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Ten-day levofloxacin-based therapies are better than standard quadruple regimens as second-line option for H. pylori eradication.
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Strong acid inhibition using esomeprazole increases cure rates with triple therapy and 10-day treatments are more effective than 7-day ones. The combination of amoxicillin plus metronidazole at full doses, and using a physiologically-correct schedule three times a day, and has been shown to overcome metronidazole resistance and to achieve good eradication rates.
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Broad-spectrum antibiotics are the mainstay of therapy for patients with Crohn's disease (CD) who present with localized peritonitis due to a microperforation bacterial overgrowth secondary to chronic strictures. They are essential adjuncts to drainage therapy for CD-associated abscesses and for complicated perineal disease. The lack of well-designed, placebo-controlled trials has led to much skepticism about the efficacy of antibiotics as primary therapy for CD. However, a careful review of the experience with antibiotics, including clinical observations and controlled trials, leads to the conclusion that antibiotics have a role as primary therapy in active uncomplicated CD. The efficacy of their response must be considered in well-defined subsets of patients. Ciprofloxacin and metronidazole, the two most widely studied antibiotics, are effective therapy for patients with active ileocolonic and colonic disease and have been shown to reduce recurrence rates after ileocolonic resection. The benefits of these drugs are less clear for patients with uncomplicated ileal disease. Additionally, ciprofloxacin and metronidazole may also serve as an adjunct to immunomodulator therapy. The role of antimycobacterial therapy in treatment of CD is an attractive alternative, and hopefully this therapy will be further clarified when results of ongoing trials become available. In toxic patients with fulminant ulcerative colitis (UC), with or without megacolon, broad-spectrum antibiotics should be a part of the treatment program. In less severely ill patients requiring hospitalization, antibiotics may be given to cover for the potential of a superimposed infection until the workup for infection, including Clostridium difficile is completed. There may be a subset of patients with severe nontoxic colitis with persistent fever and bandemia after steroid therapy who respond to antibiotics, but to date controlled trials have not shown efficacy in this group. Antibiotics should not be routinely used for mild to moderately ill patients with UC, although a trial of ciprofloxacin is not unreasonable prior to colectomy for otherwise refractory patients. The use of rifaximin in UC requires further evaluation in larger studies.
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Most patients treated for H. pylori infection receive empirical therapy based on epidemiological data of antibiotic resistance. However, previous European studies indicate that resistance patterns may be changing. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of primary clarithromycin and/or metronidazole resistant H. pylori strains over a six-year period (1997-2002) in a regional hospital.
Culture for H. pylori was positive in 12.3% of the specimens, urease test in 21.3%, serological test in 18.9% and stool antigen test was positive in 21.9%. We could show high specificity but moderate sensitivity of both histological and H. pylori stool antigen tests to detect H. pylori. The overall susceptibility to metronidazole was 42.9%, amoxicillin 95.2%, clarithromycin 85.7%, furazolidone 61.9%, azithromycin 81.0%, and tetracycline 76.2% with the highest resistance to metronidazole and the lowest to clarithromycin.
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Metronidazole resistance among Helicobacter pylori strains has been related to alterations in gene products having metronidazole nitroreductase activities. RdxA and FrxA proteins are the two major contributing factors. In this investigation, the rdxA and frxA genes and their upstream regions were analyzed in 19 H. pylori isolates, 8 of which were metronidazole-sensitive (MIC < or = 8 microg/mL) and 11 of which were metronidazole-resistant (MIC > or = 8 microg/mL), as determined by the E-test. Among the metronidazole-resistant isolates, three contained both RdxA and FrxA proteins with premature truncation caused by gene nonsense mutations or frameshift mutations, while three contained only stop mutations in FrxA and two only in RdxA. Substitutions of amino acids occurred in other RdxA (5/6) and FrxA (4/5) proteins from metronidazole resistant isolates as compared with those from metronidazole-sensitive ones. All metronidazole-resistant isolates had alterations in RdxA and/or FrxA proteins. Moreover, the upstream regions (-1 to -35) of rdxA and frxA genes in some metronidazole-resistant isolates varied by nucleotide insertion and/or deletion or substitution. The patterns of variation in both genes and their upstream regions were highly diversified. Alterations in rdxA and frxA genes and their upstream regions may be involved in the development of metronidazole resistance in H. pylori.
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We have tested the entire Keio collection of close to 4,000 single-gene knockouts in Escherichia coli for increased susceptibility to one of seven different antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, rifampin, vancomycin, ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, or metronidazole). We used high-throughput screening of several subinhibitory concentrations of each antibiotic and reduced more than 65,000 data points to a set of 140 strains that display significantly increased sensitivities to at least one of the antibiotics, determining the MIC in each case. These data provide targets for the design of "codrugs" that can potentiate existing antibiotics. We have made a number of double mutants with greatly increased sensitivity to ciprofloxacin, and these overcome the resistance generated by certain gyrA mutations. Many of the gene knockouts in E. coli are hypersensitive to more than one antibiotic. Together, all of these data allow us to outline the cell's "intrinsic resistome," which provides innate resistance to antibiotics.
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Probiotics are "living organisms that lead to recipient's health benefits when applied in an adequate amount". The purpose is to study the therapeutic effectiveness of the Lactofem preparation (vaginal capsules containing two live strains of lactobacilli and gel) as well as to compare it with that of the classical therapy of bacterial vaginosis (BV) with metronidazole.
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Primary gastric low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue may regress with conservative treatment such as anti-Helicobacterpylori therapy or monochemotherapy. The aims of the present study were to analyze the predictive factors of response to anti-H. pylori treatment, to assess the effects of an adjuvant therapy in responding patients, and to evaluate an alternative therapy in nonresponding patients.
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Because Helicobacter pylori infection is localized in the gastric mucus layer and at the mucus layer-epithelial cell interface, we have developed amoxycillin- and metronidazole-containing chitosan microspheres for stomach-specific drug delivery. Drug-loaded porous chitosan microspheres were prepared by simultaneous crosslinking and precipitation with sodium tripolyphosphate. The release of antibacterial agents into simulated gastric fluid (SGF, pH 1.2), and the stability and permeability through gastric mucin, were examined at 37 degrees C. Because of the high porosity of drug-loaded chitosan microspheres, all the amoxycillin and metronidazole were released in 2 h. High-performance liquid chromatography assays of the antibacterial agents in SGF at 37 degrees C indicated 40% degradation of amoxycillin after 10 h. Metronidazole was completely stable for up to 24 h in SGF. Amoxycillin and metronidazole were highly permeable through the gastric mucin gel layer. The results of this study show that acid-stable antibacterial agents, such as metronidazole, that rapidly permeate the gastric mucus layer would be very effective for the complete eradication of H. pylori infection when delivered specifically at the site of infection in the stomach.
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Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a spiral Gram negative bacteria that can transform to the coccoid form in adverse conditions.
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Clostridium difficile, a spore-forming toxigenic bacterium, is one of the most common causes of infectious diarrhea and colitis in the United States. Most patients with C. difficile infection have recently received antimicrobial therapy--usually clindamycin, cephalosporins, or the extended-spectrum penicillins. Clinical presentation varies from asymptomatic colonization to mild diarrhea to severe colitis. The mainstay of diagnosis is detection of C. difficile toxin A, toxin B, or both with a cytotoxin test or enzyme immunoassay of the stool of patients who have received antibiotic therapy and have features of C. difficile-associated diarrhea. Enzyme immunoassays that detect both toxins are preferred because of their higher diagnostic accuracy. If the first assay is negative and C. difficile-associated diarrhea is strongly suspected, a second assay may be performed. Ten days of oral metronidazole is the preferred therapy for most initial infections. Vancomycin is considered second-line therapy because of its cost and potential to select for vancomycin resistance. About 20% to 25% of patients experience reinfection or relapse after initial therapy and require retreatment. The disease can best be prevented by limiting the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and adhering to control techniques.
An analysis of samples obtained during a clinical trial of the management of vaginal discharge in four West African countries. Samples were available from 1555 participants; 843 (54%) had BV. Nucleic acids of 13 bacterial genera or species potentially associated with BV were detected through the polymerase chain reaction.
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A significant decrease in the mean values of L* (lightness) was observed after treatment with TAP (T1, P < 0.05). Considerable increases in these values after bleaching with sodium perborate (T3 < T4 < T5) were found in both groups. The only significant difference in the intergroup analysis was between T1 and T2, in which ΔE values in the OA group were higher (P = 0.04).
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Clindamycin reduces vaginal Mobiluncus morphotypes to a greater extent than metronidazole in patients with BV; this correlates with a higher BV cure rate.
1. Twenty-nine studies, 26 RCTs and 3 quasi-experimental (36 comparisons), met the entry criteria. Total study population, both control and test groups, was estimated at over 1,200. 2. Twenty-two studies (27 comparisons) were used in the meta-analysis, evaluating if the antibiotics provided a consistent benefit in mean AL change for different patient populations, for different therapies, and for different antibiotics. 3. For the majority of the comparisons, systemically administered antibiotics exhibited a more positive attachment level change than the control group in the study. The combined results were statistically significant (P < 0.001). 4. The systemic antibiotics were uniformly beneficial in providing an improvement in AL when used as adjuncts to scaling and root planing (SRP) and were consistently beneficial, although of borderline significance, when used as adjuncts to SRP plus surgery or as a stand alone therapy. 5. When examining the effects of individual or combinations of antibiotics, it was found that there were statistically significant improvements in AL for tetracycline, metronidazole, and an effect of borderline statistical significance for the combination of amoxicillin plus metronidazole. 6. Improvements in mean AL were consistent for both chronic and aggressive periodontitis subjects, although the aggressive periodontitis patients benefited more from the antibiotics.
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In pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa, most of whom were HIV-infected, neither trichomoniasis nor its treatment appears to influence the risk of preterm birth or a low-birth-weight infant.
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All patients of vestibular fistula admitted and operated on at the Department of Pediatric Surgery, King George Medical University (Lucknow, UP India), from 1970 were included in the study; the age ranged from 2 days to 40 years. The diagnosis was made by clinical examination. We differentiated between anovestibular fistula (AVF) and rectovestibular fistula (RVF) in that the latter is a longer narrow fistula closely applied to the posterior wall of the vagina. Preoperative investigations included hemogram and blood glucose. Echocardiography was done in those patients showing a physical sign of cardiac anomaly. All patients were operated on in the lithotomy position by ASARP; this was done without colostomy in 1169 patients. In 6 patients, preliminary colostomy was done because of excessive perineal excoriation, and 31 others had colostomy done elsewhere. The striated muscle complex was delineated by electrostimulation, and anoplasty was performed after anchoring the rectum within the muscle complex. Washing of the perineum after passage of stools with application of povidone-iodine ointment constituted the local care. Intravenous antibiotics were administered for 48 hours and oral antibiotics (including metronidazole) for 5 days. The patient was discharged home by the fifth day.
Thirty patients were excluded. Per-protocol analysis showed successful eradication in 53% in group 1, 56% in group 2, 58% in group 3, 33.3% in group 4, 28% in group 5, and 53% in group 6. Eradication rate, patient compliance and satisfaction were not significantly different between the groups.
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We report a case of CL-related keratitis due to B. coli, P. aeruginosa, and K. pneumoniae.
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To examine the efficacy of antibiotic combination therapy against F. varium and to investigate the mucosa-associated bacteria before and after the therapy using a new molecular approach.
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The synthesis and some germicidal activities in vitro of two congener series of S-substituted 4,6-dihalogeno-2-mercapto-1H-benzimidazoles are reported. There was no substantial difference between antibacterial activities of corresponding 4,6-dichloro- and 4,6-dibromo-derivatives. The present results confirm lower susceptibility to substituted benzimidazoles of Gram-negative compared to Gram-positive bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of a majority of the novel derivatives ranged between 25 and 100microg/ml for Gram-positive bacteria. The most active compounds (MICs for Gram-positive bacteria: 0.78-50microg/ml) were 4,6-dichloro-2-(4-nitrobenzylthio)-1H-benzimidazole and 4,6-dibromo-2-(4-nitrobenzylthio)-1H-benzimidazole that were 4-32 times more potent than nitrofurantoin against all Gram-positive bacteria utilized but Escherichia faecalis, against which they were, respectively, 2 and 4 times less potent than nitrofurantoin. Among Gram-negative bacteria used, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Bordetella bronchiseptica were most sensitive (as evidenced by a number of MICs =100microg/ml), whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa was most resistant to the new benzimidazole derivatives (all MICs >400microg/ml). All the new compounds were at least several times more active against Giardia intestinalis (IC(50): 0.006-0.053microg/ml), and a half of them were at least several times more active against Trichomonas vaginalis (IC(50): 0.0015-0.182microg/ml) than metronidazole (IC(50): 0.210 and 0.037microg/ml, respectively), the drug of choice in the treatment of G. intestinalis and T. vaginalis infections.
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A total of 461 isolates were successfully cultured from 46 patients. Fifty-seven per cent of subjects had metronidazole-resistant strains. Among them, 77% carried a mixture of sensitive and resistant strains, non-uniformly distributed in the gastric mucosa. Mixed genotypes were found by RAPD typing in 24% of subjects. These did not correlate with the metronidazole susceptibility/resistance pattern.
The objective of this randomized clinical study was to evaluate the effect of systemic administration of moxifloxacin compared to amoxicillin and metronidazole, combined with non-surgical treatment in patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP) in a 6-month follow-up.
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Prescribing of antibiotics on almost every second day of hospitalization was extensive and highly variable, and the frequent use of cephalosporins is noteworthy. It is possible that the development of resistance and the rate of Clostridium difficile infection is associated with the diverse antibiotic use intensity and preferences for prescribing of cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones. Continuous antibiotic use surveillance and evaluation of prescribing patterns in acute care with feedback and benchmarking will help optimizing antibiotic use and better assessing strategies to minimize resistance and Clostridium difficile infection, and eventually improve patient safety.
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During 1 year, 759 patients who underwent different surgeries were included in the study. Mean age of patients was 32.02 ± 18.79 years. Hand and foot fractures repair were the most frequent surgery types. About 56.4% of administered prophylactic antibiotics were in accordance with the American Society of Health System Pharmacists (ASHP) guidelines regarding prophylaxis indication. The most commonly antibiotic used was cefazolin and antibiotic choices were appropriate in 104 of 168 surgical procedures (62%). Gentamicin, metronidazole and ceftriaxone were the most frequently antibiotics that used inappropriately. Only in 100 of 168 procedures, duration was concordant with the ASHP guideline, whereas in 68 procedures, duration was longer than recommended time. In 98 procedures, the dose was lower and in one procedure, it was higher than recommended doses.
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a comprehensive preventive program, based on mechanical plaque control and local and systemic antibacterial measures, on periodontal health and preservation of permanent teeth in patients with Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome (PLS).
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Treatment and placebo groups each had 105 subjects. At the primary end point, response rates were significantly greater with antibiotics than with placebo (44.8 vs. 22.8%, P=0.0011). Endoscopic scores significantly improved at 3 months (P=0.002 vs. placebo). Remission rates were 19.0% (antibiotics) vs. 15.8% (placebo) at 3 months (P=0.59). At the secondary end point, response rates were significantly greater with antibiotics than with placebo (49.5 vs. 21.8%, respectively, P<0.0001). Endoscopic scores were significantly improved at 12 months after antibiotic treatment (P=0.002 vs. placebo). Remission rates had improved to 26.7% with antibiotics vs. 14.9% for placebo, at 12 months (P=0.041). F. varium antibody titers decreased in responders but not in nonresponders, and more in the antibiotic than in the placebo group. More pretreatment steroid-dependent UC patients discontinued corticosteroids after treatment completion (6 months: 28.6 vs. 11.8%, respectively, P=0.046; 9 months: 34.7 vs. 13.7%, respectively, P=0.019; and 12 months: 34.7 vs. 13.7%, respectively, P=0.019). These effects were greater in the subanalysis of the active group (Mayo scores of 6-12) than in that of total cases (0-12). No serious drug-related toxicities occurred.
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One hundred and six patients who failed H. pylori eradication were randomized to receive (i) lansoprazole 30 mg, amoxicillin 1 g, levofloxacin 500 mg, all given twice daily for 7 days (LAL); or (ii) lansoprazole 30 mg twice daily, metronidazole 400 mg thrice daily, bismuth subcitrate 120 mg and tetracycline 500 mg four times daily for 7 days (quadruple). Post-treatment H. pylori status was determined by (13)C-urea breath test.
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Intestinal anaerobic bacteria may inhibit the adaptive immune response in the lungs of mice infected with FM1 influenza virus through adjusting the lung inflammatory factors, affect the replication and clean-up time of the FM1 influenza virus, thus further aggravating pulmonary immune pathological injury caused by the influenza virus infection.
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In the last decade a 10-day schema of sequential therapy of Helicobacter pylori infection based on proton pomp inhibitor (PPI), amoxicillin (AMO), clarithromycin (CLA) and metronidazole (MET) has been introduced. Many studies have emphasized greater efficacy of this therapy in comparison to the efficacy of the standard 7-day triple therapy (PPI + AMO + CLA or MET).