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Duphaston (Dydrogesterone)

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Generic Duphaston is an orally active progestogen which acts directly on the uterus, producing a complete secretory endometrium in an estrogen-primed uterus. At therapeutic levels, Generic Duphaston has no contraceptive effect as it does not inhibit or interfere with ovulation or the corpus luteum. Furthermore, Generic Duphaston is non-androgenic, non-estrogenic, non-corticoid, non-anabolic and is not excreted as pregnanediol.

Other names for this medication:

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Clomid, Estrace, Premarin, Dostinex, Ortho Tri-Cyclen, Aygestin, Plan B, Ponstel, Parlodel, Fosamax


Also known as:  Dydrogesterone.


Generic Duphaston is an orally active progestogen which acts directly on the uterus, producing a complete secretory endometrium in an estrogen-primed uterus. At therapeutic levels, Generic Duphaston has no contraceptive effect as it does not inhibit or interfere with ovulation or the corpus luteum. Furthermore, Generic Duphaston is non-androgenic, non-estrogenic, non-corticoid, non-anabolic and is not excreted as pregnanediol.

Generic name of Generic Duphaston is Dydrogesterone.

Duphaston is also known as Dydrogesterone.

Brand name of Generic Duphaston is Duphaston.


The dosage schemes below are meant as general recommendations. For optimal therapeutic effect, the dosages are to be adapted to the nature and severity of the disorder.

In irregular cycles due to endogenous progesterone deficiency

Generic Duphaston 5 to 10 mg is recommended especially in irregular cycles due to shortened luteal phase (ie pre-menopause). Treatment should be repeated for several cycles.

In secondary amenorrhoea

Administration of Generic Duphaston in combination with an estrogen is usually recommended as in these conditions endogenous progesterone deficiency is nearly always accompanied by estrogen deficiency. 0,05 mg ethinylestradiol is administered each day from the 1st to the 25th day of the cycle, and 5 mg Generic Duphaston is added twice daily from the 11th to the 25th day. Five days after the subsequent withdrawal bleeding, the same is repeated to imitate a natural cycle.

In dysfunctional uterine bleeding

The symptomatic treatment is aimed at stopping the bleeding and including a subsequent withdrawal bleeding.

To stop bleeding: Generic Duphaston 10 mg together with 0,10 mg ethinylestradiol twice daily for 5 to 7 days.

To prevent heavy bleedings: Generic Duphaston 5 mg twice daily from day 11 to day 25 of the cycle, if necessary, combined with an estrogen during the first half of the cycle.

In post-menopausal complaints

If for the symptomatic treatment of post-menopausal complaints estrogens are used (hormone replacement therapy A?A?A? HRT), Generic Duphaston 10 mg is used to counteract the effects of unopposed estrogens on the endometrium. A subsequent withdrawal bleeding is induced.

On continuous estrogen therapy: Generic Duphaston 10 mg twice daily during the first 12 to 14 days of each calendar month.

On cyclic estrogen therapy: Generic Duphaston 10 mg twice daily during the last 12 to 14 days of the treatment.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Duphaston suddenly.


If you overdose Generic Duphaston and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Duphaston overdosage: diarrhea, stomach pain, hot and dry skin, confusion, uneven heart rate, extreme thirst, increased urination, leg discomfort, and muscle weakness or limp feeling.


Store at room temperature below 25 degrees C (77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Duphaston are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Generic Duphaston if you are allergic to Generic Duphaston components.

It is unknown how Generic Duphaston affects pregnant women or nursing mother.

Do not take Generic Duphaston if you have undiagnosed vaginal bleeding or a history of thromboembolic disorders.

Be careful with Generic Duphaston if you have cardiovascular, renal or hepatic impairment, diabetes mellitus, asthma, epilepsy and migraine, history of mental depression.

Drug interactions can result in unwanted side effects or prevent a medicine from doing its job. Some medicines or medical conditions may interact with this medicine. Inform your doctor or pharmacist of all prescription and over-the-counter medicine that you are taking.

Do not stop taking Generic Duphaston suddenly.

duphaston pills

Prospective controlled study.

duphaston tablet price

NCT01850030 (

duphaston 50 mg

In management of EH without atypia, LNG-IUS achieves a higher regression and a lower hysterectomy rate than oral progesterone and could be used as a first-line therapy.

duphaston tablet use

To compare the long-term effects of oral and transdermal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on serum homocysteine levels in postmenopausal women.

duphaston medicine purpose

As hormone replacement therapy is associated with an early excess risk of venous thrombosis, we investigated the effect of different oral hormone replacement therapies on resistance to activated protein C, and on levels of factor VIII antigen (FVIII:Ag) and factor XI antigen (FXI:Ag). In a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled 12-week study, 60 healthy post-menopausal women daily received either placebo (n = 16) or 2 mg of micronized 17beta-oestradiol, either alone (E2, n = 16) or sequentially combined with dydrogesterone 10 mg (E2 + D, n = 14) or trimegestone 0.5 mg (E2 + T, n = 14). Medication was given orally. Normalized activated protein C sensitivity ratios (nAPCsr) were determined by quantifying the effect of activated protein C on the endogenous thrombin potential. FVIII:Ag and FXI:Ag were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Compared with baseline and placebo, the nAPCsr increased (92% to 142%; all P < 0.001) in all active treatment groups after both 4 and 12 weeks. Compared with placebo, hormone replacement therapy was not associated with significant changes in FVIII:Ag. After 4 and 12 weeks, FXI:Ag levels were significantly decreased in the E2 group (mean percentage changes from baseline versus placebo: -15.0%, P = 0.001 at 4 weeks and -16.6%, P = 0.003 at 12 weeks) and in the E2 + D group (-10.4%, P = 0.02 and -10.4%, P = 0.02). In conclusion, all hormone replacement regimens were associated with a large increase in resistance to activated protein C. In contrast, hormone replacement therapy had no effect on FVIII:Ag. Oral E2 and E2 + D had a small, favourable effect on FXI:Ag.

duphaston 10mg medicine

We studied 21 postmenopausal women seeking treatment for symptomatic menopause. All patients received transdermal 50 micrograms/day estradiol for 24 weeks. After 12 weeks of treatment, 10 mg/day dydrogesterone were added.

duphaston 10mg reviews

The groups receiving DHEA or HRT reported a significant improvement in sexual function compared to baseline (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively) using the McCoy total score. The quality of relationship was similar at baseline and after 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment. There were significant increases in the numbers of episodes of sexual intercourse in the previous 4 weeks in women treated with DHEA, HRT and tibolone in comparison with the baseline value (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively). No changes in the McCoy score occurred in women receiving vitamin D.

duphaston generic

High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels were significantly (p<0.05) increased after 26 cycles in all active treatment groups compared with placebo. In addition, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and lipoprotein(a) levels were significantly reduced, and apolipoprotein A1 and triglyceride levels were significantly increased, in all active treatment groups after 13 and 26 cycles.

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duphaston generic price

Intranasal administration of 300 microg/d estradiol was at least as effective as oral administration of 2 mg/d estradiol in alleviating postmenopausal symptoms, with less frequent mastalgia and uterine bleeding and without the metabolic consequences of the first-pass effect.

duphaston 500 mg

Framingham scores were calculated from the medical records of patients treated for at least 2 years with 17β-estradiol alone or in combination with dydrogesterone, along with HRT non-users, through the analysis of patient medical records, followed for at least 2 years at Instituto Estadual de Diabetes e Endocrinologia Luiz Capriglione.

duphaston medicine use

Guidelines recommend using the lowest effective dose of oestrogen for the management of vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women. The primary aim of this double-blind, multi-centre, randomised study was to assess the efficacy of oral ultra-low dose continuous combined hormone replacement therapy with 17β-oestradiol and dydrogesterone.

duphaston medicine

Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) has been proven to have beneficial effects on several components of metabolic syndrome. However, the effects vary according to different regimens, dosages, and duration of MHT. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of standard-dose 0.625 mg conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) and half-dose 0.3 mg CEE daily with different progestogens in a continuous sequential regimen on postmenopausal metabolic parameters in generally healthy postmenopausal women.

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Today, it is a mandatory practice to prescribe a combination of estrogens and progestogens for menopausal women requiring hormone therapy and with a uterus. The WHI study and its reanalysis demonstrate a big difference in results between the conjugated equin estrogen (CEE) only vs.CEE plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) arms in relation with breast cancer and cardiovascular risk. The conclusion is that risk is clearly higher in the arm with MPA than in the CEE only arm. Although the only progestogen used in the WHI study was medroxyprogesterone acetate, side effects and intolerance have been extrapolated as a class effect to all progestogens. Areas covered: Progestogen tolerance and side effects in hormone therapy were reviewed. For that purpose, a limited literature search was conducted on key resources including Pubmed, the Cochrane Library, ECRI, and major international health technology agencies. Expert opinion: Many of the tolerance effects are based on limited data. There are no double-blind randomized trials comparing long-term safety for breast cancer and cardiovascular risk among different progestogens. Short-term clinical studies, observational, and in animal and in vitro studies indicate that both micronized progesterone and dydrogesterone are the safer progestogens with an acceptable metabolic profile.

duphaston drug indication

No statistically significant difference in endometrial thickness between phase E (6.5+/-1.6 mm) and phase E/P (6.0+/-1.7 mm) was observed. In phase 0, compared with phases E and E/P, a statistically significant decrease in endometrial thickness was found (4.1+/-1.2 mm). Doppler flow impedance parameters of uterine arteries during the different phases of the HRT cycle showed no differences between the phases considered.

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Randomised, placebo-controlled study. One hundred-twenty postmenopausal women on continuous hormonal replacement therapy with transdermal estradiol (50 microg per day) associated, for 10 days every 28 days, with four different progestins: dydrogesterone (DYD; 10 mg per day; n = 20), medroxyprogesterone acetete (MPA; 10 mg per day; n = 20), nomegestrol acetate (NMG; 5 mg per day; n = 20) or norethisterone acetate (NETA; 10 mg per day; n = 20). Other 40 women, 10 for each treatment group, were used as controls and were monitored for a single cycle of 28 days during the administration of transdermal estradiol plus placebo. Morning basal body temperature (BBT) was monitored for 28 days. Anxiety, by the state-trait anxiety inventory, and depression, by the self-evaluation depression scale of Zung, were evaluated just prior to and in the last 2 days of the 10-day progestins adjunct.

duphaston 10 mg

An open, multicentre study was carried out in 290 healthy, non-hysterectomised post-menopausal women receiving oral continuous combined 1 mg 17beta-oestradiol and 5 mg dydrogesterone (Femoston-conti) for 1 year. Aspiration endometrial biopsies were performed at baseline and at the end of the study; those classified as hyperplasia or malignancy were considered treatment failures.

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To determine the efficacy of a 100 micrograms twice weekly dose of Estraderm TTS compared with a 200 micrograms dose in the treatment of severe PMS, and to determine the overall acceptability of the treatment. To determine the serum oestradiol levels produced by the two doses of Estraderm and to discover whether the lower dose suppresses ovulation.

duphaston dose

Biopsies were not available in 137 women mainly because of an insufficient treatment period or non-compliance. An adequate progestational response was seen in more than 98% of the 442 women who underwent biopsy after treatment. Bleeding data were not available in 193 women, most of whom did not remain on treatment for the full 26 cycles. The 1-mg 17 beta-estradiol dose was associated with less cyclic and intermittent bleeding than the 2-mg dose. Higher doses of dydrogesterone were associated with a higher incidence of cyclic bleeds and a later day of onset, while duration, severity and regularity were similar in all groups irrespective of estradiol or dydrogesterone dose.

duphaston 40 mg

Estrogens exert beneficial effects on the vascular system, while progestogens generally have a negative impact (e.g. vasoconstrictor effects on the arterial system). In contrast, dydrogesterone appears to be largely neutral in terms of biochemical markers and indirect clinical endpoints, such as blood pressure, that act as surrogate markers for vascular function. Studies on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, which can also influence vascular function, demonstrate that the addition of dydrogesterone intensifies rather than attenuates beneficial estrogenic effects. Dydrogesterone also has largely neutral effects on hemostasis. Since there are relatively few data available on clinical parameters such as blood flow measurements, especially in women with pre-existing cardiovascular diseases, increased risks cannot be excluded for a combination of estrogen replacement with dydrogesterone. Further studies should focus on this open question since dydrogesterone, with its largely neutral properties, might be a suitable option, including for older women already at increased cardiovascular risk.

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After 2 years serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol had decreased by 9.0% and 18%, respectively (P < 0.01), while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol had increased by 13% (P < 0.01). The latter change was accompanied with similar increases in apolipoprotein A-I (+16%; P < 0.01) and A-II (+13%; P < 0.01), while apolipoprotein B remained unchanged. Serum very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol and VLDL-triglycerides increased by 28% and 21%, respectively, the latter reflecting the slight increase in serum triglycerides by 21%. These values, however, remained within the normal range. Serum lipoprotein(a) decreased by 16% (P < 0.01). All calculated atherogenic indices decreased (P < 0.01) during the study period. Serum lipids and (apo)lipoproteins did not change after withdrawal of dydrogesterone for 14 days during the combination therapy in the last cycle studied. Serum fibrinogen decreased by 8.4% (P < 0.01) in the first 12 cycles, after which it increased to 13% above baseline value (P < 0.01 vs. baseline). Antithrombin III did not change and serum glucose decreased by 5.7%.

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To determine whether therapy with dydrogesterone in threatened abortion during the first trimester of pregnancy will improve pregnancy outcome.

duphaston medicine usage

The limited available data suggests that both continuous progestagens and anti-progestagens are effective therapies in the treatment of painful symptoms associated with endometriosis. Progestagens given in the luteal phase are not effective. These conclusions should be accepted cautiously due to a lack of data.

duphaston tabs

During both regimens, insulin and C-peptide plasma concentrations were evaluated after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT); insulin sensitivity was evaluated by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique. Insulin and C-peptide response to OGTT were expressed as area under the curve (AUC) and as incremental AUC; insulin sensitivity was expressed as mg/kg body weight. Fractional hepatic insulin extraction (FHIE) was estimated by the difference between the incremental AUC of the C-peptide and insulin divided by the incremental AUC of the C-peptide. Plasma hormone and lipid concentrations were assessed at baseline and at 12 and 24 weeks of treatment.

duphaston medication

The pregnancy rates were 38% per embryo transfer. The ongoing pregnancy rate was 31% with an abortion rate of 20%.

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Two-hundred forty-eight studies provided information on the effects of 42 different HRT regimens. All estrogen alone regimens raised HDL cholesterol and lowered LDL and total cholesterol. Oral estrogens raised triglycerides. Transdermal estradiol 17-beta lowered triglycerides. Progestogens had little effect on estrogen-induced reductions in LDL and total cholesterol. Estrogen-induced increases in HDL and triglycerides were opposed according to type of progestogen, in the order from least to greatest effect: dydrogesterone and medrogestone, progesterone, cyproterone acetate, medroxyprogesterone acetate, transdermal norethindrone acetate, norgestrel, and oral norethindrone acetate. Tibolone decreased HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Raloxifene reduced LDL cholesterol levels. In 41 studies of 20 different formulations, HRT generally lowered lipoprotein (a).

duphaston tablet

The present study investigated the effect of acute systemic administration of six progesterone metabolites on formalin-induced pain in the rat. The 3alpha-hydroxylated metabolites allopregnanolone and pregnanolone are highly potent positive modulators at the GABA(A) receptor and produced a biphasic effect on pain in the formalin test. Dose-dependent antinociception was observed at lower doses (maximal antinociception at 0.16mg/kg) and was reversed at higher doses. Bicuculline abolished the antinociceptive effect. The 3beta-hydroxylated epipregnanolone and isopregnanolone are inactive or only weekly active at the GABA(A) receptor, and did not affect formalin-induced pain. 5alpha- and 5beta-dihydroprogesterone have also been shown to have low affinity for the GABA(A) receptor, but can be rapidly metabolized to their 3alpha-hydroxylated counterparts. In the formalin test, they produced a biphasic effect on pain similar to that of pregnanolone and allopregnanolone, but with lower potency. The effect was reversible by bicuculline, showing involvement of the GABA(A) receptor, and was blocked by indomethacin, implying that the antinociceptive effect is dependent on their conversion to allopregnanolone or pregnanolone. The results indicate that GABA-ergic progesterone metabolites modulate nociception. A change in levels of GABA-ergic progesterone metabolites, such as is observed in depression, chronic fatigue and premenstrual dysphoric disorder could, therefore, contribute to the pain complaints associated with these disorders.

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duphaston buy usa 2017-07-02

Dydrogesterone, similar to women's natural progesterone, has been used in a wide range of gynecological conditions duphaston buy . Despite its widespread use, dydrogesterone-induced hepatotoxicity and dydrogesterone-induced hemolytic anemia have, to the best of our knowledge, never been reported previously. We describe a case of hepatitis and warm antibody hemolytic anemia due to dydrogesterone.

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Twelve 28 days treatment duphaston buy cycles.

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Laparoscopy before and 6 months after discontinuance of medical therapy Glucophage 300 Mg .

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To establish the lowest dose of cyclical dydrogesterone that protects against endometrial hyperplasia induced by continuous 2 mg 17 beta oestradiol, and Celebrex Pill to study the dose effect on vaginal bleeding and side effects.

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One hundred thirty eight women aged between 30 and 50 years with abnormal uterine bleeding and diagnosed Clomid Dosage as EH by transvaginal ultrasound were randomized to receive either LNG-IUD or dydrogesterone for 6 months. Primary outcome measures were regression of hyperplasia after 6 months of therapy. Secondary outcome measures were occurrence of side effects during treatment or recurrence of hyperplasia during follow-up period.

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There was a statistically significant difference among the groups for the expression of HSPE mRNA due to high levels in the tibolone group. The groups differed Prevacid Dosage Child in terms of PCNA, with lower levels found in the tibolone group followed by the estradiol benzoate + dydrogesterone group. A statistically significant positive correlation was observed for PCNA versus perlecan and MMP-9.

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In management of EH without Periactin 2 Mg atypia, LNG-IUS achieves a higher regression and a lower hysterectomy rate than oral progesterone and could be used as a first-line therapy.

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Progesterone supplementation appears to lower vascular resistance in women with IRSM. Oral dydrogesterone appears to be equally effective in improving endometrial blood flow as Uk Viagra Purchase compared with micronized progesterone.

duphaston usa buy 2017-08-04

An open, prospective, controlled study. Seventy-five healthy postmenopausal women were recruited as eligible for the study. Fifty women seeking HRT were randomized to receive continuous 17beta-estradiol, either by oral (2 mg daily; n = 25) or transdermal (50 microg daily; n = 25) administration, plus 10 Viagra Tablets mg dydrogesterone daily for 14 days of each 28-day cycle. Twenty-five women unwilling to receive hormone treatment received only calcium supplementation, representing the control group. Fasting blood samples were analyzed at baseline and then after 6, 12, and 24 months to determine plasma homocysteine levels.

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Gynecologic outpatient department of a university hospital. Cost Of Rulide

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To evaluate the lowest effective dose of combined estrogen and progestogen (E(2)+P) add-back therapy during post-operative gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) treatment for endometriosis in Chinese women.

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Postmenopausal women exhibit an increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases, and type 2 diabetes mellitus compared with younger women. However, women receiving hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) seem to be protected. Since chromium (Cr) functions in glucose, lipid and corticosteroid metabolism and these variables, as well as Cr status, decline with age, Cr status may be a contributing factor in the effects of hormone replacement therapy. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) on serum and urinary Cr, plasma lipids, glucose, fructosamine and the related hormonal variables, estradiol, insulin, leptin, cortisol, and DHEA-sulfate.

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Oral continuous combined 0.5 mg/d estradiol valerate and 5 mg/d dydrogesterone as immediate add-back therapy during post-operative GnRH agonist treatment for severe endometriosis may be the most suitable regimen for Chinese women.

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Both treatment regimens were equally effective in alleviating climacteric symptoms, preserving bone mineral density and were equally safe. A trend towards heavier bleeding was detected in patients treated with the oestradiol delivering patch. A statistically nonsignificant decrease of total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations but no change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration was observed in both groups. The acceptability of the treatment was higher in the gel group (96.4%) than in the patch group (90.7%). Only two (3.3%) women using the oestradiol gel complained of skin irritation whereas 28 patients (46.7%, P < 0.001) using the oestradiol delivering patch reported this adverse effect.

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Fifty-nine women completed the study. After 6 months of therapy, homocysteine concentrations showed a statistically significant reduction in the treated groups versus both baseline and controls, and no further significant variations were found thereafter. The mean reduction in the homocysteine levels throughout the study was 13.6% in the oral and 8.9% in the transdermal group, respectively, without significant difference between the two routes of estradiol administration. Women with the highest baseline levels of homocysteine experienced the greatest reduction. No significant variations in homocysteine concentrations were found in the control group.

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The endometrium was significantly thicker in 32 women who had withdrawal bleeding (10.3 +/-4.1 mm) than in the 12 who did not bleed (5.0 +/- 1.3 mm) (P < .001). The serum E2 level was also significantly higher in the positive group: 45.3 +/- 19.4 versus 18.6 +/- 8.0 pg/mL (P < .001). Endometrial thickness of 6.0 mm or more predicted the occurrence of withdrawal bleeding with an accuracy of 95.5%. Endometrial thickness was superior to the serum E2 level in predicting withdrawal bleeding.

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Forty-nine women (98%) in each group completed the 12-month study period. Participants, in the two groups, experienced a significant improvement within the first 3 months of treatment. The observed symptoms were completely relived by the sixth month without any significant difference between the two groups. Improvements were sustained over the 12-month period of the study. HRT users showed their acceptance to the two regimens.

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Adding estradiol/progestogens in combination with a SERM to estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cell lines does not obligatorily lead to proliferation of tumor cells. Not all progestogens act equally.

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At baseline, plasma homocysteine levels did not differ between the groups. After 15 months of hormone treatment mean plasma homocysteine concentration was lowered by 12.6% compared with baseline (P < .001; analysis of variance for repeated measures). Plasma homocysteine levels were not altered in the control group. The interaction between treatment and time for homocysteine levels was significantly different between the groups (P < .001; analysis of variance for repeated measures). The decrease in plasma homocysteine levels correlated inversely with the increase in serum E2 levels after 3 and 12 months of hormone treatment (r = -.54, P < .05 and r = -.56, P < .05, respectively).

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Cerebral vasomotor reactivity (CVR) is an index of cerebrovascular dilatory capacity which can readily be assessed using trans-cranial Doppler ultrasound. Impaired CVR is associated with elevated risk of stroke. We performed a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effect of two HRT preparations upon CVR.

duphaston usa buy 2016-08-25

Main literature data on the association with breast cancer risk of progestogens, either used alone in premenopausal years or added to estrogen in postmenopausal HT, were reviewed.

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Mean IGF-I fell while GHBP and SHBG levels increased with oral (P < 0.01) but not transdermal oestrogen administration. When the combined effects were examined, progestogens did not affect IGF-I, GHBP and SHBG during oral oestrogen treatment, while they significantly increased (P < 0.01) mean IGF-I levels during transdermal therapy. Among the progestogen types, only norethisterone prevented the fall in IGF-I induced by oral oestrogen. During transdermal therapy, MPA and norethisterone but not CA or dydrogesterone significantly increased (P < 0.005) IGF-I. The rise in GHBP induced by oral oestrogens tended to be lower during co-administration of MPA and norethisterone. The increase in SHBG induced by oral oestrogen was attenuated (P < 0.05) by norethisterone which was the only progestogen that lowered SHBG (P < 0.05) during transdermal oestrogen treatment. Mean IGF-I was higher (P < 0.001), GHBP and SHBG lower during co-administration of androgenic progestogens (MPA and norethisterone).