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Overactive bladder (OAB) is highly prevalent and is associated with considerable morbidity and reduced health-related quality of life. β3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) stimulation is a novel alternative to antimuscarinic therapy for OAB.
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More patients in the intervention group (experimental) purchased their prescriptions (p<0.05). Compliance rate was greater for the intervention group (39%), versus the control group (31%) at 16 weeks although the difference was not significant (p>0.05). Significantly more patients started and/or continued non-drug treatments in the intervention group (82%) compared to the control group (53%) (p<0.05). Furthermore, more patients in this group reported improvement in severity of bladder symptoms (p<0.05).
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We evaluated the clinical results of tolterodine in treating impacted stones in the intramural ureter with symptoms of vesical irritability. A total of 80 patients with intramural ureter stones were included in the study from December 2007 to November 2009. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. The 41 patients in group A were given a watchful waiting and served as control group. Group B received 2 mg tolterodine (twice a day). Both groups were followed up for 2 weeks. The stone expulsion rate and time and the number of pain episodes were obtained. Subjects rated the urgency associated with each micturition using the Urinary Sensation Scale (USS). Pain descriptions were recorded by the patients using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). The stone expulsion rate in groups A and B was 56.1 and 56.4%, respectively (P = 0.98). The mean numbers of renal colic episodes of patients in groups A and B had experienced 4.5 and 1.7, respectively. The USS for groups A and B in 3 and 7 days were 2.89 ± 0.56, 1.29 ± 0.60; 1.98 ± 0.79, 1.09 ± 0.3, respectively (P < 0.001). Statistically significant difference was found between groups A and B in relation to the VAS score on days 3 and 7, respectively (P < 0.001). While our study demonstrated no improvement in expulsion rate, Tolterodine reduced the common symptoms of frequency, urgency, intensity of the pain episodes and discomfort often associated with intramural ureter stone.
Nine patients, three EM2 and four EM1 and two PM, completed the trial. Following tolterodine administration, the area under the serum concentration-time curve (AUC) of tolterodine was 4.4-times and 30-times higher among EM1 and PM, respectively, compared with EM2. The AUC of the 5-hydroxymethyl metabolite (5-HM) was not quantifiable in PM. Fluoxetine significantly decreased (P<0.002) the oral clearance of tolterodine by 93% in EM2 and by 80% in EM1. The AUC of 5-HM increased in EM2 and decreased in EM1. However, the exposure to the active moiety (unbound tolterodine +5-HM) was not significantly increased in the two phenotypes. The subdivision of the EM group showed a 2.1-fold increase in active moiety in EM2 but the exposure was still similar to EM1 compared with before the interaction.
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To examine the continence ('dryness') rate as an outcome measure of the efficacy of antimuscarinic treatment, and to explore how changes in bladder diary duration, baseline severity of urinary incontinence (UI), and study population characteristics affected this outcome.
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To assess the efficacy of combined treatment with doxazosin and tolterodine, as although alpha-blockers are commonly used and generally effective in men with symptomatic bladder outlet obstruction (BOO), a subset of men with BOO and overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms often complain of persistent symptoms.
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Clinicians often encounter patients with dementia and urge incontinence who might benefit from both an anticholinergic medication and a cholinesterase inhibitor. At first glance, this combination would seem to violate basic principles of geriatric pharmacology, as the drugs appear to be working at cross-purposes and anticholinergic medications are notorious for worsening cognitive function in susceptible patients. A case is presented and discussed in which this combination was clinically effective and pharmacologically sound.
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Tolterodine was well tolerated and its effects improved the quality of life in Thai women with OAB.
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Tolterodine has a similar efficacy to oxybutynin in the treatment of idiopathic overactive bladder in children, with better safety in pharmacotherapy.
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Our study demonstrates that tolterodine does not affect pupil diameter and anterior chamber parameters, including angle, volume, and depth. Most likely, it is an organ-selective agent, inhibiting muscarinic receptors in the bladder rather than in the anterior segment of the eye.
Tolterodine extended release has demonstrable efficacy in reducing the severity of urinary urgency and is associated with improvements in overactive bladder symptoms that are meaningful to patients.
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This multicentre study included a 2-week single-blind placebo run-in, a 4-week double-blind placebo-controlled active treatment phase, and a 2-week follow-up. Men and women with an OAB and urodynamic evidence of detrusor overactivity were randomized to placebo or solifenacin 2.5, 5, 10 or 20 mg once daily, or tolterodine 2 mg twice daily.
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To evaluate the long term efficacy and tolerability of tolterodine in patients with symptoms of overactive bladder.
We compared the short-term risk of falls among recipients of oxybutynin or tolterodine to treat urinary incontinence.
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We analyzed data from two 12-wk, placebo-controlled trials of tolterodine ER (4mg QD). Patients completed 7-d bladder diaries and rated the urgency sensation associated with each micturition on a 5-point urgency rating scale. Micturitions were categorized by urgency rating: total (1-5), non-OAB (1-2), OAB (3-5), or severe OAB (4-5). Changes in micturitions during 24-h, daytime, and nocturnal intervals were assessed.
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In the crystal structure of (R)-N,N-diisopropyl-3-(2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)-3-phenylpropylaminium (2R,3R)-hydrogen tartrate, C22H32NO+.C4H5O6-, the hydrogen tartrate anions are linked by O-H...O hydrogen bonds to form helical chains built from R(2)(2)(9) rings. These chains are linked by the tolterodine molecules via N-H...O and O-H...O hydrogen bonds to form separate sheets parallel to the (101) plane.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of uroflowmetry in predicting the possibility of abnormal voiding symptoms following antimuscarinic treatment for overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) in Taiwanese women.