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Cytoxan (Cyclophosphamide)

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Cytoxan is used for treating certain types of the following cancers: lymphoma, multiple myeloma, leukemia, mycosis fungoides, neuroblastoma, ovarian cancer, eye cancer, and breast cancer. It is usually used in combination with other medicines. It may also be used to treat certain kidney problems (nephrotic syndrome) in children or for other conditions.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Xeloda, Paclitaxel


Also known as:  Cyclophosphamide.


Cytoxan is an antineoplastic. It works by stopping or slowing the growth or spread of certain cancer cells.

Generic name of Cytoxan is Cyclophosphamide.

Cytoxan is also known as Cyclophosphamide, Cycloxan.

Brand name of Cytoxan is Cytoxan.


Take Cytoxan tablets by mouth.

Swallow Cytoxan with water.

Take your doses at regular intervals.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Cytoxan suddenly.


If you overdose Cytoxan and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature at or below 25 degrees C (77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. This medicine can be stored at room temperatures of up to 30 degrees C (86 degrees F) for a short time. Protect from temperatures above 30 degrees C (86 degrees F). Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Cytoxan are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Cytoxan if you are allergic to Cytoxan components or to other similar medicines.

Do not take Cytoxan if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not take Cytoxan if you are taking tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-blocking medicines (etanercept).

Cytoxan may reduce the number of clot-forming cells (platelets) in your blood. To prevent bleeding, avoid situations in which bruising or injury may occur.

Cytoxan may lower your body's ability to fight infection. Prevent infection by avoiding contact with people with colds or other infections.

Use Cytoxan with great care in case you want to undergo an operation (dental or any other).

Cytoxan may decrease your body's ability to heal wounds.

Cytoxan may increase your chance of developing a second cancer, sometimes even years after stopping treatment with Cytoxan.

Cytoxan may cause infertility that is sometimes permanent.

Be very careful receiving any vaccinations while you are using Cytoxan.

The use of birth control is recommended while using Cytoxan.

Lab tests, including complete blood cell counts, platelet counts, and urine tests, may be performed to monitor your progress or to check for side effects.

Elderly people hould be very careful with Cytoxan because they may be more sensitive to its effects.

Do not stop taking Cytoxan suddenly.

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Primary cardiac malignant lymphoma within a cardiac myxoma is extremely rare. Here we report a case of a previously healthy 71-year-old woman who developed acute myocardial infarction. Transthoracic echocardiography showed a 69×45-mm solid tumor in the left atrium that was moving in a circular manner in the left atrial and ventricular cavities. Coronary angiography revealed an occlusion due to a coronary emboli in the distal part of the right coronary artery. Thrombectomy with an aspiration catheter was successfully performed to remove large red thrombi from the arterial lumen. Emergent surgical removal of the left atrial tumor along with tricuspid valve annuloplasty was performed under cardiopulmonary bypass. The postoperative course was uneventful. Histological examination demonstrated presence of malignant lymphoma within the myxoma. The patient was treated with rituximab, tetrahydropyranyl adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and predonisone (R-THP-COP) and is doing well without recurrence of lymphoma at 18-month follow-up. We emphasise that all surgical cardiac specimens should be sent for histological analysis aiming at the best treatment.

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Anthracycline and taxane-based primary chemotherapy (PCT) is the standard treatment for high-risk breast cancer (HRBC). However, conventional anthracyclines are not commonly used in elderly patients or those prone to cardiotoxicity. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, (PLD) has comparable efficacy, but less cardiotoxicity than conventional anthracyclines. We conducted a phase II single-arm trial to assess the efficacy and safety of PCT based on PLD followed by paclitaxel (PTX) in a HRBC population usually undertreated. Fifty patients with stage II-IIIB breast cancer and at least one risk factor for developing cardiotoxicity initiated PLD 35 mg/m(2) plus cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m(2) every 4 weeks for four cycles, followed by 80 mg/m(2) weekly PTX for 12. Close cardiac monitoring was performed. Primary endpoint was the pathological complete response rate (pCR) in the breast. Treatment delivery and toxicities were assessed. Eighty-four per cent of patients were older than 65 years, 64 % suffered from hypertension, and 10 % had prior cardiac disease. In an intention-to-treat analysis, breast pCR was 32 % (95 % CI 19.5-46.7 %) and pCR in breast and axilla was 24 % (95 % CI 12.1-35.8 %). At diagnosis only, 26 % of patients were candidates for breast conservative surgery, which increased to 58.7 % after PCT. No significant decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction was seen. PLD followed by PTX was feasible in a fragile population of patients who were not candidates for conventional doxorubicin. Moreover, it achieved a pCR similar to standard therapy and could therefore be an option for elderly patients or cardiotoxicity-prone who present HRBC.

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The elevated cardiac markers found in periodontitis patients suggested that they may carry potential risks in developing cardiac lesions. Troponin T, troponin I, pro-BNP, LDH and high sensitvity C-reactive protein may be used as markers to monitor cardiac lesions in chronic inflammatory patients.

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This multicenter, prospective, observational study analyzed data for 1,910 patients in Japan scheduled for MEC or HEC. Use of antiemetic prophylaxis in relation to type of chemotherapy, incidences of and risk factors for nausea, vomiting, and acute versus delayed CINV, and estimated incidence of CINV by staff were analyzed using Fisher's exact test and multivariate logistic regression. The patients recorded the incidence of CINV and severity of nausea by visual analogue scales daily for 7 days after receiving chemotherapy.

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The antitumour activity of the dendritic cell (DC)-based cellular vaccines is greatly reduced in hostile tumour microenvironment. Therefore, there are many attempts to eliminate or neutralize both suppressor cells and cytokines. The aim of the investigation was to verify if temporary elimination of IL-10 just before injection of bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) enhance the antitumour activity of applied vaccines and help to overcome the immunosuppressive tumour barrier. Mice bearing colon carcinoma MC38 were given single dose of cyclophosphamide (CY) followed by alternate injections of anti-IL-10 antibodies and BMDC-based vaccines consisted of BMDCs stimulated with MC38 tumour antigen (BMDC/TAg) or the combination of BMDC/TAg with BMDCs transduced with IL-12 genes (BMDC/IL-12). The high tumour growth inhibition was observed in mice treated with CY+anti-IL-10+BMDC/TAg as well as CY±anti-IL-10+BMDC/TAg+BMDC/IL-12. However, the mechanisms of action of particular treatment schemes were diversified. Generally, it was observed that application of anti-IL-10 Abs reduced suppressor activity of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). However, anti-IL-10 Abs in combination with diversely composed BMDC-based vaccines induced different components of an antitumour response. The high cytotoxic activity of spleen-derived NK cells and increased influx of these cells into tumours of mice treated with CY+anti-IL-10+BMDC/TAg indicate that mice from the group developed strong NK-dependent response. Whereas, application of anti-IL-10 Abs just before injection of BMDC/TAg+BMDC/IL-12 did not enhanced NK cell activity. Furthermore, it significantly impaired effectiveness of therapy composed of CY+BMDC/TAg+BMDC/IL-12 vaccine in induction of Th1 type immune response. Taken together, our results indicate that temporary elimination of IL-10 is an important and effective way to decrease the immune suppression associated with MDSCs activity and represents a useful strategy for successful enhancement of the antitumour activity of BMDC/TAg-based vaccines.

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Upfront treatment with risk-adapted cyclophosphamide conditioning AlloSCT is well tolerated for the management of newly diagnosed pediatric and adolescent patients with acquired SAA. However, the increased risk of graft rejection in the lower dose arm warrants additional research regarding the optimal intensity of cyclophosphamide-based conditioning regimen to reduce toxicity without increasing graft failure.

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The FDA recently approved an anti-CTLA-4 antibody (Iplimumab) for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. This decision was based on Phase III results, which demonstrate that blocking this immune checkpoint provides a survival advantage in patients with advanced disease. As a single agent, ipilimumab is also being clinically evaluated in advanced (metastatic, castrate-resistant) prostate cancer and two randomized, placebo-controlled Phase III studies have recently completed accrual.

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Ranpirnase (onconase; ONC) is an endoribonuclease obtained from the frog Rana pipiens. This enzyme exhibits anticancer properties mediated by degradation of cellular RNA and induction of apoptosis. In this study we assessed cytotoxicity of ONC in combination with currently used anticancer drugs on a human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL)-derived cell line (Toledo). Cytotoxic activity was measured by the exclusion of propidium iodide assay while apoptosis was assessed using the annexin-V binding method. Additionally, flow cytometry was used to assess the decline of mitochondrial potential and to determine activation of caspases 3, 8 and 9. It was observed that in vitro treatment with ONC in combination with rituximab, mafosfamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone (drugs corresponding with elements of R-CHOP regimen) resulted in increased cytotoxicity. As a result ONC showed marked cytotoxicity against Toledo cells. Importantly, in combination of ONC with drugs imitating the R-CHOP regimen, this effect was significantly intensified. The main mechanism responsible for this event was induction of apoptosis along a mitochondrial dependent pathway. In conclusion, these data indicate that further preclinical and eventually clinical studies assessing activity of ONC+R-CHOP treatment are warranted.

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Sixty-six patients were analysed and were equally divided between grade 2 and 3 tumours. Margins were negative in 57 (89%) patients and positive in seven (11%) patients. At a median follow-up of 46 months, there were six (9%) locoregional and 20 (30%) distant recurrences. The locoregional and distant 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were 91% and 64%, respectively. The 5-year overall (OS) and disease-specific survival rates were 86% and 89%, respectively. There were no treatment-related deaths or secondary myelodysplasias. Thirty-four (52%) patients had grade 3 or 4 acute haematologic chemotherapy-related toxicity. There were no statistically significant predictors of OS or RFS.

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Chemoimmunotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is a standard therapy for transplant-eligible patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). The achievement of complete remission (CR) and minimal residual disease (MRD) negativity are associated with better outcomes. We tested an induction regimen of rituximab/bendamustine followed by rituximab/high-dose cytarabine (RB/RC). This phase 2 study (NCT01661881) enrolled 23 transplant-eligible patients aged 42-69, of whom 70% were MCL international prognostic index low-risk. Patients received three cycles of RB followed by three cycles of RC. The primary endpoint of the trial was the rate of CR after six cycles of therapy, with a rate of 75% considered promising. 96% of patients achieved a CR/unconfirmed CR after treatment, meeting the primary objective. One patient progressed on study, one declined ASCT in CR, and the remaining 21 underwent successful stem cell collection and ASCT. After a median follow-up of 13 months, the progression-free survival rate was 96%. Among 15 MRD-evaluable patients who completed treatment, 93% achieved MRD negativity after RB/RC. In conclusion, RB/RC achieves very high CR and MRD negativity rates in transplant-eligible patients, with a favourable safety profile. RB/RC warrants further comparative studies, and may become a useful alternative to RCHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone)-based induction regimens in this patient population.

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We sought to compare the efficacy and safety of oral glucocorticoid treatment with or without adjuvants for pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus.

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Overall, 15% of breast cancer survivors treated with docetaxel report PN 1-3years after treatment with a significant negative impact on HRQOL.

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The CSTD significantly reduced, but did not totally eliminate, surface contamination with cyclophosphamide. In addition to other protective measures, increased usage of CSTDs should be employed to help protect health care workers from exposure to hazardous drugs.

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This study evaluated the effect of immunosuppression on experimental cryptosporidiosis, by parasitological and histopathological studies at different days post infection (p.i). A total of one hundred five clean laboratory bred male Wister rats were divided into four groups: normal control group (GI), infected group (GII), immunosuppressed control group (GIII) and immunosuppressed infected group (GIV). The infection was done by inoculation orally with 10(5) Cryptosporidium oocysts in 0.1 ml PBS. The immunosuppression was done by administration of cytotoxic drug (Endoxan) intraperitoneal in a dose of 5 mg/kg/d for 4 weeks. The results showed that in GII, most of animals attained its activities without apparent clinical symptoms except some of them had diarrhea while in GIV, all had diarrhea, loss of appetite, weakness, lethargy and hair loss. The death rate was (10%) in GII while in GIV was 51.4%. The infection rate among GII was 95% and GIV was 100%. The infection intensity was higher in GIV than in GIII and the greatest number of excreted oocysts was observed on day 15th post-infection (PI) in GIV and on day 11th PI in GII. The histopathological changes in the ileum were more advanced in GIV.

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Seventy-five patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma treated with epirubicin were studied. Blood collection and echocardiography were performed at baseline, 1 day after the third cycle, and 1 day after completion of chemotherapy. Patients were studied using echocardiography during follow-up. Global longitudinal (GLS), circumferential (GCS), and radial strain (GRS) were calculated using speckle tracking echocardiography. Left ventricular ejection fraction was analysed by real-time 3D echocardiography. Cardiotoxicity was defined as a reduction of the LVEF of ≥5% to <55% with symptoms of heart failure or an asymptomatic reduction of the LVEF of ≥10% to <55%.

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We developed a controlled clinical trial to assess the efficacy and toxicity of adjuvant-involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) in patients with primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma that achieved complete response after the patients were treated with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone, and rituximab (R-CHOP-14).

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Clinical trials in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have focused mainly on younger fit patients until recently. However, CLL is a disease of elderly and many patients have significant comorbid conditions which together with advanced age preclude the use of aggressive regimens like FCR (fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, rituximab). Therefore, parameters such as performance status, renal function and number/severity of comorbidities together with clinical judgment should be used to guide the decision-making process regarding intensity of treatment. Two large randomized trials recently demonstrated that addition of monoclonal anti-CD20 antibodies (obinutuzumab, rituximab, and ofatumumab) to chlorambucil in untreated comorbid patients lead to improvement in complete remission rate, progression-free survival and even overall survival (obinutuzumab-chlorambucil and rituximab-chlorambucil), with acceptable toxicity profile. Thus, chemoimmunotherapy combining chlorambucil with an anti-CD20 antibody is the new standard approach for elderly/comorbid CLL patients in the first line. Treatment of relapsed/refractory disease in this patient population is very challenging and data regarding this subpopulation are rather limited. Impressive efficacy of novel targeted small molecules interfering with B-cell receptor signaling, namely Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase delta inhibitor idelalisib, radically changed the treatment paradigms for relapsed/refractory CLL; relatively mild toxicity of these agents make them very good candidates for elderly/comorbid patients. Other options for relapsed/refractory disease include alemtuzumab, ofatumumab, high-dose glucocorticoids+rituximab and bendamustine+rituximab. This review summarizes the current knowledge on prognostication and therapy of elderly and comorbid patients with CLL.

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Withania somnifera has potential against cancer-related fatigue, in addition to improving the quality of life. However, further study with a larger sample size in a randomized trial is warranted to validate our findings.

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This trial demonstrated that early response assessment supported therapeutic titration (omitting radiotherapy in RERs with CR; augmenting chemotherapy in SERs with PET-positive disease). Strategies directed toward improved response assessment and risk stratification may enhance tailoring of treatment to patient characteristics and response.

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Rituximab has significantly improved the survival of patients with DLBCL, especially those with non-germinal center B-cell-like (non-GCB) subtype. The impact of Ki-67 expression, an index of proliferation, on the clinical outcomes of patients with DLBCL has largely been unexplored. This study aimed to investigate whether Ki-67 expression is an indicator of outcome in DLBCL patients (especially non-GCB DLBCL patients) treated with standard chemotherapy combined with rituximab.

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In this retrospective single-center study, we evaluated the results of the Hyper-CVAD (fractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone) regimen in 49 ALL patients treated between 2001 and 2013. No exclusion criteria were applied. The primary outcome measure was the CR rate.

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Many cytotoxic chemotherapeutics elicit a proinflammatory response which is often associated with chemotherapy-induced behavioral alterations. The immune system is under circadian influence; time-of-day may alter inflammatory responses to chemotherapeutics. We tested this hypothesis by administering cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin (Cyclo/Dox), a common treatment for breast cancer, to female BALB/c mice near the beginning of the light or dark phase. Mice were injected intravenously with Cyclo/Dox or the vehicle two hours after lights on (zeitgeber time (ZT2), or two hours after lights off (ZT14). Tissue was collected 1, 3, 9, and 24 hours later. Mice injected with Cyclo/Dox at ZT2 lost more body mass than mice injected at ZT14. Cyclo/Dox injected at ZT2 increased the expression of several pro-inflammatory genes within the spleen; this was not evident among mice treated at ZT14. Transcription of enzymes within the liver responsible for converting Cyclo/Dox into their toxic metabolites increased among mice injected at ZT2; furthermore, transcription of these enzymes correlated with splenic pro-inflammatory gene expression when treatment occurred at ZT2 but not ZT14. The pattern was reversed in the brain; pro-inflammatory gene expression increased among mice injected at ZT14. These data suggest that inflammatory responses to chemotherapy depend on time-of-day and are tissue specific.

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The aim of present study was to investigate the feasibility of a densified sequence of FEC75 (5-fluorouracil 600 mg/m2, epirubicin 75 mg/m2, cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2) and docetaxel 100 mg/m2 (D100) in patients with primary operable high-risk breast cancer.

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Because cytokine-priming signals direct CD8(+) T cells to acquire unique profiles that affect their ability to mediate specific immune responses, here we generated IL-9-skewed CD8(+) T (Tc9) cells by priming with Th9-polarized condition. Compared with type-I CD8(+) cytotoxic T (Tc1) cells, Tc9 secreted different cytokines and were less cytolytic in vitro but surprisingly elicited greater antitumor responses against advanced tumors in OT-I/B16-OVA and Pmel-1/B16 melanoma models. After adoptive transfer, Tc9 cells persisted longer and differentiated into IFN-γ- and granzyme-B (GrzB)-producing cytolytic Tc1-like effector cells. Phenotypic analysis revealed that adoptively transferred Tc9 cells secreted IL-2 and were KLRG-1(low) and IL-7Rα(high), suggesting that they acquired a signature of "younger" phenotype or became long-term lived cells with capacity of self-renewal. Our results also revealed that Tc9-mediated therapeutic effect critically depended on IL-9 production in vivo. These findings have clinical implications for the improvement of CD8(+) T-cell-based adoptive immunotherapy of cancers.

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Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is characterized by systemic vasculitis, asthma and eosinophilia. Severe pulmonary hemorrhage is rare. Renal involvement is seen in approximately 25% and can vary from isolated urinary abnormality to rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. There is limited evidence to support the use of rituximab in this condition. We present a patient with EGPA who had severe pulmonary hemorrhage and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. He responded to standard treatment including prednisolone, cyclophosphamide, and plasma exchange. He subsequently had a relapse of pulmonary hemorrhage that was treated successfully with rituximab.

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To explore the clinical features, management approach and treatment outcomes for adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the breast.

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We report the 8-year follow-up of 34 patients aged ≥69 years old with NHL included in a phase IIb open-label randomized parallel groups study to evaluate the effectiveness of amifostine in preventing the toxicity of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (CHOP regime) .

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Extra nodal lymphoma (ENL) constitutes about 33 % of all non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. 18-28% develops in the head and neck region. A multimodality treatment with multi-agent chemotherapy (CT) and radiotherapy (RT) is considered optimum.

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A PubMed search (January 1977-June 2013) was conducted for English-language articles evaluating obesity and its relationship to pharmacokinetic parameters of chemotherapy agents. Search terms included: chemotherapy, obesity, excess weight, overweight, neoplasm, pharmacokinetics, dosing, cancer, body mass index, toxicity, efficacy, body surface area.

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We randomly compared ABVD (8 cycles) with BEACOPP (escalated 4 cycles ≥ baseline 4 cycles) in low-risk patients with an International Prognostic Score (IPS) of 0-2. The primary end point was event-free survival (EFS). This parallel group, open-label phase 3 trial was registered under #RECF0219 at French National Cancer Institute.

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We searched the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 4), MEDLINE and EMBASE up to October 2011. In addition, we handsearched the relevant society conference proceedings and study reference lists.

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Rats were arbitrarily grouped into four groups (control, cyclophosphamide (CTX), CTX + APS, and CTX + G-CSF groups), and each group was then arbitrarily divided into five subgroups according to the time period since CTX infusion (0, 4, 7, 10, and 14 days). The expression of leukocyte selectin (L-selectin), its ligand, and shedding-related protease on granulocytes was analyzed. Leukocyte counts were obtained. Chemotactic capacity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) was assessed.

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In the patients aged under 60 years, the incidence of CD21(+) lymphoma (64.0%, 16/25) was significantly higher than that of CD21(-) lymphoma (38.2%, 21/55). There were more CD21(+) lymphoma patients who were at clinical stages I-II (52.0%, 13/25) than patients with CD21(-)lymphomas (23.6%, 13/55). There were also more CD21(+) lymphoma patients (68.0%, 17/25) having less than two extranodal sites involvement than CD21(-)lymphoma patients (41.8%, 23/55). In addition, there were more CD21(+) lymphoma patients with IPI 0-2 (68.0%, 17/25) than CD21(-)lymphoma patients (41.8%, 23/55). There were more CD21(+) lymphoma patients with GCB subtype (60.0%, 15/25) than CD21(-)lymphoma patients (23.6%, 13/55). Death related to DLBCL was less in CD21(+) lymphoma patients (32.0%, 8/25) than CD21(-) lymphoma patients (56.4%, 31/55). Univariate analysis showed that these clinical pathological characteristics affected the overall survival of DLBCL patients, including age, ECOG score, LDH, extranodal involvement, IPI index, CD21 expression, treatment option and efficacy (P < 0.05) . Cox multivariate analysis showed that ECOG score, LDH, extranodal involvement, CD21 expression were closely related to prognosis, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Among the 80 patients, the overall survival (OS) of CD21(+) lymphoma patients was significantly higher than that of CD21(-) lymphoma patients.

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This study investigated the cytotoxic effect of uvangoletin on HL-60 cells, and the effects of uvangoletin on myelosuppression, leucopenia, gastrointestinal tract disturbances and the possible cytotoxic mechanisms by using CCK-8, flow cytometry, western blot, xenograft, cyclophosphamide-induced leucopenia, copper sulfate-induced emesis and ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions assays. The results of CCK-8, flow cytometry and western blot assays indicated that uvangoletin showed the cytotoxic effect on HL-60 cells and induced the apoptosis of HL-60 cells by downregulating the expression levels of anti-apoptotic proteins (Survivin, Bcl-xl and Bcl-2), upregulating the expression levels of pro-apoptotic proteins (Smac, Bax, Bad, c-caspase-3 and c-caspase-9), and promoting the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytoplasm. Further, the results of xenograft assay suggested that uvangoletin inhibited the HL-60-induced tumor growth without adverse effect on body weight of nude mice in vivo by regulating the expression levels of above apoptotic proteins. The results indicated that the reductions of WBCs count and thighbone marrow granulocytes percentage in cyclophosphamide-induced leucopenia assay, the incubation period and number of emesis in copper sulfate-induced emesis assay and the gastric mucosal lesions in ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions assay were not exacerbated or reversed by uvangoletin. In conclusion, the research preliminarily indicated that uvangoletin induced apoptosis of HL-60 cells in vitro and in vivo without adverse reactions of myelosuppression, leucopenia and gastrointestinal tract disturbances, and the pro-apoptotic mechanisms may be related to mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway.

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Our case highlights the clinical characteristics of this uncommon form of localized scleroderma, the extremely severe prognosis, and the therapeutic challenge involved.

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The use of Aidi injection-asisted R-CHOP chemotherapy for treating patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma can increase the patient's tolerance to chemotherapy, improve their quality of life, also reduce the side-effects of chemotherapy, and the trerapeutic effect is more significant than that of R-CHOP regimen alone, thus improving the overall therapeutic efficacy of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

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We retrospectively identified eight patients treated for EN with proton radiotherapy from 2000-2013. Times to event clinical endpoints are summarized using the Kaplan-Meier methods and are from the date of radiotherapy completion. Toxicities are reviewed and graded according to CTCAE v. 4.0.

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A subcutaneous formulation of trastuzumab has been developed, offering potential improvements in patient convenience and resource use compared with the standard intravenous infusion of the drug. We compared the pharmacokinetic profile, efficacy, and safety of the subcutaneous and intravenous formulations in patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer.

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Primary ovarian lymphoma is a rare malignancy whose symptoms or signs are usually nonspecific. In this article, we report a very rare case initially presenting as a rectal submucosal-tumor-like lesion with a defecation disturbance caused by primary ovarian lymphoma with bilateral involvement. A 42-year-old woman visited chungnam national university hospital complaining of persistent defecation disturbance for 6 months. Colonoscopy demonstrated compression of the rectum by an extrinsic mass mimicking a rectal submucosal tumor. Magnetic resonance imaging detected bilateral ovarian tumors, 9. cytoxan buy 3 cm and 5.4 cm each in diameter, compressing the rectum without enlarged lymph nodes. The diagnosis was established following a bilateral adnexectomy and histological studies of the excised tissue. The tumor was classified as a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The patient was prescribed six cycles of standard CHOP (cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, vincristine, prednisolone) regimen and is presently on treatment.

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Lupus erythematosus panniculitis (LEP) or lupus erythematosus profundus is a rare form of chronic cutaneous manifestation affecting both adults cytoxan buy and pediatric patients. The prevalence of this manifestation was seldom reported in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE).

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From February 1985 to January 2012, 189 patients were treated. 72.6% were IGCCCG-2 intermediate-to-very high risk. Thirty-five patients (18.5%) had a complete Celebrex Reviews 2015 response, 67 (35.4%) a marker normalization (PRm-). Median follow-up was 122.1 months (inter-quartile range [IQR]: 71.4-232.0). Two-year progression-free and 5-year overall survival were 34.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) 28.1% to 41.9%] and 42.1% (95% CI 35.3% to 50.2%), respectively. Survival estimates compared favorably with those obtained by conventional dose chemotherapy (CDCT) regimens in each prognostic category. 70.4% of grade 3-4 neutropenia (25.5% febrile neutropenia), 48.1% thrombocytopenia, 21.2% anemia, 3.2% neurotoxic effect, and no severe renal toxic effect were recorded.

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We report the case of a patient with recurrent PTLD involving the larynx and trachea and describe the presentation, evaluation, management, and Glucotrol Drug Class outcome.

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A 50-year-old woman who presented with a mass in the thyroid gland was diagnosed as having diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) by biopsy in August 2011. The tumor had a complex chromosomal Imitrex Dosing Instructions karyotype, including 8q24 (C-MYC) and 18q21(BCL-2), and fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed split signals of C-MYC and BCL-2. BCL-2/IgH and C-MYC/IgH fusion signals were also observed. Three courses of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisolone (R-CHOP) therapy were given, followed by thyroid gland irradiation. She was achieved complete remission (CR). In January 2012, a mass appeared in the right breast, which was diagnosed as relapse by biopsy. CR was achieved again after the 4th course of R-CHOP therapy, and one course of rituximab, etoposide, methylprednisolone, cytarabine, cisplatin (R-ESHAP) therapy was given. Thereafter, CR has been maintained after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. There have been only 3 reported cases of primary thyroid C-MYC and BCL-2 double-hit lymphoma, including the present case; 2 of the cases were cases of DLBCL. R-CHOP therapy, irradiation and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation are expected to be effective for such patients.

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We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the local recurrence (LR) rate depending on the use Paracetamol Reviews of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) and to determine the oncologic safety of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) after NCT by comparing LR between patients treated with BCS and mastectomy in clinical stage III breast cancer patients.

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Wilms' tumor is the most common kidney cancer in children. Aggrenox Cost Canada Treatment consists of pre- and post-operative chemotherapy, surgery and in some cases radiotherapy. The treatment of nephroblastomas is very effective. Hence, the population of adult patients cured of this cancer in their childhood is steadily growing, generating a need for long-term health assessment, including renal function, due to the specifications of the therapy and the location of the tumor.

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mAb therapy for experimental metastatic melanoma relies on activating receptors for the Fc portion of IgG (FcγR). Opposing results on the respective contribution of mouse FcγRI, FcγRIII, and FcγRIV have been reported using the gp75-expressing B16 melanoma and the protective anti-gp75 mAb TA99. We analyzed the contribution of FcγRs to this therapy model using bioluminescent Brahmi 500 Mg measurement of lung metastases loads, novel mouse strains, and anti-FcγR blocking mAbs. We found that the TA99 mAb-mediated effects in a combination therapy using cyclophosphamide relied on activating FcγRs. The combination therapy, however, was not more efficient than mAb therapy alone. We demonstrate that FcγRI and, unexpectedly, FcγRIII contributed to TA99 mAb therapeutic effects, whereas FcγRIV did not. Therefore, FcγRIII and FcγRI are, together, responsible for anti-gp75 mAb therapy of B16 lung metastases. Our finding that mouse FcγRIII contributes to Ab-induced tumor reduction correlates with clinical data on its human functional equivalent human FcγRIIIA (CD16A).

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During the first mobilization attempt, all 18 recombinant granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF; two) or G-CSF plus chemotherapy-mobilized patients (16) had poor response to plerixafor, with peripheral blood (PB) CD34+ counts ranging from 0 to 7.48 × 10(6)/L after the first dose. They collected only 0.15 × 10(6) to 1.63 × 10(6) (median, 0.40 × 10(6)) CD34+ cells/kg after one to four collections. The median average daily yield was 0. Parlodel Tablet Price 24 × 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg. Remobilization began 1 to 4 weeks later with G-CSF, plerixafor, and with (three) or without (15) cyclophosphamide. The PB CD34+ cell counts after the first dose of plerixafor were 3.04 × 10(6) to 127.54 × 10(6)/L (median, 14.58 × 10(6)/L). After one to four doses of plerixafor, each patient collected an additional 0.39 × 10(6) to 14.02 × 10(6) (median, 1.89 × 10(6)) CD34+ cells/kg, and the median daily average was 0.78 × 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg. Cumulatively, after two rounds of collections, 15 collected more than 2.0 × 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg. Thirteen have proceeded to autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) and successfully engrafted.

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By polymerase Nexium Reviews chain reaction and comparative genomic hybridization, we evaluated mutations of the GSTT1 gene (GSTT1), a member of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) supergene family associated with both protection of cells from ROS and control of allergic reactions and serum immunoglobulin (Ig) E.

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ICE/R-ICE (ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide without or with rituximab) chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation is an established regimen in refractory/relapsed lymphoma. Few studies have addressed which factors are important in determining peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) mobilization efficiency or nonmobilization following ICE/R-ICE. Between 2004 and 2013, 88 patients with refractory/relapsed lymphoma who received ICE/R-ICE salvage-chemotherapy prior to granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) stimulated PBSC mobilization at a single center were identified. Mobilization efficiency was assessed by time from ICE/R-ICE to day of harvest, duration of G-CSF use, days to peripheral blood (PB) CD34(+) ≥15/µL, PB CD34(+) number on harvest day, CD34(+) yield and nonmobilization rate. Median PB CD34(+) at harvest were 54/μL (7-524); median days to first apheresis was 15 (11-30); median harvested total CD34(+) were 5.46 × 10(6) /kg (0.96-44.36); 71 patients (80.7%) successfully mobilized; 20 (22.7%) patients were poor mobilizers; 14 (15. Topamax 100 Mg 9%) patients were considered nonmobilizers with maximal PB CD34(+) <7/µL and did not proceed to apheresis. Six of 20 poor mobilizers were apheresed with PB CD34(+) 7-12/µL, 50% were successfully harvested. No differences were found between ICE and R-ICE regimens. Impaired mobilization efficiency was associated with age, remission status, >1 line of induction chemotherapy, four cycles ICE/R-ICE and grade 4 neutropenia. Prior bone marrow (BM) involvement was associated with nonmobilization. The majority of patients can be successfully mobilized with ICE/R-ICE. Prior BM involvement is associated with high rates of nonmobilization following ICE/R-ICE. Such patients may benefit from novel mobilization agents and/or alternative salvage regimens to ICE/R-ICE.

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In patients previously treated with Bev for recurrent ovarian cancer, the subsequent addition of Bev to cytotoxic chemotherapy increased the PFS compared with patients not receiving a second course of Bev, but did so without an impact on overall survival. The response to the first Aggrenox Medication Classification Bev regimen did not predict whether a patient would respond again to the next Bev regimen. Randomized, larger studies will have to be performed to confirm this observation.

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Our retrospective analysis of one of the largest DLBCL patient cohorts outside the US National Cancer Institute showed that R-DA-EPOCH is a very effective therapeutic option as a first-line treatment of DLBCL patients with unfavorable prognostic features irrespective of their age. ASCT provided additional benefit for DLBCL patients with additional aggressive features.

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Women who were cyclophosphamide naïve had an increased prevalence of early secondary amenorrhoea compared with population estimates, 13-17% compared with 1-5%. Factors associated with early secondary amenorrhoea in women not treated with cyclophosphamide were marital status and receipt of a kidney transplant. Treatment with cyclophosphamide doubled the prevalence after adjustment for patient characteristics. Over 88% of women reported being pregnant at least once, and about 83% of these had a child, but the majority of pregnancies occurred before diagnosis.

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From 1979-2010, we retrospectively reviewed the data of 221 patients treated at our center. GTN Patients were assigned to low-risk (score ≤6) or high-risk (score ≥7) based on the WHO risk factor scoring system. Overall survival (OS) probabilities were estimated using Kaplan-Meier method. Logistic regression was applied to study the impact of different factors on the response to initial therapy.

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The patient, a 44-year-old male, subjectively noticed edema in his lower legs in March, 2010. By June 2010, he could not walk, and was admitted to this hospital. Since multiple neuropathy, increased serum vascular endothelial growth factor-3, M-proteinemia, edema, pericardial effusions, papilledema, increased platelet count and skin lesions were detected in the complete examination, he was diagnosed with polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M-proteinemia and skin changes (POEMS) syndrome. Treatment with steroid and furosemide was initiated in September 2010. This markedly improved edema and brought about mild recovery of proximal lower-limb muscle strength. The patient, however, suffered prolonged difficulty in walking because his distal lower-limb muscle strength was not improved. In October 2010, he received treatment with high-dose cyclophosphamide, followed by peripheral blood stem cell sampling with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor. In November 2010, he underwent treatment with high-dose melphalan, followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Recovery to neutrophils greater than 500 was achieved at 13 days after transplantation. He could walk without assistance in February 2011. M-protein was not identified by immunofixation electrophoresis in August 2011. Autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation is regarded as a useful treatment for POEMS syndrome.

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Immunotoxins are targeted anticancer therapeutics that kill cancer cells using a cytotoxic bacterial toxin payload. Their development for use in solid tumor malignancies was delayed due to issues with their immunogenicity and limited therapeutic window. However, new research has rejuvenated the field. Coadministration with a lymphocyte-depleting regimen of pentostatin and cyclophosphamide can delay antidrug antibody formation, increasing the number of treatment cycles that patients can receive and resulting in durable responses in heavily pretreated patients. In addition, a new generation of immunotoxin molecules with reduced immunogenicity and nonspecific toxicity has been developed through protein engineering techniques, and one has recently entered the clinic. In preclinical studies in mouse models, these new agents are effective against many tumor types as single agents, and also produce synergistic antitumor responses in combination with chemotherapy. These new immunotoxins have renewed excitement in the field and may prove a promising addition to the targeted therapy repertoire.

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Autologous stem cell transplantation is the standard of care for patients with relapsed HL and the long-term outcomes for survivors 2 years after ASCT have not been well described. No prospective trials have compared the effect of different conditioning regimens on outcomes.

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Retinal vasculitis (RV) is the most aggressive lesion of ocular manifestations of Behcet's disease, seen in 32.1% of patients. Although visual acuity (VA) improves with early and aggressive treatment, in the long run it is seen in only 48% of patients. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation (MSCT) can theoretically reverse the RV process.

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Intrinsic subtype was determined for 476 tumors using the quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR PAM50 gene expression test. Luminal A, luminal B, HER2-enriched (HER2-E), and basal-like subtypes were correlated with relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS), estimated using Kaplan-Meier plots and log-rank testing. Multivariable Cox regression analyses determined significance of interaction between treatment and intrinsic subtypes.

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In this study, we demonstrated selenium (Se) accumulation in Bifidobacterium longum strain (B. longum) and evaluated the effect of Se-enriched B. longum (Se-B. longum) on tumor growth and immune function in tumor-bearing mice. Analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) revealed that more than 99% of Se in Se-B. longum was organic, the main component of which was selenomethionine (SeMet). In the in vivo experiments, tumor-bearing mice (n=8) were orally administrated with different doses of Se-B. longum alone or combined with cyclophosphamide (CTX). The results showed that the middle and high dose of Se-B. longum significantly inhibited tumor growth. When Se-B. longum and CTX were combined, the antitumor effect was significantly enhanced and the survival time of tumor-bearing mice (n=12) was prolonged. Furthermore, compared with CTX alone, the combination of Se-B. longum and CTX stimulated the activity of natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes, increasing the levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and the leukocyte count of H22 tumor-bearing mice (n=12).

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The adjuvant treatment of high-risk endometrial cancer (HREC) remains controversial. This prospective phase-II clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the adjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by chemotherapy in patients with HREC.

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Experiments were performed to assess in mice the inhibitory effects of the anthocyanidins cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, and pelargonidin on genotoxic damage induced by the anticancer drugs cyclophosphamide, procarbazine, and cisplatin. Each anthocyanidin was administered 30 min before injecting the drug, and genotoxicity was assessed by measuring micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow cells. In addition, we monitored the effect of anthocyanidins on apoptosis induced by cyclophosphamide and procarbazine. The results showed significant protective effects of cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, and pelargonidin against DNA damage induced by cyclophosphamide. With delphinidin and malvidin, a biphasic dose-response was observed for protection against cyclophosphamide. Dose-related reduction of genotoxicity was observed with pelargonidin against procarbazine. However with cyanidin, the medium dose of 2 mg/kg showed maximum protection against procarbazine. Cyanidin and pelargonidin significantly reduced the chromosomal damage induced by cisplatin. Furthermore, pre-treatment with these anthocyanidins reduced the level of apoptosis induced by cyclophosphamide and procarbazine. In conclusion, this study shows that anthocyanidins can reduce the efficacy of anticancer drugs for inducing DNA damage and apoptosis.

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Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a rare disease of unknown aetiology, characterized by necrotizing inflammation of small and medium-sized vessels and formation of granulomas. The disease typically involves the upper and lower respiratory tracts and the kidneys, but it can occur in many other locations, often giving a surprising clinical picture. The majority of patients have autoantibodies against cytoplasm of neutrophils (ANCA), of which a pathogenetic role is postulated. The disease affects mostly middle-aged and elderly people, with a predominance of Caucasians. Before the era of immunosuppressive therapy GPA was associated with high early mortality. Nowadays, we have a treatment that gives remission in the majority of patients. The decision about the method of treatment should be made depending on the clinical form of the disease (local or generalized, refractory). Standard remission induction therapy in the generalized disease is cyclophosphamide in combination with steroids. This therapy, however effective, is associated with a number of side effects. In addition, some patients are resistant to standard therapy, and half of them experience relapses. Therefore, there is need for further research for alternative treatment and maintenance therapy. Currently, hopes are raised by biological agents. Among them, the best studied so far is rituximab, which found a place in the current recommendations of EULAR as an alternative drug for patients with refractory disease. The article discusses the clinical picture of GPA, diagnosis and currently recommended treatment.

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During four consecutive days, similar numbers of infusion bags with cyclophosphamide were prepared with both techniques in a cross-over design. Wipe samples (49 for BSC, 50 for APOTECAchemo) were taken at several locations (gloves, infusion bags, trays, BSC-benches, floor) in the pharmacy and analyzed for CP concentrations by GC-MSMS (LOD 0.2 ng/sample).

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Although not typically performed by the head and neck surgeon, an understanding of the staging process is crucial for multidisciplinary management of orbital lymphomas.

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Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is the most common adult leukaemia. Combination immunochemotherapy such as fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and rituximab is the standard first line therapy in fit patients, but there is limited evidence regarding the optimal treatment of patients after relapse. Ofatumumab as monotherapy has been proven to be effective in the treatment of relapsed, refractory CLL, and as it is not myelotoxic, it is an ideal drug to combine with chemotherapy. However, the optimal dose of ofatumumab in this setting is not known. The Chemotherapy plus Ofatumumab at Standard or Mega dose in relapsed CLL (COSMIC) trial will assess the efficacy and safety of standard and high (mega) doses of ofatumumab combined with bendamustine or a combination of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide to determine which, if either, schedule should progress to a phase III trial.

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Patients with potentially curative high-risk STS (size ≥ 5 cm, deep/extracompartimental localization, tumor grades II-III [FNCLCC]) were included. The protocol comprised 4 cycles of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (EIA, etoposide 125 mg/m(2) iv days 1 and 4, ifosfamide 1500 mg/m2 iv days 1 - 4, doxorubicin 50 mg/m(2) day 1, pegfilgrastim 6 mg sc day 5), definitive surgery with intra-operative radiotherapy, adjuvant radiotherapy and 4 adjuvant cycles of EIA.

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One thousand two hundred eighty-four patients were enrolled; 658 patients were randomly assigned to the IDD-ETC treatment group. Within the IDD-ETC group, 324 patients were further randomly assigned to the epoetin alfa group, and 319 were randomly assigned to the non-erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) control group. Primary efficacy endpoints included change in hemoglobin level from baseline to Cycle 9 and the percentage of subjects requiring red blood cell transfusion. Relapse-free survival, overall survival, and intramammary relapse were secondary endpoints estimated with Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods. Except for the primary hypothesis, all statistical tests were two-sided.

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An increased number of circulating monocytes at presentation has recently been associated with shorter survival in Hodgkin lymphoma, follicular lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma. This study aimed to assess the prognostic impact of the absolute monocyte count (AMC) at diagnosis in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). AMC at diagnosis was available in 97 MCL cases recorded in the databases of the Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland in Bellinzona (Switzerland) and the Division of Haematology of the Amedeo Avogadro University of Eastern Piedmont in Novara (Italy). With a median follow up of 7 years, the 5-year overall survival was 29% for patients with AMC >0·50 × 10(9) /l and 62% for patients with AMC ≤0·50 × 10(9) /l (P = 0·008). Elevated AMC and beta-2 microglobulin at diagnosis remained independent outcome predictors at multivariate analysis, controlling for the MCL International Prognostic Index (MIPI), and have been used to build a simple prognostic scoring system. In this relatively small and heterogeneous series an increased AMC identified poor-risk patients. Our results suggest that AMC together with the beta-2 microglobulin level might provide an inexpensive way to stratify MCL patient risk as a complement to the MIPI, which was confirmed to be a very powerful prognostic tool.

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Effects of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight of the alcoholic and hydro-alcoholic extract of leaves of M. olifera were studied on various immune paradigms like delayed type hypersensitivity reaction using SRBC as an antigen, determination of antibody titer, neutrophil adhesion test as an indicator for neutrophil index, total leucocyte count in cyclophosphamide induced immunosuppressed animals and carbon clearance assay as a measure of phagocytic activity. Hydro-alcoholic extract of M. olifera substantially enhanced cellular immune response, humoral immune response, neutrophil index and phagoctic activity in doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. The ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg body weight) was efficient in improving immune response. The results suggest that M. olifera has a significant role to play as an immune stimulator.

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High doses of anticancer drugs often damage the intestinal mucosa. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of glutamine on mucosal damage induced by cyclophosphamide in a rat model, and to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for its protective effects.

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A total of 1,323 (55%) of 2,412 contacted female and male survivors were evaluable for the current analysis (mean follow-up, 46 and 48 months, respectively). Follicle-stimulating hormone, anti-Müllerian hormone, and inhibin B levels correlated significantly with therapy intensity (P < .001). Low birth rates were observed in survivors after advanced-stage treatment within the observation time (women, 6.5%; men, 3.3%). Regular menstrual cycle was reported by more than 90% of female survivors of early-stage HL (recovery time mostly ≤ 12 months). After six to eight cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone, menstrual activity was strongly related to age (< v ≥ 30 years: 82% v 45%, respectively; P < .001; prolonged recovery time). Thirty-four percent of women age ≥ 30 years suffered severe menopausal symptoms (three- to four-fold more frequently than expected). In contrast, male survivors had mean levels of testosterone within the normal range and reported no increased symptoms of hypogonadism.

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An RB-loss gene expression signature was associated with increased pathologic complete response in datasets from breast cancer patients treated with 5-fluorouracil/adriamycin/cytoxan (FAC; P < 0.001), T/FAC (P < 0.001), and Taxane/Adriaymcin (P < 0.001) neoadjuvant therapy encompassing approximately 1,000 patients. The association with improved response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy was true in both estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and ER-negative breast cancer. Elevated expression of p16ink4a is associated with the RB-loss signature (R = 0.493-0.5982), and correspondingly p16ink4a mRNA levels were strongly associated with pathologic complete response in the same datasets analyzed. In an independent cohort, immunohistochemical analyses of RB and p16ink4a revealed an association of RB loss (P = 0.0018) or elevated p16ink4a (P = 0.0253) with pathologic complete response. In addition, by Miller-Payne and clinicopathologic scoring analyses, RB-deficient tumors experienced an overall improved response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

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Disintegrating oral chemotherapeutic tablets in a syringe provides a closed system to administer hazardous drugs and allows for the safe administration of oral chemotherapeutic drugs in a tablet form to patients with swallowing difficulties.

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C3 glomerulonephritis is a clinicopathologic entity defined by the presence of isolated or dominant deposits of C3 on immunofluorescence. To explore the effect of immunosuppression on C3 glomerulonephritis, we studied a series of 60 patients in whom a complete registry of treatments was available over a median follow-up of 47 months. Twenty patients had not received immunosuppressive treatments. In the remaining 40 patients, 22 had been treated with corticosteroids plus mycophenolate mofetil while 18 were treated with other immunosuppressive regimens (corticosteroids alone or corticosteroids plus cyclophosphamide). The number of patients developing end-stage renal disease was significantly lower among treated compared with untreated patients (3 vs. 7 patients, respectively). No patient in the corticosteroids plus mycophenolate mofetil group doubled serum creatinine nor developed end-stage renal disease, as compared with 7 (significant) and 3 (not significant), respectively, in patients treated with other immunosuppressive regimens. Renal survival (100, 80, and 72% at 5 years) and the number of patients achieving clinical remission (86, 50, and 25%) were significantly higher in patients treated with corticosteroids plus mycophenolate mofetil as compared with patients treated with other immunosuppressive regimens and untreated patients, respectively. Thus, immunosuppressive treatments, particularly corticosteroids plus mycophenolate mofetil, can be beneficial in C3 glomerulonephritis.

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To prevent premature ovarian failure (POF), high-risk, premenopausal women with early breast cancer were given a luteinizing-hormone releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogue during adjuvant chemotherapy. After an adriamycin-based regimen, patients received radiation therapy concomitant with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil. An aromatase inhibitor was given to patients positive for the estrogen receptor (ER+). The median age was 43 years (range, 26-45). Among 200 consecutive patients, 46% had no axillary node, and 54% had a mean of 5.4 positive nodes (range, 1-25); 56% were ER+, 44% were estrogen receptor negative (ER-), 13% were triple negative, and 20 had tumors positive for the oncogene, c-erb-B2 (identified with fluorescent in situ hybridization). After a median follow-up of 105 months (range, 65-180), no patient under 40 years old exhibited POF, while 44% of patients over 40 years old exhibited POF. Eight pregnancies were recorded: 7 at term and 1 voluntary interruption. The 10-year disease-free survival and overall survival rates were 85 and 91%, respectively. These data showed that, in premenopausal patients with early breast cancer, the addition of an LH-RH analogue to adjuvant chemotherapy was well tolerated, prevented POF, and was associated with excellent disease-free survival and overall survival rates.

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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation is a serious but preventable complication of immunosuppression. Chemotherapy in patients with lymphoma without specific anti-HBV prophylaxis leads to significant impairment of liver function and results in an overall liver-related mortality of greater than 5%. Prevention is a better approach than intervention at the time of reactivation. The cause of death is usually HBV-related fulminant liver failure. We reported a case of a male patient aged 42 years old who was present with acute liver failure related to chemotherapy for treatment of gastric lymphoma. He was later known as having chronic carrier hepatitis B, with high elevated transaminases and hyperbilirubinemia and signs of decompensated liver. The patient was admitted to High Care Unit for best supportive care but his condition was deteriorating and eventually died eventhough he had been already given antiviral agent.