Generic Combivir is used for treating HIV infection in combination with other medicines.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Lamivudine\Zidovudine.
Generic Combivir is an antiviral combination. Lamivudine and Zidovudine are both nucleoside analogues that work together to slow the growth of HIV by blocking an enzyme needed by the virus to reproduce.
Generic Name of Generic Combivir is Lamivudine plus Zidovudine.
Combivir is also known as Lamivudine, Zidovudine, Duovir.
Brand name of Generic Combivir is Combivir.
Generic Combivir is available in tablets which should be taken orally.
Take Generic Combivir with or without food.
Continue to use Generic Combivir even if you feel well. Do not miss any doses.
Take Generic Combivir at the same time each day.
Do not stop taking it suddenly.
If you overdose Generic Combivir and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store between 2 and 30 degrees C (36 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep the container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Combivir are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Be careful with Generic Combivir while you are pregnant or have nurseling. Generic Combivir can pass in breast milk and harm your baby.
Do not use Generic Combivir if you are allergic to Generic Combivir components.
Do not use Generic Combivir if you are taking stavudine, zalcitabine, or other medicines containing lamivudine or zidovudine.
Do not use Generic Combivir if you have severe kidney problems, decreased liver function, abnormal liver function tests, or high levels of lactic acid in the blood (lactic acidosis).
Be careful with Generic Combivir if you weigh less than 66 lbs (30 kg) .
Be careful with Generic Combivir if you have a history of liver problems (eg, abnormal liver function tests, hepatitis B infection) or lactic acidosis, kidney problems, a bone marrow disorder, pancreas problems, abnormal blood cell counts, or nerve or muscle problems.
Be careful with Generic Combivir if you are significantly overweight.
Be careful with Generic Combivir if you take interferon alfa or ribavirin because serious liver problems may occur; stavudine because its effectiveness may be decreased by Generic Combivir; clarithromycin, doxorubicin, rifampin, or zalcitabine because they may decrease Generic Combivir 's effectiveness; acetaminophen, ganciclovir, ibuprofen, methadone, probenecid, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, valproic acid, vancomycin, or zalcitabine because they may increase the risk of Generic Combivir 's side effects or toxic effects.
Do not stop taking it suddenly.
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A single-class NRTI regimen after successful induction with standard ART had similar antiviral efficacy compared to continuation of a PI-based regimen at 96 weeks after baseline, with improved serum lipids.
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There is strong evidence that post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with antiretroviral drugs in the timely management of occupational exposures sustained by healthcare workers decreases the risk of HIV infection and PEP is now widely used. Antiretroviral drugs have well documented toxicities and produce adverse events in patients living with HIV/AIDS. In the era of "highly active antiretroviral therapy", non-adherence to treatment has been closely linked to the occurrence of adverse events in HIV patients and this ultimately influences treatment success but the influence of adverse events on adherence during PEP is less well studied.
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Sixty-five men were randomized and treated (28 in the FTC/TDF arm and 37 in the ZDV/3TC arm), and 57 completed the study (25 and 32 in each arm, respectively). In the FTC/TDF arm, adjusted mean FMR decreased by 0.52 at week 72 (P = 0.014), and in the ZDV/3TC arm it increased by 0.13 (P = 0.491; P between arms = 0.023). Among subjects with lipoatrophy (baseline FMR ≥ 1.5), adjusted FMR decreased by 0.76 (P = 0.003) in the FTC/TDF arm and increased by 0.21 (P = 0.411; P between arms = 0.009) in the ZDV/3TC arm. Baseline FMR and treatment group were significant predictors (P < 0.05) of post-baseline changes in FMR.
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sdNVP alone, administered at the onset of labour and to the infant, was compared to sdNVP with AZT plus 3TC, given as combivir (CBV) for 4 (NVP/CBV4) or 7 (NVP/CBV7) days, initiated simultaneously with sdNVP in labour; their newborns received the same regimens. Women were randomised 1ratio1ratio1. HIV-1 resistance was assessed by population sequencing at: baseline, 2, and 6 wk after birth. An unplanned interim analysis resulted in early stopping of the sdNVP arm. 406 pregnant women were randomised and took study medication (sdNVP 74, NVP/CBV4 164, and NVP/CBV7 168). HIV-1 resistance mutations emerged in 59.2%, 11.7%, and 7.3% of women in the sdNVP, NVP/CBV4, and NVP/CBV7 arms by 6 wk postpartum; differences between NVP-only and both NVP/CBV arms were significant (p<0.0001), but the difference between NVP/CBV4 and NVP/CBV7 was not (p = 0.27). Estimated efficacy comparing combined CBV arms with sdNVP was 85.6%. Similar resistance reductions were seen in infants who were HIV-infected by their 6-wk visit.
The tremendous growth in antiretroviral spending is due primarily to rising utilization, secondarily to the entry of newer, more expensive antiretrovirals, and, finally, in part to rising per-prescription cost of existing medications.
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Switching from ZDV/3TC to FTC/TDF led to an improvement in FMR, compared with progressive worsening of FMR in subjects receiving ZDV/3TC, showing that fat mass not only increased but was also distributed in a healthier way after the switch.
Maraviroc (UK-427 857), an antagonist of the CCR5 receptor with potent anti-HIV activity, was recently approved for use in treatment-experienced patients infected with CCR5-tropic HIV-1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of selected commonly used antiretroviral therapy (ART) combinations on the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of maraviroc 300 mg in HIV-positive subjects compared with historical controls.
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Five ARV regimens are commonly used in China CARES: zidovudine (AZT) + lamivudine (3TC) + nevirapine (NVP), stavudine (D4T) + 3TC + efavirenz (EFV), D4T + 3TC + NVP, didanosine (DDI) + 3TC + NVP and combivir + EFV. The mean annual expenditure per person for ARV medications was US$2,242 (US$1 = 7 Chinese Yuan (CNY)) among 276 participants. The total costs for treating all adverse drug events (ADEs) and opportunistic infections (OIs) were US$29,703 and US$23,031, respectively. The expenses for treatment of peripheral neuritis and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections were the highest among those patients with ADEs and OIs, respectively. On the basis of multivariate linear regression, CD4 cell counts (100-199 cells/μL versus <100 cells/μL, P = 0.02; and ≥200 cells/μL versus <100 cells/μL, P < 0.004), residence in Mangshi County (P < 0.0001), ADEs (P = 0.04) and OIs (P = 0.02) were significantly associated with total expenditures in the first ARV treatment year.
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An open-label, noninferiority study was carried out. Antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients with CD4 count ≤ 350 cells/μL and HIV-1 RNA >30000 copies/mL (n=207) were treated with zidovudine/lamivudine and lopinavir/ritonavir. After achieving HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL on two consecutive occasions between weeks 12 and 24 after baseline, 120 patients (baseline: median HIV-1 RNA 5.19 log10 copies/mL; median CD4 count 180 cells/μL) were randomized to receive abacavir/lamivudine/zidovudine (ABC/3TC/ZDV) (n=61) or to continue the PI-based ART (n=59).
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The current worldwide spread of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) to the heterosexual population has resulted in approximately 800,000 children born yearly to HIV-1-infected mothers. In the absence of anti-retroviral intervention, about 25% of the approximately 7,000 children born yearly to HIV-1-infected women in the United States are HIV-1 infected. Administration of zidovudine (AZT) prophylaxis during pregnancy reduces the rate of infant HIV-1 infection to approximately 7%, and further reductions are achieved with the addition of lamivudine (3TC) in the clinical formulation Combivir. Whereas clinically this is a remarkable achievement, AZT and 3TC are DNA replication chain terminators known to induce various types of genotoxicity. Studies in rodents have demonstrated AZT-DNA incorporation, HPRT mutagenesis, telomere shortening, and tumorigenicity in organs of fetal mice exposed transplacentally to AZT. In monkeys, both AZT and 3TC become incorporated into the DNA from multiple fetal organs taken at birth after administration of human-equivalent protocols to pregnant dams during gestation, and telomere shortening has been found in monkey fetuses exposed to both drugs. In human infants, AZT-DNA and 3TC-DNA incorporation as well as HPRT and GPA mutagenesis have been documented in cord blood from infants exposed in utero to Combivir. In infants of mice, monkeys, and humans, levels of AZT-DNA incorporation were remarkably similar, and in newborn mice and humans, mutation frequencies were also very similar. Given the risk-benefit ratio, these highly successful drugs will continue to be used for prevention of vertical viral transmission, however evidence of genotoxicity in mouse and monkey models and in the infants themselves would suggest that exposed children should be followed well past adolescence for early detection of potential cancer hazard.
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HIV-1 RNA was quantified in 1,212 breast milk samples from 273 women. At delivery, 96% of the women and 99% of the infants had detectable nevirapine in plasma with a median (interquartile range, IQR) of 1.5 μg/mL (0.75-2.20 μg/mL) and 1.04 μg/mL (0.39-1.71 μg/mL), respectively (P < 0.001). At 1 week postpartum, 93% and 98% of the women had detectable nevirapine in plasma and breast milk, with a median (IQR) of 0.13 μg/mL (0.13-0.39 μg/mL) and 0.22 μg/mL (0.13-0.34 μg/mL), respectively. Maternal plasma and breast milk HIV-1 RNA correlated at all visits (R = 0.48, R = 0.7, R = 0.59; all P = 0.01). Subclinical mastitis was detected in 67% of the women at some time during 6 weeks, and in 38% of the breast milk samples. Breast milk samples with subclinical mastitis had significantly higher HIV-1 RNA at 1, 4 and 6 weeks (all P < 0.05).
The FDA approved FTC (emtricitabine, Emtriva) in July 2003 for use by adults in combination with other anti-HIV drugs. FTC is a nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI). Other drugs in this class include 3TC, abacavir, AZT, Combivir, d4T, d4T XR, ddC, ddI, ddI EC and Trizivir.
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Multicenter open-label pilot study. Clinical and biological assessments were performed at baseline and at weeks 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48.
Cessation of antiretroviral medication and initiation of antipsychotic medication with appropriate monitoring and assessment.
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Following the introduction of a HIV post-exposure prophylaxis program in the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in January 2005, the incidence of adverse events and adherence were documented in occupationally-exposed healthcare workers (HCWs) and healthcare students (HCSs). Cohort event monitoring was used in following-up on exposed HCWs/HCSs for the two study outcomes; adverse events and adherence. All adverse events reported were grouped by MedDRA system organ classification and then by preferred term according to prophylaxis regimen. Adherence was determined by the completion of prophylaxis schedule. Cox proportional regression analysis was applied to determine the factors associated with the cohort study outcomes. Differences in frequencies were tested using the Chi square test and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
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An 18-year-old postpartum woman with HIV, on lamivudine-zidovudine, lopinavir-ritonavir and raltegravir, presented with a 1-week history of rash and fevers. Initially admitted to obstetrics and gynaecology service for treatment of possible endometritis, she was transferred to the HIV medicine service for high fever, respiratory distress, hypotension and tachycardia. On admission, she was febrile (102°F) with findings of cervical and submandibular lymphadenopathy, diffuse morbilliform rash, generalised pruritus, facial oedema, and oedematous hands and feet. Consultations to various specialty services were initiated to rule out infectious, dermatological, rheumatological and drug-induced aetiologies. On the fourth day of hospitalisation, laboratory findings of significant eosinophilia and hepatitis (alanine aminotransferase 147 IU/L and aspartate aminotransferase 124 IU/L), in conjunction with the identification of the timing of medication use, led to a diagnosis of DRESS (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms) syndrome secondary to raltegravir. After discontinuing raltegravir and starting prednisone, her DRESS symptoms completely resolved.
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In this study, a slight but not significant decrease in the plasma lopinavir C(trough) was found during the third trimester of pregnancy, suggesting that standard dosing of the tablet formulation is also appropriate during the later stages of pregnancy.
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In the peripheral blood of 1-day-old male and female mice, the percentage of total reticulocytes (RETs) was significantly decreased in groups exposed to doses that contained AZT. In addition, the percentages of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes (NCEs) and micronucleated RETs were generally significantly increased in groups exposed to doses containing AZT, but not in the 3TC-H or NVP-H groups. The percentages of micronucleated NCEs in the AZT/3TC/NVP-H groups were greater than in the AZT-H and the AZT/3TC-H groups. In peripheral blood of male pups evaluated at PND 28, both the percentage of micronucleated RETs and the percentage of micronucleated NCEs were significantly increased in the group where 3TC was coadministered with AZT compared to the group administered only AZT.
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Of the 900 evaluable participants eligible for PEP, 798 (69 at high risk and 729 at unknown risk) were offered treatment. Acceptance rates were 66.7% (n=46) and 41.3% (n=301) for participants at high risk and unknown risk, respectively. Participants at high risk were 2.2 times more likely to accept PEP than those at unknown risk (adjusted odds ratio 2.2; 95% confidence interval 1.2-4.0; P=0.01). Overall, 23.9% high-risk (n=11) and 33.2% unknown-risk participants (n=100) completed PEP (P=0.20). Predictors of acceptance and completion included assault by a stranger and participant anxiety. AEs were common, with 77.1% of participants reporting grade 2-4 symptoms.
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Women using Combivir(®) (zidovudine [ZDV] + lamivudine [3TC]) +Aluvia(®) (lopinavir/ritonavir [LPV/RTV]) were enrolled. Breast milk (BM), mother plasma (MP) and infant plasma (IP) samples were obtained over 6 h after observed dosing at 6, 12 or 24 weeks post-partum for drug concentrations and HIV RNA.
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To review the evidence on the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of non-occupational postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) for HIV.
Antiretroviral-naive individuals (n = 53) with an HIV-1 viral load >100 000 copies/mL were randomized to receive three-drug HAART with zidovudine/lamivudine (Combivir) and efavirenz or quadruple therapy with zidovudine/lamivudine/abacavir (Trizivir) and efavirenz (quad regimen). Patients continued on HAART for 48 weeks with regular clinical and immunological assessment. Standard and ultrasensitive (<5 copies/mL) viral load testing was carried out.
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