Primary cardiac malignant lymphoma within a cardiac myxoma is extremely rare. Here we report a case of a previously healthy 71-year-old woman who developed acute myocardial infarction. Transthoracic echocardiography showed a 69×45-mm solid tumor in the left atrium that was moving in a circular manner in the left atrial and ventricular cavities. Coronary angiography revealed an occlusion due to a coronary emboli in the distal part of the right coronary artery. Thrombectomy with an aspiration catheter was successfully performed to remove large red thrombi from the arterial lumen. Emergent surgical removal of the left atrial tumor along with tricuspid valve annuloplasty was performed under cardiopulmonary bypass. The postoperative course was uneventful. Histological examination demonstrated presence of malignant lymphoma within the myxoma. The patient was treated with rituximab, tetrahydropyranyl adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and predonisone (R-THP-COP) and is doing well without recurrence of lymphoma at 18-month follow-up. We emphasise that all surgical cardiac specimens should be sent for histological analysis aiming at the best treatment.
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Anthracycline and taxane-based primary chemotherapy (PCT) is the standard treatment for high-risk breast cancer (HRBC). However, conventional anthracyclines are not commonly used in elderly patients or those prone to cardiotoxicity. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, (PLD) has comparable efficacy, but less cardiotoxicity than conventional anthracyclines. We conducted a phase II single-arm trial to assess the efficacy and safety of PCT based on PLD followed by paclitaxel (PTX) in a HRBC population usually undertreated. Fifty patients with stage II-IIIB breast cancer and at least one risk factor for developing cardiotoxicity initiated PLD 35 mg/m(2) plus cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m(2) every 4 weeks for four cycles, followed by 80 mg/m(2) weekly PTX for 12. Close cardiac monitoring was performed. Primary endpoint was the pathological complete response rate (pCR) in the breast. Treatment delivery and toxicities were assessed. Eighty-four per cent of patients were older than 65 years, 64 % suffered from hypertension, and 10 % had prior cardiac disease. In an intention-to-treat analysis, breast pCR was 32 % (95 % CI 19.5-46.7 %) and pCR in breast and axilla was 24 % (95 % CI 12.1-35.8 %). At diagnosis only, 26 % of patients were candidates for breast conservative surgery, which increased to 58.7 % after PCT. No significant decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction was seen. PLD followed by PTX was feasible in a fragile population of patients who were not candidates for conventional doxorubicin. Moreover, it achieved a pCR similar to standard therapy and could therefore be an option for elderly patients or cardiotoxicity-prone who present HRBC.
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The elevated cardiac markers found in periodontitis patients suggested that they may carry potential risks in developing cardiac lesions. Troponin T, troponin I, pro-BNP, LDH and high sensitvity C-reactive protein may be used as markers to monitor cardiac lesions in chronic inflammatory patients.
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This multicenter, prospective, observational study analyzed data for 1,910 patients in Japan scheduled for MEC or HEC. Use of antiemetic prophylaxis in relation to type of chemotherapy, incidences of and risk factors for nausea, vomiting, and acute versus delayed CINV, and estimated incidence of CINV by staff were analyzed using Fisher's exact test and multivariate logistic regression. The patients recorded the incidence of CINV and severity of nausea by visual analogue scales daily for 7 days after receiving chemotherapy.
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The antitumour activity of the dendritic cell (DC)-based cellular vaccines is greatly reduced in hostile tumour microenvironment. Therefore, there are many attempts to eliminate or neutralize both suppressor cells and cytokines. The aim of the investigation was to verify if temporary elimination of IL-10 just before injection of bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) enhance the antitumour activity of applied vaccines and help to overcome the immunosuppressive tumour barrier. Mice bearing colon carcinoma MC38 were given single dose of cyclophosphamide (CY) followed by alternate injections of anti-IL-10 antibodies and BMDC-based vaccines consisted of BMDCs stimulated with MC38 tumour antigen (BMDC/TAg) or the combination of BMDC/TAg with BMDCs transduced with IL-12 genes (BMDC/IL-12). The high tumour growth inhibition was observed in mice treated with CY+anti-IL-10+BMDC/TAg as well as CY±anti-IL-10+BMDC/TAg+BMDC/IL-12. However, the mechanisms of action of particular treatment schemes were diversified. Generally, it was observed that application of anti-IL-10 Abs reduced suppressor activity of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). However, anti-IL-10 Abs in combination with diversely composed BMDC-based vaccines induced different components of an antitumour response. The high cytotoxic activity of spleen-derived NK cells and increased influx of these cells into tumours of mice treated with CY+anti-IL-10+BMDC/TAg indicate that mice from the group developed strong NK-dependent response. Whereas, application of anti-IL-10 Abs just before injection of BMDC/TAg+BMDC/IL-12 did not enhanced NK cell activity. Furthermore, it significantly impaired effectiveness of therapy composed of CY+BMDC/TAg+BMDC/IL-12 vaccine in induction of Th1 type immune response. Taken together, our results indicate that temporary elimination of IL-10 is an important and effective way to decrease the immune suppression associated with MDSCs activity and represents a useful strategy for successful enhancement of the antitumour activity of BMDC/TAg-based vaccines.
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Upfront treatment with risk-adapted cyclophosphamide conditioning AlloSCT is well tolerated for the management of newly diagnosed pediatric and adolescent patients with acquired SAA. However, the increased risk of graft rejection in the lower dose arm warrants additional research regarding the optimal intensity of cyclophosphamide-based conditioning regimen to reduce toxicity without increasing graft failure.
The FDA recently approved an anti-CTLA-4 antibody (Iplimumab) for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. This decision was based on Phase III results, which demonstrate that blocking this immune checkpoint provides a survival advantage in patients with advanced disease. As a single agent, ipilimumab is also being clinically evaluated in advanced (metastatic, castrate-resistant) prostate cancer and two randomized, placebo-controlled Phase III studies have recently completed accrual.
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Ranpirnase (onconase; ONC) is an endoribonuclease obtained from the frog Rana pipiens. This enzyme exhibits anticancer properties mediated by degradation of cellular RNA and induction of apoptosis. In this study we assessed cytotoxicity of ONC in combination with currently used anticancer drugs on a human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL)-derived cell line (Toledo). Cytotoxic activity was measured by the exclusion of propidium iodide assay while apoptosis was assessed using the annexin-V binding method. Additionally, flow cytometry was used to assess the decline of mitochondrial potential and to determine activation of caspases 3, 8 and 9. It was observed that in vitro treatment with ONC in combination with rituximab, mafosfamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone (drugs corresponding with elements of R-CHOP regimen) resulted in increased cytotoxicity. As a result ONC showed marked cytotoxicity against Toledo cells. Importantly, in combination of ONC with drugs imitating the R-CHOP regimen, this effect was significantly intensified. The main mechanism responsible for this event was induction of apoptosis along a mitochondrial dependent pathway. In conclusion, these data indicate that further preclinical and eventually clinical studies assessing activity of ONC+R-CHOP treatment are warranted.
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Sixty-six patients were analysed and were equally divided between grade 2 and 3 tumours. Margins were negative in 57 (89%) patients and positive in seven (11%) patients. At a median follow-up of 46 months, there were six (9%) locoregional and 20 (30%) distant recurrences. The locoregional and distant 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were 91% and 64%, respectively. The 5-year overall (OS) and disease-specific survival rates were 86% and 89%, respectively. There were no treatment-related deaths or secondary myelodysplasias. Thirty-four (52%) patients had grade 3 or 4 acute haematologic chemotherapy-related toxicity. There were no statistically significant predictors of OS or RFS.
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Chemoimmunotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is a standard therapy for transplant-eligible patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). The achievement of complete remission (CR) and minimal residual disease (MRD) negativity are associated with better outcomes. We tested an induction regimen of rituximab/bendamustine followed by rituximab/high-dose cytarabine (RB/RC). This phase 2 study (NCT01661881) enrolled 23 transplant-eligible patients aged 42-69, of whom 70% were MCL international prognostic index low-risk. Patients received three cycles of RB followed by three cycles of RC. The primary endpoint of the trial was the rate of CR after six cycles of therapy, with a rate of 75% considered promising. 96% of patients achieved a CR/unconfirmed CR after treatment, meeting the primary objective. One patient progressed on study, one declined ASCT in CR, and the remaining 21 underwent successful stem cell collection and ASCT. After a median follow-up of 13 months, the progression-free survival rate was 96%. Among 15 MRD-evaluable patients who completed treatment, 93% achieved MRD negativity after RB/RC. In conclusion, RB/RC achieves very high CR and MRD negativity rates in transplant-eligible patients, with a favourable safety profile. RB/RC warrants further comparative studies, and may become a useful alternative to RCHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone)-based induction regimens in this patient population.
We sought to compare the efficacy and safety of oral glucocorticoid treatment with or without adjuvants for pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus.
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Overall, 15% of breast cancer survivors treated with docetaxel report PN 1-3years after treatment with a significant negative impact on HRQOL.
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The CSTD significantly reduced, but did not totally eliminate, surface contamination with cyclophosphamide. In addition to other protective measures, increased usage of CSTDs should be employed to help protect health care workers from exposure to hazardous drugs.
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This study evaluated the effect of immunosuppression on experimental cryptosporidiosis, by parasitological and histopathological studies at different days post infection (p.i). A total of one hundred five clean laboratory bred male Wister rats were divided into four groups: normal control group (GI), infected group (GII), immunosuppressed control group (GIII) and immunosuppressed infected group (GIV). The infection was done by inoculation orally with 10(5) Cryptosporidium oocysts in 0.1 ml PBS. The immunosuppression was done by administration of cytotoxic drug (Endoxan) intraperitoneal in a dose of 5 mg/kg/d for 4 weeks. The results showed that in GII, most of animals attained its activities without apparent clinical symptoms except some of them had diarrhea while in GIV, all had diarrhea, loss of appetite, weakness, lethargy and hair loss. The death rate was (10%) in GII while in GIV was 51.4%. The infection rate among GII was 95% and GIV was 100%. The infection intensity was higher in GIV than in GIII and the greatest number of excreted oocysts was observed on day 15th post-infection (PI) in GIV and on day 11th PI in GII. The histopathological changes in the ileum were more advanced in GIV.
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Seventy-five patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma treated with epirubicin were studied. Blood collection and echocardiography were performed at baseline, 1 day after the third cycle, and 1 day after completion of chemotherapy. Patients were studied using echocardiography during follow-up. Global longitudinal (GLS), circumferential (GCS), and radial strain (GRS) were calculated using speckle tracking echocardiography. Left ventricular ejection fraction was analysed by real-time 3D echocardiography. Cardiotoxicity was defined as a reduction of the LVEF of ≥5% to <55% with symptoms of heart failure or an asymptomatic reduction of the LVEF of ≥10% to <55%.
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We developed a controlled clinical trial to assess the efficacy and toxicity of adjuvant-involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) in patients with primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma that achieved complete response after the patients were treated with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone, and rituximab (R-CHOP-14).
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Clinical trials in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have focused mainly on younger fit patients until recently. However, CLL is a disease of elderly and many patients have significant comorbid conditions which together with advanced age preclude the use of aggressive regimens like FCR (fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, rituximab). Therefore, parameters such as performance status, renal function and number/severity of comorbidities together with clinical judgment should be used to guide the decision-making process regarding intensity of treatment. Two large randomized trials recently demonstrated that addition of monoclonal anti-CD20 antibodies (obinutuzumab, rituximab, and ofatumumab) to chlorambucil in untreated comorbid patients lead to improvement in complete remission rate, progression-free survival and even overall survival (obinutuzumab-chlorambucil and rituximab-chlorambucil), with acceptable toxicity profile. Thus, chemoimmunotherapy combining chlorambucil with an anti-CD20 antibody is the new standard approach for elderly/comorbid CLL patients in the first line. Treatment of relapsed/refractory disease in this patient population is very challenging and data regarding this subpopulation are rather limited. Impressive efficacy of novel targeted small molecules interfering with B-cell receptor signaling, namely Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase delta inhibitor idelalisib, radically changed the treatment paradigms for relapsed/refractory CLL; relatively mild toxicity of these agents make them very good candidates for elderly/comorbid patients. Other options for relapsed/refractory disease include alemtuzumab, ofatumumab, high-dose glucocorticoids+rituximab and bendamustine+rituximab. This review summarizes the current knowledge on prognostication and therapy of elderly and comorbid patients with CLL.
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Withania somnifera has potential against cancer-related fatigue, in addition to improving the quality of life. However, further study with a larger sample size in a randomized trial is warranted to validate our findings.
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This trial demonstrated that early response assessment supported therapeutic titration (omitting radiotherapy in RERs with CR; augmenting chemotherapy in SERs with PET-positive disease). Strategies directed toward improved response assessment and risk stratification may enhance tailoring of treatment to patient characteristics and response.
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Rituximab has significantly improved the survival of patients with DLBCL, especially those with non-germinal center B-cell-like (non-GCB) subtype. The impact of Ki-67 expression, an index of proliferation, on the clinical outcomes of patients with DLBCL has largely been unexplored. This study aimed to investigate whether Ki-67 expression is an indicator of outcome in DLBCL patients (especially non-GCB DLBCL patients) treated with standard chemotherapy combined with rituximab.
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In this retrospective single-center study, we evaluated the results of the Hyper-CVAD (fractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone) regimen in 49 ALL patients treated between 2001 and 2013. No exclusion criteria were applied. The primary outcome measure was the CR rate.
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Many cytotoxic chemotherapeutics elicit a proinflammatory response which is often associated with chemotherapy-induced behavioral alterations. The immune system is under circadian influence; time-of-day may alter inflammatory responses to chemotherapeutics. We tested this hypothesis by administering cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin (Cyclo/Dox), a common treatment for breast cancer, to female BALB/c mice near the beginning of the light or dark phase. Mice were injected intravenously with Cyclo/Dox or the vehicle two hours after lights on (zeitgeber time (ZT2), or two hours after lights off (ZT14). Tissue was collected 1, 3, 9, and 24 hours later. Mice injected with Cyclo/Dox at ZT2 lost more body mass than mice injected at ZT14. Cyclo/Dox injected at ZT2 increased the expression of several pro-inflammatory genes within the spleen; this was not evident among mice treated at ZT14. Transcription of enzymes within the liver responsible for converting Cyclo/Dox into their toxic metabolites increased among mice injected at ZT2; furthermore, transcription of these enzymes correlated with splenic pro-inflammatory gene expression when treatment occurred at ZT2 but not ZT14. The pattern was reversed in the brain; pro-inflammatory gene expression increased among mice injected at ZT14. These data suggest that inflammatory responses to chemotherapy depend on time-of-day and are tissue specific.
The aim of present study was to investigate the feasibility of a densified sequence of FEC75 (5-fluorouracil 600 mg/m2, epirubicin 75 mg/m2, cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2) and docetaxel 100 mg/m2 (D100) in patients with primary operable high-risk breast cancer.
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Because cytokine-priming signals direct CD8(+) T cells to acquire unique profiles that affect their ability to mediate specific immune responses, here we generated IL-9-skewed CD8(+) T (Tc9) cells by priming with Th9-polarized condition. Compared with type-I CD8(+) cytotoxic T (Tc1) cells, Tc9 secreted different cytokines and were less cytolytic in vitro but surprisingly elicited greater antitumor responses against advanced tumors in OT-I/B16-OVA and Pmel-1/B16 melanoma models. After adoptive transfer, Tc9 cells persisted longer and differentiated into IFN-γ- and granzyme-B (GrzB)-producing cytolytic Tc1-like effector cells. Phenotypic analysis revealed that adoptively transferred Tc9 cells secreted IL-2 and were KLRG-1(low) and IL-7Rα(high), suggesting that they acquired a signature of "younger" phenotype or became long-term lived cells with capacity of self-renewal. Our results also revealed that Tc9-mediated therapeutic effect critically depended on IL-9 production in vivo. These findings have clinical implications for the improvement of CD8(+) T-cell-based adoptive immunotherapy of cancers.
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is characterized by systemic vasculitis, asthma and eosinophilia. Severe pulmonary hemorrhage is rare. Renal involvement is seen in approximately 25% and can vary from isolated urinary abnormality to rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. There is limited evidence to support the use of rituximab in this condition. We present a patient with EGPA who had severe pulmonary hemorrhage and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. He responded to standard treatment including prednisolone, cyclophosphamide, and plasma exchange. He subsequently had a relapse of pulmonary hemorrhage that was treated successfully with rituximab.
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To explore the clinical features, management approach and treatment outcomes for adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the breast.
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We report the 8-year follow-up of 34 patients aged ≥69 years old with NHL included in a phase IIb open-label randomized parallel groups study to evaluate the effectiveness of amifostine in preventing the toxicity of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (CHOP regime) .
Extra nodal lymphoma (ENL) constitutes about 33 % of all non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. 18-28% develops in the head and neck region. A multimodality treatment with multi-agent chemotherapy (CT) and radiotherapy (RT) is considered optimum.
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A PubMed search (January 1977-June 2013) was conducted for English-language articles evaluating obesity and its relationship to pharmacokinetic parameters of chemotherapy agents. Search terms included: chemotherapy, obesity, excess weight, overweight, neoplasm, pharmacokinetics, dosing, cancer, body mass index, toxicity, efficacy, body surface area.
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We randomly compared ABVD (8 cycles) with BEACOPP (escalated 4 cycles ≥ baseline 4 cycles) in low-risk patients with an International Prognostic Score (IPS) of 0-2. The primary end point was event-free survival (EFS). This parallel group, open-label phase 3 trial was registered under #RECF0219 at French National Cancer Institute.
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We searched the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 4), MEDLINE and EMBASE up to October 2011. In addition, we handsearched the relevant society conference proceedings and study reference lists.
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Rats were arbitrarily grouped into four groups (control, cyclophosphamide (CTX), CTX + APS, and CTX + G-CSF groups), and each group was then arbitrarily divided into five subgroups according to the time period since CTX infusion (0, 4, 7, 10, and 14 days). The expression of leukocyte selectin (L-selectin), its ligand, and shedding-related protease on granulocytes was analyzed. Leukocyte counts were obtained. Chemotactic capacity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) was assessed.
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In the patients aged under 60 years, the incidence of CD21(+) lymphoma (64.0%, 16/25) was significantly higher than that of CD21(-) lymphoma (38.2%, 21/55). There were more CD21(+) lymphoma patients who were at clinical stages I-II (52.0%, 13/25) than patients with CD21(-)lymphomas (23.6%, 13/55). There were also more CD21(+) lymphoma patients (68.0%, 17/25) having less than two extranodal sites involvement than CD21(-)lymphoma patients (41.8%, 23/55). In addition, there were more CD21(+) lymphoma patients with IPI 0-2 (68.0%, 17/25) than CD21(-)lymphoma patients (41.8%, 23/55). There were more CD21(+) lymphoma patients with GCB subtype (60.0%, 15/25) than CD21(-)lymphoma patients (23.6%, 13/55). Death related to DLBCL was less in CD21(+) lymphoma patients (32.0%, 8/25) than CD21(-) lymphoma patients (56.4%, 31/55). Univariate analysis showed that these clinical pathological characteristics affected the overall survival of DLBCL patients, including age, ECOG score, LDH, extranodal involvement, IPI index, CD21 expression, treatment option and efficacy (P < 0.05) . Cox multivariate analysis showed that ECOG score, LDH, extranodal involvement, CD21 expression were closely related to prognosis, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Among the 80 patients, the overall survival (OS) of CD21(+) lymphoma patients was significantly higher than that of CD21(-) lymphoma patients.
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This study investigated the cytotoxic effect of uvangoletin on HL-60 cells, and the effects of uvangoletin on myelosuppression, leucopenia, gastrointestinal tract disturbances and the possible cytotoxic mechanisms by using CCK-8, flow cytometry, western blot, xenograft, cyclophosphamide-induced leucopenia, copper sulfate-induced emesis and ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions assays. The results of CCK-8, flow cytometry and western blot assays indicated that uvangoletin showed the cytotoxic effect on HL-60 cells and induced the apoptosis of HL-60 cells by downregulating the expression levels of anti-apoptotic proteins (Survivin, Bcl-xl and Bcl-2), upregulating the expression levels of pro-apoptotic proteins (Smac, Bax, Bad, c-caspase-3 and c-caspase-9), and promoting the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytoplasm. Further, the results of xenograft assay suggested that uvangoletin inhibited the HL-60-induced tumor growth without adverse effect on body weight of nude mice in vivo by regulating the expression levels of above apoptotic proteins. The results indicated that the reductions of WBCs count and thighbone marrow granulocytes percentage in cyclophosphamide-induced leucopenia assay, the incubation period and number of emesis in copper sulfate-induced emesis assay and the gastric mucosal lesions in ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions assay were not exacerbated or reversed by uvangoletin. In conclusion, the research preliminarily indicated that uvangoletin induced apoptosis of HL-60 cells in vitro and in vivo without adverse reactions of myelosuppression, leucopenia and gastrointestinal tract disturbances, and the pro-apoptotic mechanisms may be related to mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway.
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Our case highlights the clinical characteristics of this uncommon form of localized scleroderma, the extremely severe prognosis, and the therapeutic challenge involved.
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The use of Aidi injection-asisted R-CHOP chemotherapy for treating patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma can increase the patient's tolerance to chemotherapy, improve their quality of life, also reduce the side-effects of chemotherapy, and the trerapeutic effect is more significant than that of R-CHOP regimen alone, thus improving the overall therapeutic efficacy of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
We retrospectively identified eight patients treated for EN with proton radiotherapy from 2000-2013. Times to event clinical endpoints are summarized using the Kaplan-Meier methods and are from the date of radiotherapy completion. Toxicities are reviewed and graded according to CTCAE v. 4.0.
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A subcutaneous formulation of trastuzumab has been developed, offering potential improvements in patient convenience and resource use compared with the standard intravenous infusion of the drug. We compared the pharmacokinetic profile, efficacy, and safety of the subcutaneous and intravenous formulations in patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer.