Suspensions of propranolol (2 and 5 mg/mL) were prepared in the sugar-free vehicle (Ora-Blend SF), placed in 100-mL amber plastic prescription bottles, and stored at 25° Trental Reviews C and 4°C. Samples were collected from each bottle once weekly for 120 days, stored frozen, and analyzed by a validated, stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography - ultraviolet detection method. A suspension was considered stable if it maintained at least 90% of its initial concentration of propranolol. Physical compatibility was evaluated in terms of colour, taste, precipitation, and pH.

inderal buy 2016-04-14

The effects of the combined distension of the stomach and the descending colon on coronary blood flow were examined in seven alpha-chloralose anaesthetized pigs whilst preventing changes in heart rate and aortic blood pressure. Changes in coronary blood flow in the left circumflex or anterior descending coronary artery were assessed using electromagnetic flowmeters during distension with Ringer solution of balloons positioned in the viscera. In a first set of studies, graded distension of the stomach with distending volumes of 0.8, 1.1 and 1.4 l always caused graded decreases in coronary blood flow. The additional distension of the descending colon at a distending volume of 0.25 l augmented the response of decrease in coronary blood flow caused by the first two levels of gastric distension, but it did not have any further effect when added to the higher level of gastric distension. Similar results were obtained in a second set of studies in which distension of the stomach at a volume of 0.8 l was additionally performed during graded distension of the descending colon with distending volumes of 0.25, 0.35 and 0.45 l. These effects elicited by combined distension of the two viscera were not affected Priligy Online Uk by the administration of propranolol, but they were abolished by subsequent administration of phentolamine. The results showed that combined distension of the stomach and the descending colon in anaesthetized pigs augmented the reflex response of coronary vasoconstriction and that the response to distension of one viscus was attenuated during increased levels of distension of the other viscus. These combined responses to distension of the two viscera involved efferent sympathetic mechanisms related to alpha-adrenoceptors.

inderal buy 2016-11-20

A case of chloral hydrate overdose causing resistant ventricular arrhythmias is Asacol Tablets 400mg presented. Our case and other case reports suggest that chloral hydrate-induced arrhythmias are resistant to standard antiarrhythmic agents and that intravenous beta blockers should be the firstline treatment for these arrhythmias.

inderal buy 2016-03-25

Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is under the control of both mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear genomes and is central to energy homeostasis. To investigate how its function and regulation are integrated within cells, we systematically combined four cell-based assays of OXPHOS physiology with multiplexed measurements of nuclear and mtDNA gene expression across 2,490 small-molecule perturbations in cultured muscle. Mining the resulting compendium revealed, first, that protein synthesis inhibitors can decouple coordination of nuclear and mtDNA transcription; second, that a subset of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, combined with propranolol, can cause mitochondrial toxicity, yielding potential clues about the etiology of statin myopathy; and, third, that structurally diverse microtubule inhibitors stimulate OXPHOS transcription while suppressing reactive oxygen species, via a transcriptional mechanism involving PGC-1alpha and ERRalpha, and thus may be useful in treating age-associated degenerative disorders. Our screening compendium can be used as a discovery tool both for understanding mitochondrial biology and toxicity and for identifying novel therapeutics.

inderal buy 2016-07-04

Neurotrophins and other neurotrophic factors have been shown to support the survival and differentiation of many neuronal populations of the central and peripheral nervous system. Therefore, administering neurotrophic factors could represent an alternative strategy for the treatment of acute and chronic brain disorders. However, the delivery of neurotrophic factors to the brain is one of the largest obstacles in the development of effective therapy for neurodegenerative disorders, because these proteins are not able to cross the blood-brain barrier. The induction of growth factor synthesis in the brain tissue by systemically administered lipophilic drugs, such as beta-adrenoceptor agonists, shown to increase endogenous nerve growth factor (NGF) synthesis in the brain, would be an elegant way to overcome these problems of application. Stimulation of beta-adrenoceptors with clenbuterol led to increased NGF synthesis in cultured central nervous system (CNS) cells and rat brain tissue. Clenbuterol-induced NGF expression was reduced to the control levels by coadministration of beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol. Furthermore, clenbuterol protected rat hippocampal neurons subjected to excitotoxic damage. The neuroprotective effect of clenbuterol in vitro depended on increased NGF synthesis, since the neuroprotection was abolished by NGF antisense oligonucleotide as well as by antibodies directed against NGF itself. In vivo, clenbuterol protected rat hippocampus in a model of transient forebrain ischemia and reduced the infarct volume in a rat model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). The neuroprotective effect of clenbuterol in vivo was accompanied by enhanced NGF synthesis in brain tissue. These findings support our hypothesis that orally active NGF inducers may have a potential as therapeutic agents for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders and stroke.

inderal buy 2017-12-12

Myocytes were exposed to NE alone (10 micromol/L), NE+propranolol (2 micromol/L), NE+prazosin (0.1 micromol/L), or isoproterenol (ISO, 10 micromol/L) for 24 hours. NE and ISO decreased the number of viable myocytes by approximately 35%. This effect was completely blocked by the beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol but was not affected by the alpha1-adrenergic antagonist prazosin. NE increased DNA laddering on agarose gel electrophoresis and increased the percentage of cells that were stained by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end-labeling from 5.8+/-1. 0% to 21.0+/-2.3% (P<0.01; n=4). NE likewise increased the percentage of apoptotic cells with hypodiploid DNA content as assessed by flow cytometry from 7.8+/-0.7% to 16.7+/-2.2% (P<0.01; n=6), and this effect was abolished by propranolol but not prazosin. ISO and forskolin (10 micromol/L) mimicked the effect of NE, increasing the percentage of apoptotic cells to 14.7+/-1.9% and 14. 4+/-2.2%, respectively. NE-stimulated apoptosis was abolished by the protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 (20 micromol/L) or the voltage-dependent calcium channel blockers diltiazem and nifedipine.

inderal buy 2016-09-11

The permanent ventricular tachycardia (PVT) represent a rare and dangerous arrhythmia that causes prognostic and therapeutic difficulties. Three patients admitted during last year for PVT complicating ischemic cardiomyopathy in two cases and idiopathic cardiomyopathy in the last case. These patients were admitted from emergency department for sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia. The ECG showed wide QRS tachycardia of ventricular origin. The direct current shock (DCS) has revealed ECG criteria of old myocardial infarction in two cases. The transthoracic echocardiography displayed dilated left ventricule (LV) with 35% mean ejection fraction. It also showed the presence of LV aneurysm in one case. The cardiac catheterization showed proximal left anterior descending artery obstruction in one patient and left circomflex artery stenosis in other patient. There was no indication of revascularization because of the age of myocardial infarction. The follow-up of these patients demonstrated the persistence of the VT for at least 6 days with recurrence after the DCS and resistant to Lidocaïne-Amiodarone association. The sinus rhythm was established by the propranolol-Amiodarone in one patient, Amiodarone added to treatment of congestive heart failure for the patient with ventricular aneurysm. The third patient died after one week of PVT complicated by cardiogenic shock just before a trial of radiofrequency ablation (RFA). We concluded through these cases that PVT is a troublesome arrhythmia for more than one reason. It appears of tewly in patients with advanced cardiomyopathy worsening the hemodynamic conditions oftenly the pharmacological treatment is mostly always difficult. The treatment of choice is RFA for those resistant to medical treatment.

inderal buy 2016-06-14

The antihistaminic effects of aqueous and macerated extracts, essential oil, 20 nM chlorpheniramine, and saline were tested by performing the cumulative log concentration-response curves of histamine-induced contraction of isolated guinea pig tracheal chains incubated with three different conditions including: (1) 1.4 microM indomethacin, (2) indomethacin, 1 microM propranolol, and 10 nM atropine, and (3) indomethacin and propranolol (for each group n = 8). The results showed clear parallel rightward shifts in histamine-response curves obtained in the presence of macerated extract in group 2, aqueous extract in group 3, and essential oil in groups 2 and 3 experiments compared with the curves obtained in the presence of saline. The EC50 (effective concentration of histamine causing 50% of maximum response) obtained in the presence of essential oil, extracts, and chlorpheniramine in all three sets of experiments were significantly higher than that of saline (P<0.05 to p<0.001). The maximum response obtained in the presence of aqueous extract in group 3 compared to group I and that of macerated extract in group 2 compared to the other two sets of experiments were improved. These results indicated a competitive antagonistic effect of Bunium persicum at histamine H1 receptors.

inderal buy 2016-02-04

One-to-one synchronization of heart rate to the cardiac sympathetic nerve stimuli was observed in Sprague-Dawley rats. Propranolol and L-propranolol, but not D-propranolol, blocked 1:1 synchronization evoked by the nerve stimulation. Thus, 1:1 synchronization is entirely ascribable to neurally released norepinephrine. When a single volley was applied to the cardiac sympathetic nerve, there was a significant abbreviation of the respective cardiac cycle at which the stimulus fell. The mean latency was 33.1 +/- 2.29 ms (mean +/- SE). The extent of the abbreviation of the cardiac cycle was linearly correlated to the interval between P wave and a nerve stimulus. These results ensure that the effect of the sympathetic nerve stimulation is phase dependent and that the sympathetic nerve can entrain the heart beat as well as the parasympathetic nerve can.

inderal buy 2015-10-12

Treatment with beta-blockers may increase mortality in patients with cirrhosis and refractory ascites. However, the current evidence is sparse and high-quality studies are warranted to clarify the matter.

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To outline a safe, standardized protocol for outpatient initiation of propranolol therapy for infantile hemangiomas.

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Droxidopa improves hemodynamic and renal alterations of cirrhotic rats without changing portal pressure. We aimed to evaluate the effects of a combined treatment with droxidopa and non-selective beta-blockers or statins in order to decrease portal pressure, while maintaining droxidopa beneficial effects.

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We compared the effectiveness of venlafaxine and propranolol for the prophylaxis of vestibular migraine (VM).

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Propranolol can prevent variceal bleeding by ameliorating portal hypertension. We conducted this study to determine the effect of propranolol on portal hypertension and the optimal required dose in Korean cirrhotic patients.

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Low-dose propranolol (20 mg, three times daily) was used to treat 2 adult female patients in their mid- to late fifties, both of whom had symptomatic cavernous malformations and a history of repeated hemorrhage. Serial magnetic resonance imaging studies after the initiation of propranolol demonstrated regression of the lesions and no evidence of recurrent hemorrhage.

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We studied the mechanisms underlying alpha2-adrenergic receptor (AR)-mediated increase in intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i) in freshly dispersed myometrial cells from sows in the luteal phase of the estrous cycle. After the blockade of beta-ARs with propranolol, epinephrine increased [Ca2+]i dose-dependently in both the presence and absence of extracellular Ca2+. The rank order of alpha antagonists in inhibiting [Ca2+]i response to epinephrine was yohimbine > WB4101 > prazosin in both the presence and absence of extracellular Ca2+, suggesting that epinephrine acts on alpha(2A)-ARs to increase Ca2+ influx as well as Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. Thapsigargin, the blocker of the Ca2+ pump in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, abolished the release but did not affect the influx. Pertussis toxin (PTX) inhibited the influx but failed to change the release. Nimodipine, an L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, nearly abolished the influx. The peak increase in [Ca2+]i caused by epinephrine was reached within 20 sec of administration. Intracellular cAMP concentrations were also decreased at 20 sec post-epinephrine. Epinephrine enhanced the L-type Ca2+ channel current, whereas forskolin suppressed it. Maximization of intracellular cAMP content by applying 8-bromo-cAMP (100 microM) blocked the effect of epinephrine on the current. U-73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor, reduced the Ca2+ release by epinephrine and oxytocin. Our results suggested that 1) activation of alpha2-ARs induces Ca2+ influx through opening L-type Ca2+ channels as well as inducing Ca2+ release from intracellular stores, and 2) a PTX-sensitive G protein couples negatively to adenylyl cyclase, leading to a decrease in cAMP formation which may be involved in the activation of Ca2+ channels. In addition, our results are consistent with the coupling of alpha2-ARs to a PTX-insensitive G protein (G(q)) to release Ca2+ from intracellular stores.

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The atypical beta-adrenoceptors mediating relaxation in the guinea pig duodenum were studied using catecholamines (isoprenaline, noradrenaline and adrenaline), a selective beta3-adrenoceptor agonist BRL37344 ((R*,R*)-(+/-)-4-[2-[(2-(3-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl)amino]propyl]phe noxyacetic acid sodium salt) and a non-conventional partial beta3-adrenoceptor agonist CGP12177A ((-)-4-(3-t-butylamino-2-hydroxypropoxy)benzimidazol-2-one)). Catecholamines and beta3-adrenoceptor agonists induced concentration-dependent relaxation in this preparation. Propranolol (1 microM) produced only small rightward shifts in the concentration-response curves of these agonists. In the presence of propranolol (1 microM), however, a non-selective beta1-, beta2- and beta3-adrenoceptor antagonist bupranolol caused a concentration-dependent rightward shift of the concentration-response curves for catecholamines and beta3-adrenoceptor agonists. Schild plot analyses of the effects of bupranolol against these agonists gave pA2 values of 6.02 (isoprenaline), 5.98 (noradrenaline), 5.93 (adrenaline), 6.51 (BRL37344) and 5.70 (CGP12177A), respectively, and all Schild slopes were not significantly different from unity. These results suggest that atypical beta-adrenoceptors are present in the guinea pig duodenum and involved in mediating the functional relaxant response.