clomid fertility tablets
To assess the effect of moderate obesity on the outcome of induction of ovulation with low dose gonadotrophin in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
clomid generic price
Thirty one pregnancies (7% per cycle, 15% per patient) occurred. One pregnancy occurred (pregnancy per cycle was 2% and per patient was 12%) in 8 patients undergoing 37 cycles of IUI with natural ovulation. The result with CC in 27 patients undergoing 41 cycles IUI was 2 pregnancies (4% per cycle, 7% per patient). In 129 patients receiving 283 cycles of IUI with CC+HMG 21 pregnancies occurred (7% per cycle, 16% per patient). In 35 patients receiving 80 cycles of IUI with HMG 8 pregnancies occurred (9% per cycle, 23% per patient).
clomid reviews twins
An association between the use of fertility drugs and an increased risk of breast and ovarian cancers has not been confirmed.
clomid ovulation tablets
Experimental and control groups were studied for a total of 204 and 169 cycles, respectively. No difference between the two groups was observed in ovulation (55.4 vs. 59.8%, respectively; P = 0.396), pregnancy (10.8 vs. 11.2%, respectively; P = 0.888), and abortion (19.5 vs. 26.3%, respectively; P = 0.530) rates. The cumulative pregnancy rate was not different between groups (62.9 vs. 48.6%, respectively; P = 0.225).
Overall, T. conophorum ameliorates oxidative reproductive toxicity induced by ethanol in male rats and its ameliorative effect comparable well with the fertility drug, clomiphene citrate.
clomid pharmacy online
Ninety infertile women were randomized to receive either sequential CC/hMG regimen (45 women) or low-dose step-up protocol of hMG (45 women). All participants had received at least six consecutive cycles of clomiphene citrate for ovulation induction within the last year before inclusion in this study, but they did not conceive. The CC/hMG regimen group received clomiphene citrate 100 mg/day for 5 days, followed by hMG 75 IU for 4 days. The hMG group received low-dose step-up protocol for 10-14 days. To detect the number and size of the follicles, TVS was done on cycle day 8 and repeated daily or every other day according to follicular development. When one to three follicles reached a diameter ≥18 mm, hCG injection was scheduled. Before hCG injection, the E2 level and endometrial thickness were evaluated. β-hCG levels were measured on cycle day 22.
clomid online purchase
Studies were clinically and statistically homogenous. Common odds ratios for pregnancy per treatment cycle and moderate to severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) were 1.50 (0.72-3.12) and 1.40 (0.5-3.92) respectively.
clomid online canada
There was not difference in endometrial thickness in treatment cycles nor a trend for thickness to increase or decrease. Probably the mechanism of ovulation and pregnancy rates after Serpafar is not connected with thickness of the endometrium.
clomid maximum dose
A group of anovulatory patients with polycystic ovaries (PCO) was given clomiphene citrate and compared with three control groups: normal women having spontaneous, ovulatory cycles, patients with PCO having spontaneous, regular, ovulatory cycles, and anovulatory patients without PCO. Comparisons were made at precise points of the menstrual cycle (taking the day of ovulation as day 0), using ultrasound estimates of mean follicular diameter, uterine volume, and endometrial thickness, and biochemical measurements of LH, FSH, oestradiol (E2), testosterone (T), progesterone (P) and sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Before clomiphene treatment, the anovulatory patients with PCO had significantly lower levels of SHBG and higher follicular phase concentrations of LH than all three control groups. After two cycles of clomiphene-induced ovulation, the serum LH concentration fell significantly and levels of SHBG increased significantly to levels similar to those found in spontaneously ovulating women with normal ovaries. It is likely that the loss of the usual considerable rise in E2 in both the follicular and luteal phases of ovulatory cycles is the main reason for the low SHBG found in the PCO syndrome. The loss of the normal P-induced gonadotrophin suppression may be a factor in allowing LH levels to rise.
To investigate the various methods of evaluation and treatment of patients with a low response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in assisted reproductive technologies (ART).
clomid fertility pills
Private fertility practice.
clomid medication fertility
We treated two patients with male infertility due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Endocrinologic examinations disclosed low levels of LH and FSH, with elevated ACTH and 17-OH-progesterone in both. In addition, a small testicular tumor was found in Case 1, which disappeared after adrenal replacement. Suppressed gonadotropin levels caused by increased androgen seemed to underlie the sperm dysfunction in these patients. Dexamethasone and then clomiphene were administered in Case 1, and dexamethasone in Case 2. Spermatogenesis was somewhat improved in both patients and pregnancy achieved in Case 2, though spontaneous abortion later occurred.
Troglitazone has been evaluated in numerous clinical trials of women with PCOS. These trials provided a body of evidence supporting the efficacy of troglitazone for management of PCOS complications, such as insulin resistance, hyperandrogenism, and anovulation. Due to safety concerns, however, troglitazone is no longer marketed in the United States. Clinical data are emerging regarding the utility of newer, safer thiazolidinediones, such as pioglitazone and rosiglitazone, for this patient population. The available literature provides evidence that these newer agents improve insulin sensitivity, glycemic control, hormone responsiveness, menstrual regularity, and ovulation rates. Pioglitazone and rosiglitazone have been well tolerated in clinical studies and have an improved safety profile in terms of liver toxicity.
To investigate the relationship between the plasma concentrations of clomiphene citrate (CC) isomers zu- (Zu) and enclomiphene (En), and ovulation outcome.
The occurrence of low-response (LR) cycles (defined as peak estradiol levels less than 300 pg/ml) in an in vitro fertilization program using a 3 ampule/day human menopausal gonadotropin regimen were retrospectively reviewed. LR occurred in 51 of 564 patients (9%). The LR serum estradiol levels were categorized into four different patterns that were further analyzed for outcome in these initial cycles, as well as for their predictive value of response in subsequent in vitro fertilization cycles. Changing the stimulation protocol to a combination of clomiphene citrate and human menopausal gonadotropin did not improve the ovarian response in this group of LR patients, and their chance to complete a subsequent normal-response treatment cycle was 32%. Suggestions are made to predict outcome and govern management of women with previous LR cycles.
clomid drug reviews
RCTs comparing oral anti-oestrogen agents for ovulation induction (alone or in conjunction with medical therapies) in anovulatory subfertility were considered. Insulin sensitising agents, aromatase inhibitors, and hyperprolactinaemic infertility were excluded.
clomid off brand
These results suggest that infertility drugs could be used safely in patients who experience infertility after conservative management of an early-stage BOT.
clomid and alcohol
To evaluate the use of fertility treatments among a large cohort of women in the United States.
clomid medication online
There was no evidence of a difference in live birth or clinical pregnancy rate between LOD and gonadotrophins and the pooled odds ratios (OR) (all studies) were 1.04 (95% CI 0.59 to 1.85) and 1.08 (95% CI 0.69 to 1.71) respectively. Multiple pregnancy rates were lower with ovarian drilling than with gonadotrophins (1% versus 16%; OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.52). There was no evidence of a difference in miscarriage rates between the two groups (OR 0.81, 95% 0.36 to 1.86).
clomid 250 mg
The effects of estrogen (17-beta estradiol) and antiestrogens (tamoxifen, clomiphene and nafoxidine) on the growth of SK-N-MC human neuroblastoma cells were investigated. At low concentrations these agents enhanced, but at high concentrations they inhibited, the growth of the tumor cells in a dose-dependent manner. The growth inhibition was found to be due to decreased cell viability. When serum-free media were used, the dose-response curves were left-shifted, indicating that these agents can directly act on the tumor cells and that serum factors can inhibit their growth-modulatory actions. Growth enhancement and decreased cell viability induced by these agents were significantly reversed by the treatments with either Ca(2+)-free media, intracellular Ca2+ release blockers (dantrolene or ruthenium red) or BAPTA/AM, an intracellular Ca2+ chelator, implying that both intracellular Ca2+ release and extracellular Ca2+ entry may play a role in their growth regulation. These results suggest that estrogen and antiestrogens have concentration-dependent dual effects on the growth of the tumor cells and that the mechanism of their actions may be through the interaction with intracellular Ca2+ signalling mechanisms.
clomid dose pct
An IVF protocol involving use of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist and oral contraceptive pretreatment. Patients were randomized into two groups: pioglitazone (30 mg daily) in the study group or placebo in the control group, commenced on the day on which oral contraceptive intake began.
clomid male dosage
Insulin, T, DHEAS, FSH, LH, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio, endometrial thickness, cervical score, ovulation, and pregnancy rates in clomiphene-induced cycles after metformin therapy.
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is almost exclusively associated with ovulation induction with gonadotropins or, occasionally, clomiphene citrate. Severe ovarian hyperstimulation after delivery has never been reported previously. Herein we report a case of OHSS after delivery by Cesarean section. The left ovary was subjected to wedge section and three-quarters of the tissue was removed. A cyst on the right ovary was enucleated and fluid within the cysts was sucked away. The patient was treated by intravenous albumin infusion.
clomid fertility drug
These results suggest that subfertile women have increased subclinical pregnancy losses regardless of fertility treatment and that the association between reduced fertility and advancing age may be related, in part, to early subclinical pregnancy loss.
clomid cost australia
Clomiphene citrate (2 mg/kg body wt) given on the day of mating can block or interrupt pregnancy in guinea-pigs. Corpus luteum function, uterine histology, implantation and embryo development were studied in clomiphene-treated and control animals on Days 5, 9 and 20 of pregnancy. Following treatment, only 25% of the females were regularly pregnant, presenting large and healthy foetuses. The other females examined showed either pregnancy with embryos undergoing resorption or no sign of pregnancy. In these females, corpus luteum size was reduced, progesterone concentrations were very low and the endometrial glands and the epithelium were often altered. It is concluded that clomiphene causes a reduction in fertility by altering the uterus and, by directly or indirectly inducing luteolysis, causes later pregnancy loss.
clomid 5 mg
Two hundred thirty-six couples were followed prospectively and studied for the relationship between clomiphene citrate challenge test screening and final diagnoses and long-term fertility rates.
clomid 4 pills
No differences were found between the borderline tumor and control groups (14.3% vs. 27.2%, respectively) in terms of infertility history. Nor were there any differences between the groups with respect to the type of drug used, whether clomiphene citrate (9.5% vs. 6.2%, respectively) or gonadotropins (7.1% vs. 10.1%, respectively). Analysis in terms of the number of cycles administered also failed to reveal any differences. The mean number of cycles with clomiphene citrate/gonadotropins was 2.50 +/- 1.00 and 3.00 +/- 2.64 in the borderline tumor group and 2.44 +/- 1.75 and 3.27 +/- 2.25 in the control group.
ovinum clomid review
One hundred and nineteen women with sustained hyperprolactinaemia were followed for a mean duration of 5.5 years. Where pregnancy was desired, treatment with bromocriptine (+/- clomiphene) was effective in 86% of subjects. Following cessation of bromocriptine therapy one third of subjects whose initial serum prolactin (PRL) level was less than 4 times normal had a 'spontaneous' resolution of their hyperprolactinaemia and resumed cyclical menstrual activity and fertility. Subjects with higher PRL levels or those not treated with bromocriptine, did not show this beneficial effect. Pituitary or hypothalamic tumours were identified in 11% of subjects at the time of presentation and developed in a further 15.1% during follow-up. Most of these tumours were small, occurred more commonly when the PRL level was greater than 4 times normal, and were less likely to develop when treatment with bromocriptine had been administered. Bromocriptine therapy can thus be justified in hyperprolactinaemic subjects to reduce troublesome galactorrhoea, achieve pregnancy, improve the chance of a 'spontaneous' return of menstruation and fertility, control or reduce tumour growth where a pituitary tumour has been identified, and reduce the risk of tumour development in patients with normal plain X-rays of the pituitary fossa at the time of presentation.
clomid medication infertility
To evaluate the impact of intrauterine insemination timing performed 24 or 36 h later following ovulation trigger on clinical pregnancy rate during ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate among infertile women was the objective of this study.
Twenty-three in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment cycles (four unstimulated and 19 clomiphene-stimulated) were assessed retrospectively to discern relationships among serum oestradiol (OE2) titre on the day that human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) was given and the number and size of ovulatory follicles available for aspiration of oocytes during laparoscopy 32-38 h after hCG injection. Since 12 of the cycles succeeded to the stage of embryo replacement and two normal term pregnancies resulted, the series as a whole offers a useful referent data base. When only one ovulatory follicle developed (n = 8) the average volume of aspirated follicular fluid was approximately 6 ml, equivalent to a follicular diameter between 22 and 23 mm. When multiple follicles developed (mean 2.7/patient, n = 15), average fluid volume/follicle was not significantly different, averaging approximately 5.5 ml. Serum OE2 titre on the morning before hCG was injected ranged between 0.9 and 5.5 nmol/l and corresponded to the number of follicles aspirated at laparoscopy. There was a highly significant linear correlation (r = 0.85, P less than 0.001) between this OE2 value (X nmol/l) and total aspirated fluid volume (Y ml) where Y = 2.07 + 3.65 X. Thus taking 6 ml as the 'typical' fluid volume, the calibration line and its 95% confidence limits could be used to establish provisional 'ideal' pre-hCG serum OE2 titre ranges corresponding to the development of one, two or three mature ovulatory follicles. This information, combined with a knowledge of the number of presumptive preovulatory follicles present (assessed by ovarian ultrasound), can aid the timing of the hCG injection before IVF.
clomid 500 mg
Forty-eight pregnancies were observed in 35 patients with hyperprolactinaemia divided into 3 groups according to their initial radiological appearances: normal sella turcica (Group I, n = 11), microadenoma (Group II, n = 12) or macroadenoma without suprasellar expansion, visual defect or pituitary deficiency (Group III, n = 12). Twenty-seven patients were treated with Bromocriptine (Br) from the outs six by adenomectomy + Br, one by adenomectomy alone complicated by meningitis and by corticotropic and thyrotropic hormone deficiencies, followed by amenorrhea despite normalisation of the hyperprolactinaemia requiring induction of a first pregnancy with Clomid. As regards the pregnancies induced by Br (43/48), Br was withdrawn at an early stage in Group I and in the majority of cases in Groups II and III. In all, 37 pregnancies came to term; after Br therapy we observed 5 spontaneous abortions and 3 premature deliveries; 2 caesarian sections were performed before term (one case of hypertension and one adenomatous expansion); one early termination was performed for a tumoral complication. One congenital abnormality (oesophageal atresis) was detected. These observations support the results of extensive studies showing no effects of Br on the outcome of pregnancy and no detectable teratogenic effects with this drug. Five pituitary complications occurred during pregnancy after withdrawal of Br; 1 case of headaches with expansion of a macroadenoma cured by adenometry after prophylactic caesarian section before term; 1 case of optic chiasma compression (Group III) which responded to emergency surgery and 2 cases of pituitary apoplexy (Groups II and III) which responded favourably to Br and in which pregnancy continued normally.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
To study the effects of laparoscopic ovarian cauterization and combination of long-acting GnRH agonist (GnRH-a) and oral contraceptive (OC) therapy on endocrine changes in women with clomiphene citrate (CC)- resistant polycystic ovary disease (PCOD).
clomid 200 mg
Seventy women with clomiphene-resistant PCOS.
clomid pct buy
There were more follicles, oocytes and embryos, the endometrium was thicker and the embryo quality was higher among women who became pregnant when compared with non-pregnant women after assisted reproduction. The pregnancy rate improved as endometrial thickness increased. No difference in cycle parameters and endometrial thickness was found between ongoing pregnancies and pregnancies that resulted in a first-trimester loss. CC had no measurable adverse endometrial effect, but the pregnancy rate was lower in CC+hMG cycles.
clomid yellow pill
This follow-up study represents IVF treatment characteristics and outcomes in women with World Health Organization (WHO) group 2 anovulatory infertility after previous unsuccessful ovulation induction compared with controls. Furthermore, the possibility of initial screening parameters of these anovulatory women to predict IVF outcome was examined. Twenty-six patients with WHO 2 anovulatory infertility who failed to achieve a live birth following previous induction of ovulation (using clomiphene citrate as first line and exogenous FSH as second line) were compared with 26 IVF patients with tubal infertility matched for age, treatment period and treatment regimen. The WHO 2 patients underwent 49 IVF cycles, whereas the normo-ovulatory controls underwent 46 cycles. In WHO 2 patients 15 cycles were cancelled compared with six cycles in controls (P = 0.04). Cycles were predominantly cancelled due to insufficient response (P = 0.04). In cases in whom the cycle was cancelled, body mass index (BMI) was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in WHO 2 women compared with controls. Overall live birth rates were comparable (P = 0.9). Obese women suffering from WHO 2 anovulatory infertility are at an increased risk of having their IVF cycle cancelled due to insufficient response. Once oocyte retrieval is achieved, live birth rates are comparable with controls.