Desyrel is a high-quality medication which is taken in treatment of depression. This remedy is acting by increasing the amount of serotonin. It is serotonin modulator.
Other names for this medication:
Desyrel is a high-quality medication which is taken in treatment of depression. This remedy is acting by increasing the amount of serotonin. It is serotonin modulator.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Trazodone.
Desyrel is a perfect remedy in struggle against depression.
This remedy is acting by increasing the amount of serotonin.
Desyrel is also known as Trazodone, Molipaxin, Deprax, Trittico, Thombran, Trialodine, Trazorel.
It is serotonin modulator.
Generic name of Desyrel is Trazodone.
Brand names of Desyrel are Desyrel, Desyrel Dividose.
Take Desyrel tablets orally with food.
Do not crush or chew it.
Take Desyrel at the same time every day with water.
Desyrel can be used by 18 year-old patients or over.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Desyrel suddenly.
If you overdose Desyrel and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Desyrel overdosage: abnormal heartbeats, difficulty breathing, painful erection that does not go away, vomiting, feeling drowsy, convulsions.
Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 to 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Protect from light. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Desyrel are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Desyrel if you are allergic to its components.
Do not take Desyrel if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.
Do not take it if you are under 18.
Be careful with Desyrel if you suffer from schizophrenia, other psychiatric illness, suicidal thoughts, heart attack, bipolar disorder (manic depression), drug abuse.
Try to avoid machine driving.
Be careful! Taking Desyrel you can become suicidal.
If you are going to have a surgery, be careful with Desyrel.
It can be dangerous to stop Desyrel taking suddenly.
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A fast and sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method using a BEH C18 column with a mobile phase consisting of ammonium acetate/acetonitrile was developed and validated according to international guidelines for the simultaneous analysis of 24 ADs in hair. Methanol/acetonitrile/ammonium formate buffer 1 mmol/L (25:25:50, vol/vol/vol) was used to extract the drugs from the hair matrix before a solid-phase extraction using cation exchange cartridges was applied. Hair samples (n = 18) obtained from a US workplace drug testing center were analyzed to demonstrate the method applicability.
We describe the case of a patient with anti- -NMDAR encephalitis seen in our service and discuss the management of behavioral symptoms based on current scientific literature. High doses of atypical antipsychotics and benzodiazepines were used to control agitation, and trazodone was administered to treat insomnia.
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In depressive disorders treatment a variety of antidepressant drugs is applied. Tricyclic antidepressant drugs are relatively well known together with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors group. The aim of the study was to evaluate trazodone efficiency and safety in comparison to venlafaxine treatments of depressive episode, recurrent depressive disorders and depressive episode in bipolar disorders.
Beside a large number of pharmaceuticals available on our market having an impact on serotonergic transmission, selective serotonin reuptake blocker inhibitors (fluvoxamine, fluoxetine) and a selective reversible monoaminooxidase inhibitor (moclobemide), have been included recently. The combination of the drugs can in certain conditions cause a central serotonergic hyperactivity, i.e. the serotonin syndrome. The study describes the development of the serotonin syndrome following an abrupt replacement of trazodone by moclobemide. The diagnosis was made on the basis of the anamnesis, clinical features, course and outcome of the disorder and diagnostic criteria suggested in the literature. The importance of the prevention, early detection and timely management of the serotonin syndrome have been reflected in the fact that some of the outcomes described were fatal, although this state most frequently remits spontaneously after the replacement of the drug therapy.
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The non-benzodiazepines (eszopiclone, zolpidem, zolpidem extended-release, and zaleplon), which have largely replaced the benzodiazepines for insomnia treatment, have a lower risk of tolerance, dependence, abuse, and residual effects compared with benzodiazepines. The modified-release formulation of zolpidem demonstrates a comparable safety profile to that of original zolpidem but has an additional sleep maintenance benefit. Ramelteon, a novel melatonin receptor agonist, is indicated for sleep-onset difficulties and is not scheduled. Over-the-counter agents, alternative therapies, and the prescription of off-label drugs, such as trazodone, have a lack of controlled clinical efficacy and safety studies in the treatment of insomnia and as a result should be used with caution.
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To report a case of PGAD presumably due to the use of trazodone in a young eumenorrheic woman.
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We found 5.8% of patients received new sedative prescriptions, with 11 197 person-years of exposure. New users of sedatives were associated with an increased risk of crash relative to nonuse: temazepam hazard ratio (HR) = 1.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.85, 1.91), trazodone HR = 1.91 (95% CI = 1.62, 2.25), and zolpidem HR = 2.20 (95% CI = 1.64, 2.95). These risk estimates are equivalent to blood alcohol concentration levels between 0.06% and 0.11%.
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The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of Trazodone were investigated by HPLC chromatography in the blood plasma and in the erythrocyte supernatant. Two groups of samples (plasma and supernatant) were monitored. The drug was administered to adult dogs and the blood samples were collected for further analysis following 10, 20, 60 min. and 4.0; 6.0 and 8.0 hours since the injection. Metabolism of dopamine and homovanilic acid is closely dependent on the pharmacokinetic of Trazodone. Concentration of homovanilic acid in the blood and supernatant is synchronized with the course of pharmacokinetics of psychotropic preparation. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic approaches were used in the experiments. Effective action of psychotropic drugs is impossible without extensive knowledge of their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. They are concerned with the need to determine concentration in body fluids. Experimental study was performed in the adult dogs. Adsorption dynamics of trazodone on the surface of erythrocytes was studied and comparison of the obtained data with the character of pharmacokinetics of tradozone in plasma was performed.
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The acute psychomotor effects of moclobemide, a reversible inhibitor of MAO-A antidepressant (100 and 300 mg) compared with amitriptyline (25 and 75 mg) showed that moclobemide caused no significant impairment in contrast with amitriptyline, which caused significant impairment at both doses. Two other studies are reviewed. One study reported the acute effects of moclobemide (100 and 300 mg), trazodone (100 mg), placebo, and alcohol (0.5 g/kg) or placebo in an elderly group: moclobemide caused little impairment or alcohol potentiation and may reverse some alcohol impairment, whereas trazodone caused substantial impairment and alcohol potentiation. Another study of the acute and chronic effects of moclobemide (200 mg 3 times daily) or clomipramine (25 mg twice daily) and their interactions with alcohol (blood alcohol concentration 0.6 g/l) showed that alcohol caused significant impairment, whereas clomipramine tended to enhance and moclobemide to reduce some impairment. Moclobemide appears to be an antidepressant with few psychomotor effects and minimal alcohol potentiation and may reduce some alcohol impairment.
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Insomnia is commonly seen in elderly populations and is associated with numerous individual and socioeconomic consequences. Elderly patients are more likely to suffer from chronic insomnia characterized by difficulty maintaining sleep than difficulty initiating sleep. Management of insomnia in these patients requires very careful evaluation and exclusion of an underlying medical or psychiatric condition. Nonpharmacologic interventions in elderly patients, especially use of behavioral therapy, have demonstrated some success. Commonly prescribed medications have also been effective, though they have limitations. Newer agents currently under investigation for insomnia hold promise for good efficacy and safety in the elderly population. The following review presents clinical studies, survey results, and guidelines retrieved from peer-reviewed journals in the PubMed database using the search terms elderly, temazepam, trazodone, zolpidem, zaleplon, insomnia, and prevalence and the dates 1980 to 2003. In addition, newer research with emerging agents has been included for completeness.
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Trazodone a triazolepyridine derivative is known for its therapeutic effect in the treatment of depression since early 60's. It has little catecholamine potentiation or anticholinergic action. It has been reported to have less severe cardiotoxic effect. Mild or transient as well as orthostatic hypotension may be its main cardiovascular complication. Additive hypotensive side effect following combined use of Trazodone and Phenothiazine in two hospitalized patients was observed and documented. Each case is detailed. While the mechanism of action of both agents and their effect on alpha 1 and alpha 2 adrenergic receptors has been described, some suggestions are made to explain a possible mechanism for the observed side effect. This finding might be implemented into further research work.
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Phase-solubility studies have been used to evaluate the solubilizing effects of cyclodextrins (CDs) on lipophilic, water-insoluble drugs. However, large amounts of CDs and drugs are required to measure solubility by phase-solubility studies. Thus, more efficient approaches to evaluate the interaction of CDs with drugs are needed. Herein we introduce a method that evaluates the interaction between immobilized β-cyclodextrin and psychotropic drugs by surface plasmon resonance assay with a Biacore(®) system. Association constants and stoichiometries observed were generally consistent with values calculated by traditional methods, such as phase-solubility and continuous variation methods. Results showed that the analytical method using Biacore(®) was suitable to evaluate CD-drug interactions.
Using real-time computer-based reminders could lead to improved sedative-hypnotic prescribing for older persons in acute care. This study highlights the potential to address patient safety concerns, and the quality of medication prescribing in particular, in vulnerable hospitalized patients.
Early this century, the aetiology of priapism was solely attributed to "systemic disease and local irritation of lower genital tract and neurologic lesion". Corpora cavernosa incision described by Young was the only form of treatment. However, the aetiology, diagnosis and treatment options for the management of priapism and prolonged erections have evolved significantly in the past several years. Before the use of pharmacological agents for the production of erections, idiopathic priapism became the most common aetiology. Causes of priapism from newer psychotropic medications such as trazodone to intra-cavernosal injection therapy with pharmacological agents have increased the number of patients with priapism presenting to the urologist. The management of priapism has remained controversial and has perplexed and continued to frustrate many urologists. A recent and more thorough knowledge of the pathophysiological basis of priapism and the clear differentiation between the low flow veno- occlusive priapism and high flow arterial priapism have significantly improved the diagnostic protocol for patients with priapism. Colour doppler ultrasound evaluation and cavernosal blood gas determinations have become mandatory and greatly improved specific diagnosis. Priapism must be considered a urological emergency and early surgical intervention with corpus cavernosum aspiration and pharmacological lavage with normal saline alpha-adrenegic agonists should be instituted immediately. This will avoid the risk of erectile impotence with considerable medico-legal consequences. Precious time must not be wasted in the older unproven conservative methods including hot and cold water enemas, and vigorous prostatic massage.
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Data on patient demographics, disease diagnoses, laboratory data, and drug therapy profiles were collected through medical record review. Of the 1136 patients, the mean patient age was 61 years, 90% were men, and 77% were smokers. Mean body mass index was 30.4 kg/m(2) , blood pressure 126/73 mm Hg, hemoglobin A1c 6%, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level 106.7 mg/dl, and Framingham score 17. Patients receiving antidepressant monotherapy were grouped according to antidepressant class; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) were most common. Concomitant use of atypical antipsychotics was more common with the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (venlafaxine), SSRI, and serotonin receptor antagonist (trazodone) classes (p=0.0067). After adjusting for demographics, concomitant drugs, and comorbidities, SSRI use was significantly associated with lower all-cause mortality (odds ratio [OR] 0.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.19-0.71, p=0.0028). Notably, noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (mirtazapine) use was significantly associated with higher prevalence of heart failure (OR 3.26, 95% CI 1.029-10.38, p=0.0445). Use of atypical antipsychotics was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of cerebrovascular events (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.29-3.83, p=0.0036) and all-cause mortality (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.03-4.1, p=0.04).
Administration of 50 mg trazodone, an antidepressant drug, in a single oral dose to 10 normal subjects of both sexes, aged 24--41, resulted in a significant (p less than 0.01) decrease of serum prolactin (PRL) values. The mean serum PRL levels were 8.9 +/- 2.2 ng/ml in basal conditions and 4.5 +/- 1.7 ng/ml 180 min after trazodone. Pretreatment with trazodone does not modify TRH-induced PRL release.
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The effects of the psychotropic drug etoperidone on the response to laboratory stressors was investigated in a controlled study. Cardiovascular and hormonal (catecholamines, corticotropin, and cortisol) measurements were made in a group of young, healthy volunteers during a cold pressor test (CPT), a mental arithmetic test (MAT), and insulin-induced hypoglycaemia (ITT). One-week treatment with etoperidone (ETO) (150 mg/day, orally) reduced basal and stress-induced values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) on CPT, while it did not alter catecholamine output in response to the stressor. Cardiovascular response was also attenuated after ETO on MAT, in the absence of any hormone changes. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol secretions were markedly reduced on ITT after ETO, whereas catecholamine outflow and cardiovascular parameters were substantially unaffected. These findings on ITT suggest that the anti-serotoninergic and anti-alpha 1-adrenergic activities of ETO may be used in the pharmacological control of the potentially detrimental consequences of the stress response.
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570 general practices in the United Kingdom supplying data to the QResearch primary care database.
We examined the records of 33 patients who had 70 inpatient admissions with a diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder, depressed. During 14 of these admissions, a switch occurred from depression into mania. We compared the treatment patients were on at the time of their switch to treatment during the 56 admissions where there was no switch. We conclude that clinicians must be prepared for depressed bipolar patients to switch to mania regardless of treatment status.
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Recent concerns have been raised regarding whether antidepressants, especially selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) might increase suicidal tendencies and intense debate-rages over the pros and cons of their use. Although systematic reviews and population-based studies have been conducted, a consensus on this association remains to be established. Subsequently, the concept of so-called 'activation syndrome' associated with antidepressants has been accepted without its adequate verification. In the present report, we present our experience of seven cases considered of having 'activation syndrome' brought on by antidepressants, and examine its clinical relevance to bipolar spectrum disorder (Ghaemi, et al., 2001) both symptomatologically and diagnostically. Five patients, diagnosed as having major depressive disorder according to the diagnostic manual (DSM-IV), met the criteria of bipolar spectrum disorder and suffered from activation syndrome following the administration of SSRIs, mainly paroxetine. Similarly, hypomania developed in all five cases with depression; the diagnostic criteria of a hypomanic episode were not met. In the remaining two patients, who were both diagnosed with bipolar disorder, one showed irritability and insomnia through imipramine use, and the another developed a hypomanic and/or a mixed state after the co-administration of fluvoxamine and trazodone. From the results of our examination, 'bipolarity', which is the pivotal factor of bipolar spectrum, might exist behind the phenomenon recognized as activation syndrome, and be revealed by antidepressant treatment, just like manic switching. Moreover, the various problems encountered in the current practice of treating mood disorders, including unipolar-bipolar dichotomy, manic switching by antidepressants, and narrow criteria for a mixed episode, were pointed out a new through this concept of activation syndrome. Actually, the understanding of activation syndrome clinically leads to the prevention of suicidal behavior and the careful use of antidepressants for bipolar (spectrum) disorder, but we must be prudent when applying this concept, since it has not yet been established.
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Major depression is a common, serious, and potentially life-threatening illness in the elderly. Moreover, this population is perhaps the most difficult to treat effectively and safely for this disease. Changes in physiology associated with advancing age produce clinically significant differences in drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics in these patients versus younger individuals. The elderly are also more likely than young patients to receive treatment for multiple illnesses. This fact increases the potential for serious pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions. The practicing clinician now has five distinct classes of antidepressant medications that may be used for treating depression in the elderly: tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs; e.g., desipramine, nortriptyline), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs; e.g., isocarboxazid, tranylcypromine), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs; i.e., fluoxetine, sertraline, and paroxetine), aminoketones (i.e., bupropion), and triazolopyridines (i.e., trazodone). Although all are effective antidepressants, the SSRI class may be the best choice for the treatment of elderly depressed patients, based on a number of considerations. SSRIs have a broad spectrum of antidepressant activity, being effective in different types of major depressive episodes (e.g., melancholic, atypical), have a wide therapeutic index, and are free of many potentially serious adverse effects associated with other antidepressants, such as central nervous system and cardiovascular toxicity (TCAs, bupropion), orthostatic hypotension (TCAs, MAOIs, and trazodone), and sedation (TCAs, trazodone). While SSRIs as a group share a common presumed mechanism of action, there are clinically important differences among the members of this class. First, the pharmacokinetics of sertraline are the same in both elderly and younger patients, whereas elderly, in comparison with younger, patients develop higher plasma levels of fluoxetine (and its active metabolite, norfluoxetine) or paroxetine, when given the same dose. Second, the SSRIs differ in their potential for pharmacokinetic interactions with other psychotropic and nonpsychotropic drugs. Fluoxetine, norfluoxetine (the major metabolite of fluoxetine), and paroxetine are potent inhibitors of the hepatic isoenzyme P450 IID6, whereas sertraline has much weaker inhibitory effects on its activity. Inhibition of P450 isoenzymes can cause potentially dangerous increases in the plasma levels of a large number of drugs, including TCAs, neuroleptics, and mood stabilizers, such as carbamazepine. Thus, sertraline has several characteristics that offer advantages over other members of this class of antidepressants for the treatment of the elderly patient with major depression.
MPHG urinary changes were investigated in a group of patients affected by different forms of depressive illness. No significant difference was noticed depending on age, diagnosis, number and duration of episodes. Considering the group as a whole, a significant increase of MHPG urinary levels was noted after the recovery, although the patients received different drugs (Tricyclic + phenothiazine, Trazodone, IMAO). Specifically, the patients treated with IMAO and Trazodone, either recovered or ameliorated, showed a remarkable increase of MHPG urinary levels, whereas a decrease was noticed in the group who was administered tricyclic antidepressants.
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