The significance between % clot lysis of five groups by means of weight difference was tested by the one-way ANOVA.
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Guduchi Ghana is one of the unique Ayuvedic classical preparation which is prepared from aqueous of extract of Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers.) stem. It is one of the frequently used drugs to treat the Madhumeha, Pandu, Kamala, Amlapitta, Grahani, Kustha, Jirna Jwara and Viswamjwara, Trishna, Shool, Yakritavikara, etc. Looking to these indications, in market most of the Pharma industries prepared Guduchi Ghana by applying the various extraction process.
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Raw material was procured from The Pharmacy, Gujarat Ayurved University and authenticated at Pharmacognosy Laboratory. Individual drugs were powdered and blended in specified ratio to obtain Rasayana Churna (RC). RC was levigated with decoction of Amalaki, Guduchi and Gokshura to prepare Bhavita Rasayana Churna (BRC). Both the samples were subjected to accelerated stability studies by following standard guidelines.
Excellent memory, extraordinary intelligence, great academic achievement, and successful career are the dreams of every individual in this era of competition and professionalism. A good memory power acts as a catalyst in all walks of life, be it academic success or maintenance of personal relationships. It is observed that an average man uses only 10% of his natural memory. Remaining 90% is left unused in a haphazard manner. As per the American psychologist Carl Emil Seashore, if one is alert and makes systematic attempts to awaken and use the natural memory properly, his/her natural memory would be activated creatively and would offer benefits of higher order. A comparative study was conducted comprising 90 subjects to know the efficacy of Medhya Rasayana and Yogic practices in short-term memory of school-going children. The study was conducted over a period of 3 months. It was an open, prospective, and randomized clinical study. The subjects of group A formed the control group and they were observed silently for 3 months without any intervention. The subjects in group B were administered with Choorna (powder) of four Medhya Rasayanas, Mandukaparni (Centella asiatica Linn.), Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.), Guduchi [Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers ex Hook. f. and Thoms.], and Sankhapushpi (Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy), at a dose of 2 g twice daily with milk. Subjects belonging to group C were advocated regular Yogic practices of Asanas, Pranayama, and Dhyana. Further study revealed that among the three groups, group B treated with Medhya Rasayana showed highly significant and most effective changes with respect to objective parameters in the tests, i.e. (1) short-term memory test pictures and (2) serial recall effects test using memory scope. Among the three groups, group C treated with Yogic practices showed highly significant and most effective changes with respect to subjective and objective parameters in mini mental status scale i.e. test 3. The treatment is cost effective and devoid of side effects, which can be beneficial for the community. Mean increase after first follow-up in group B was higher as compared to group C. This shows that Medhya Rasayanas are quick in action and bring about improvement in memory faster when compared with Yogic practices. So, on the whole, group B can be considered to be the most efficient among the three groups.
It is believed that the enhanced microbicidal and tumoricidal capability of activated macrophages is related to the remarkable increase in the production of oxygen metabolites. Both the production of H2O2 and the oxidation of NAD(P)H are directly dependent upon NAD(P)H-oxidase. It has been established that the respiratory burst is due to activation of NAD(P)H-oxidase localised in the plasmalemma. Myeloperoxidase is believed to be involved in augmenting the cytotoxic activity of H2O2. It was observed that the macrophage cell line J774A.1 when treated with Tinospora cordifolia (guduchi) and LPS showed enhanced NADH-oxidase, NADPH-oxidase and myeloperoxidase production as compared to macrophages treated with medium alone. The direct drug treatment to J774A cells showed activation as assessed by biochemical assays. These results suggest that high NADH-oxidase, NADPH-oxidase and myeloperoxidase activities may account for tumoricidal and microbicidal properties via macrophage activation.
Generally, skin diseases run a chronic course and the recurrence is very common. Mandip and Chandola (2009) reported that Shirishadi Decoction administered orally and simultaneously Snuhyadi Lepa applied externally to the patients of Vicharchika (Eczema) provided complete remission to 18.2% patients, marked improvement to 42.4% patients and moderate improvement to 36.4% patients but the recurrence rate was very high i.e. 80%. Charaka, in the context of the treatment of Apasmara mentions that in all the chronic diseases, Rasayana drugs should be prescribed. As eczema is a chronic disease and its recurrences are very common, therefore, it was thought desirable to evaluate the role of the Rasayana drugs in the cure and prevention of the recurrence of Vicharchika (Eczema). In this study, total 38 patients of Vicharchika (Eczema) were registered, among which 31 patients completed the full course of treatment. These patients were first subjected to Koshtha Shuddhi done with Aragvadha (Cassia fistula) Hima administered orally at bedtime for initial eight days. Thereafter 30 ml of Shirishadi Decoction and 6 gm of Guduchi (Tinospora cardifolia) and Bhringaraja (Eclipta alba) powder was given with Ghrita. Both the drugs were given twice daily after meals orally. Simultaneously, Snuhyadi Lepa was applied on the eczematous lesions. Results of the study showed that addition of Rasayana drugs provided complete remission to 22.6% and checked the recurrence of the disease in the 89.5% patients of Vicharchika (Eczema).
Guduchi ImP was purified from dry stem powder extract by anion-exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose. Characterization of guduchi ImP was performed by SDS-PAGE, periodic acid-Schiff staining, HPLC, and immunochemical analyses. Immunostimulatory activity was assessed by lymphocyte proliferation and macrophage activation assays. Fresh guduchi stem/leaf, guduchi satwa and guduchi capsules were also analyzed for the presence of guduchi ImP.
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The study was carried out on 30 healthy volunteers after obtaining written informed consent. They were randomly distributed in three groups. Each group was treated with three different colored capsules containing Ashwagandha, Guduchi and placebo in the dose of 1 capsule (500 mg) twice a day for 6 months. The parameters such as hemoglobin%, Erythorcyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), Malondialdehyde (MDA), Super-Oxide Dismutase (SOD) level, etc., were assessed before and after treatment. The Student's t-test was applied to assess significant variations in all of the studied parameters.
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Gamma-irradiation confirms hygienic quality and improves shelf life of food and other products. However, there is a lack of international consensus over considering this as a general application and different regulations are being enforced. EPR is one of the most promising techniques to identify irradiated foodstuffs for regulatory requirements but it has many limitations. Improved approaches based on the EPR technique explained in this study may be useful to identify irradiated products and become beneficial to food regulators and food irradiation enterprises to enhance confidence in irradiation technology.
In this study, there were 29 patients in each group, receiving either Livwin (containing Ashwagandha, Arjuna, Bhumyamalaki, Daruharidra, Guduchi, Kutki and Punarnava) or placebo capsules containing lactose powder (500 mg). Both drugs were given orally two capsules two times a day for eight weeks followed by treatment free period of four weeks. Recovery of patients was assessed by noting symptomatic recovery and by measuring levels of serum bilirubin, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase at baseline, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks.
The radiosensitizing activity of dichloromethane extract of guduchi [Tinospora cordifolia (WILLD.) MIERS ex HOOK. F. & THOMS. Family: Menispermaceae (TCE)] in the mice transplanted with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) was investigated. The EAC mice received 0, 25, 30, 40, 50 or 100 mg/kg b.wt. TCE 1 h before exposure to 6 Gy hemi-body gamma-radiation and then once daily for another eight consecutive days after irradiation. The EAC mice receiving TCE for the above regimen showed a dose-dependent elevation in tumor-free survival; the highest radiosensitizing activity was observed at 30 mg/kg b. wt. TCE. Treatment of animals with 30 mg/kg b. wt. TCE, 1 h before exposure to 6 Gy of hemi-body gamma irradiation and subsequently once daily for another six consecutive days post-irradiation increased the life span of EAC mice. This is evident by more number of long-term survivors (LTS) as well as survivors beyond 120 days when compared to the group of animals that received TCE after irradiation for six consecutive days. Treatment modality was also altered to assess the radiosensitizing effect of TCE before and after irradiation. Evaluation of glutathione (GSH), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation (LPx) in mice treated with TCE 1 h before irradiation and subsequently once daily for another six days showed a significant decline in GSH up to 14 h and GST up to 24 h accompanied by a significant elevation in LPx at 12 h post-irradiation. The radiosensitization of TCE may be due to depletion of glutathione and glutathione-S-transferase, accompanied by elevated levels of lipid peroxidation and DNA damage of tumor cells. Since Tinospora cordifolia is being used in India for treatment of various ailments, it may offer an alternative treatment strategy for cancer in combination with gamma radiation.
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The above findings suggest that this commercially available extract of Guduchi (T. cordifolia) possess analgesic activity. This analgesic activity probably involves peripheral as well as central mechanisms as the extract showed analgesic activity in both hot plate and abdominal writhing method.
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Thrombotic disorders are among the major fatal conditions affecting the society. Treatment modalities used for such disorders are either surgical interventions or use of drugs such as urokinase, streptokinase (SK), or tissue plasminogen activators to dissolve the blood clots. These modalities have their own limitations and side effects apart from being expensive. There is a need for safer and cost effective antithrombolytic agents.
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To evaluate shelf-life of two samples of Rasayana Churna.
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Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi) has been used for centuries for treating various ailments including cancer in Ayurvedic system of medicine. In this study, we report the mechanism of cell death exhibited by the hexane extract fraction of T. cordifolia (TcHf) against Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) in mice. Treatment of EAT bearing animals with TcHf resulted in growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. TcHf induced the formation of apoptotic bodies, nuclear condensation, typical DNA ladder, activation of caspase-3, decreased cell number and ascites volume. We examined TcHf for its effect on proliferation and cell cycle progression in EAT cells. The results showed that TcHf inhibited the proliferation of EAT cells by blocking cell cycle progression in the G1 phase. In Western blot analysis, apoptosis in the EAT cells was associated with the constitutive expression of caspase activated DNase (CAD) in both nucleus and cytoplasm after TcHf treatment. Further more the expression of pro-apoptotic gene, Bax, was increased and the expression of anti-apoptotic gene, Bcl-2, was decreased in a time dependent manner by TcHf treatment. All results indicate that the hexane fraction of T. cordifolia is capable of inducing apoptosis in EAT cells in vivo.
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Tinospora cordifolia also known as Giloy or Guduchi, is an indigenous climber plant indigenous to tropical areas of India, Myanmar and Sri Lanka. Its stem is used for treatment of fever, jaundice, emaciation, skin ailments, diabetes, anaemia and various infectious diseases. The study was undertaken to evaluate the proximate and elemental analysis of the stems of Tinospora cordifolia. The proximate analyses were carried out using standard methods, while mineral elements were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, equipped with air acetylene flame. The proximate analysis of the stems of Tinospora cordifolia showed that it contained moisture 34.39%, ether extract 0.912%, crude protein 7.74%, crude fibre 56.42%, total ash 7.96%, nitrogen free extract 26.97%, cellulose 23.02% and hemicellulose 3.70%. The mineral analysis of the stems showed that they contain the following essential minerals: Calcium (102.23 ppm), phosphorous (24.81 ppm), iron (26.058 ppm), copper (3.733 ppm), zinc (7.342 ppm) and manganese (12.242 ppm). The study revealed that Tinospora cordifolia stems to be a potential source of nutrition and minerals for man as well as animals.
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In the present study, an attempt was made to substantiate the ethnopharmacological use of a traditional formulation in hepatoprotection against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity.
Herbal extracts possess thrombolytic properties and lyse blood clots in vitro.
In this study, there was a significant increase in SOD level and decrease in MDA level in Ashwagandha and Guduchi groups.
Livwin is found effective in uncomplicated patients of acute viral hepatitis. Epigastric pain and diarrhea were reported with Livwin treatment.
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For studying the effect of dietary supplementation of guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) peripartum on lactation an investigation was conducted on 15 pregnant Karan Fries crossbred cows which were divided into two groups: treatment group of eight cows which were supplemented with guduchi at 60 g/day for 45 days prepartum and 120 g/day for 45 days postpartum; control group of seven pregnant cows which were not supplemented with guduchi. Jugular blood samples were collected from all cows during the periparturient period for analysis of various blood cell and plasma parameters. A significantly higher total leukocyte count, lymphocyte count, neutrophil count and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio was recorded in the guduchi supplemented treatment group in comparison to untreated control cows throughout the experimental period. The increase of milk production over 305 days of lactation due to guduchi supplementation was significant (p < 0.05). A significant (p < 0.05) reduction in somatic cell count was also observed during the experimental period. Milk composition (fat, protein, lactose and SNF) was similar (p > 0.05) for both the groups. Plasma non esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.01) in cows supplemented with guduchi throughout the course of study. Plasma concentration of growth hormone in the treated cows was also significantly higher beginning on the day of parturition up to 3 weeks postpartum (p < 0.05) in comparison to unsupplemented group.
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The present review describes medicinal applications of T. cordifolia in countering various disorders and usages as anti-oxidant, anti-hyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, hepatoprotective, cardiovascular protective, neuroprotective, osteoprotective, radioprotective, anti-anxiety, adaptogenic agent, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, a thrombolytic agent, anti-diarrheal, anti-ulcer activity, anti-microbial and anti-cancer values. The plant is also a source of micronutrients viz. copper, calcium, phosphorus, iron, zinc and manganese. A special focus has been made on its health benefits in treating endocrine and metabolic disorders and potentials as an immune booster. Several patents have been filed and granted to inventions encompassing T. cordifolia as a major component of therapeutics for ameliorating metabolic, endocrinal and several other ailments, aiding in the betterment of human life expectancy.
Swiss albino mice (weight 20-25 g) were used for this study. Intraperitoneal injection of paracetamol (500 mg/kg body weight) was used to induce hepatotoxicity. Serum levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, were used as indices of liver injury. In addition total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein and creatinine were also assayed using the standard procedure.