Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun (LVW) agar was used to develop a disk diffusion assay for Leptospira spp. Ten pathogenic Leptospira isolates were tested, all of which were susceptible to 17 antimicrobial agents (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, amoxicillin, azithromycin, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, doripenem, doxycycline, gentamicin, linezolid, nitrofurantoin, penicillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, and tetracycline). All 10 isolates had no zone of growth inhibition for four antimicrobials (fosfomycin, nalidixic acid, rifampicin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole). Of the ten Leptospira, seven had a growth inhibition zone of ≤ 21 mm for aztreonam, the zone diameter susceptibility break point for Enterobacteriaceae. This assay could find utility as a simple screening method during the epidemiological surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Leptospira spp.
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The average droplet size and zeta potential of emulsions were ca. 180 nm and ca. +50 mV, respectively. Among the emulsions, a stable formulation was selected to form a complex with a plasmid DNA encoding chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. By increasing the ratio of emulsion to DNA. zeta-potential of the emulsion/DNA complex increased monotonously from negative to positive without any changes in the complex size. The complex was stable against DNase I digestion and an anionic poly-L-aspartic acid (PLAA). The complex delivered DNA into the cells successfully, and the transfection efficiency was not affected by complex formation time from 20 min to 2 h. More importantly, the cationic lipid emulsion facilitated the transfer of DNA in the presence of up to 90% serum.
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We found that loss of integrity of the ribosome by removal of a putative ribosome maturation factor or a ribosomal protein conferred salt tolerance on Escherichia coli cells. Some protein synthesis inhibitors including kasugamycin and chloramphenicol also had a similar effect, although kasugamycin affected neither 16S rRNA maturation nor subunit association into a 70S ribosome. Thus, salt tolerance is a common feature of cells in which maturation or function of the ribosome is impaired. In these cells, premature induction of an alternative sigma factor, σ(E), by salt stress was observed. These results suggest the existence of a yet-unknown stress response pathway mediated by the bacterial ribosome.
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One thousand stool samples of acute gastroenteritis patients were screened and 42 strains of Salmonella (19 S. typhimurium, 14 S. enteritidis, 5 S. typhi, 3 S. paratyphi B 3 and 1 S. infantis) were detected.
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All samples were obtained through nasal screening of patients and general adult population at admission and discharge day. The prevalence, resistance, and molecular diversity of all S. aureus isolates were examined.
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The antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter isolates recovered from a range of retail food samples (n=374) and humans (n=314) to eight antimicrobial compounds were investigated. High levels of resistance in food C. jejuni isolates were observed for ceftiofur (58%), ampicillin (25%) and nalidixic acid (17%) with lower levels observed for streptomycin (7.9%) and chloramphenicol (8.3%). A total of 80% of human C. jejuni isolates were resistant to ceftiofur, while 17% showed resistance to ampicillin and nalidixic acid, 8.6% to streptomycin and 4.1% to chloramphenicol. Resistance to clinically relevant antimicrobials such as erythromycin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline was 6.7, 12, and 15% respectively for all food isolates and was similar to corresponding resistance prevalences observed for human isolates, where 6.4, 12 and 13% respectively were found to be resistant. Comparisons of C. jejuni isolates in each location showed a high degree of similarity although some regional variations did exist. Comparison of total C. jejuni and C. coli populations showed minor differences, with C. jejuni isolates more resistant to ampicillin and ceftiofur. Multidrug resistance patterns showed some profiles common to human and clinical isolates.
All beta-hemolytic streptococci were susceptible to penicillin, amoxycillin, cephalosporins and linezolid. Resistance to erythromycin, tetracycline, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, and quinolones is emerging.
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The substrate benzaldehyde (but not propionaldehyde) could elute aldehyde dehydrogenase from a p-hydroxyacetophenone-affinity column, and inhibit the esterase activity (K(i)=47 microM), indicating that this simple aromatic aldehyde binds to the free enzyme and possibly in the substrate-binding site. Thus, the kinetic mechanism for aldehyde dehydrogenase might be dependent upon which aldehyde is used in the reaction. Chloramphenicol which also elutes the enzyme from the affinity column, shows a discriminatory effect by inhibiting the ALDH1 oxidation of benzaldehyde and activating that of propionaldehyde while showing no effect when assayed with hexanal or cyclohexane-carboxaldehyde. Chloramphenicol is an uncompetitive inhibitor against NAD when benzaldehyde is the substrate. We propose that this drug might interact with both the benzaldehyde and NAD binding sites.
Food of animal origins, particularly pork and chicken meat, has long been recognized as major sources of human salmonellosis. There have been recent reports of human salmonellosis outbreaks due to consumption of leafy green vegetables such as lettuce. In this study, 120 (40 pork, 40 chicken meat and 40 lettuce) samples were randomly collected from retail markets in Bangkok and central Thailand during June to August 2015 for Salmonella serotype identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Salmonella was found in 82%, 62% and 20% of pork, chicken meat and lettuce samples, respectively. The top 5 most common Salmonella serotypes were Panama (15%), Schwarzengrund (12%), Rissen, Anatum, and Stanley (11% each), Albany (9%), and Indiana (8%). A high percentage of Salmonella isolated from food of animal origin were resistant to multiple antimicrobial drugs, including ampicillin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and tetracycline. From antibiogram pattern analysis, the most common serotypes constituted isolates that were multidrug resistant. The study indicates that Salmonella was still present in various kinds of food and that certain serotypes have become predominant, a phenomenon not previously reported in Thailand.
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Under conventional culture conditions, smooth muscle cells display their phenotypic modulation from a differentiated to a dedifferentiated state. Here, we established a primary culture system of smooth muscle cells maintaining a differentiated phenotype, as characterized by expression of smooth muscle-specific marker genes such as h-caldesmon and calponin, cell morphology, and ligand-induced contractility. Laminin retarded the progression of dedifferentiation of smooth muscle cells. Insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II) and insulin markedly prolonged the differentiated phenotype, with IGF-I being the more potent. In contrast, serum, epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factors, and platelet-derived growth factors potently induced dedifferentiation compared with angiotensin II, arginine-vasopressin, and basic fibroblast growth factor. Using the present culture system, we investigated signaling pathways regulating a phenotype of smooth muscle cells. In cultured cells, IGF-I specifically activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) and its downstream target, protein kinase B, but not mitogen-activated protein kinases. Specific inhibitors of PI3-kinase (wortmannin and LY294002) induced dedifferentiation of smooth muscle cells even when they were cultured on laminin under IGF-I-stimulated conditions. The sole effect of laminin to retard the dedifferentiation was completely blocked by anti-IGF-I antibody, and laminin promoted the endogenous expression of IGF-I in cultured cells. The reduced promoter activity of the caldesmon gene induced by platelet-derived growth factor BB was overcome by the forced expression of the constitutive active form of PI3-kinase p110alpha catalytic subunit. These findings suggest that an IGF-I signaling pathway through PI3-kinase plays a critical role in maintaining a differentiated phenotype of smooth muscle cells.
With the goal of developing non-viral techniques for exogenous gene delivery into mammalian cells, we have studied receptor-mediated gene transfer using complexes of plasmid DNA and galactosylated poly-L-lysine, poly(L-Lys)Gal. To evaluate the optimal parameters for efficient gene transfer into human hepatoma HepG2 cells by the DNA-poly(L-Lys)Gal complexes, the bacterial reporter genes lacZ and cat were used. Examination of the reporter gene expression level showed that the efficiency of DNA delivery into the cells depends on the structure of DNA--poly(L-Lys)Gal complexes formed at various ionic strength values. The efficiency of DNA transfer into the cells also depends on DNA/poly(L-Lys)Gal molar ratio in the complexes. Plasmid vector carrying human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) gene was injected as its complex with poly(L-Lys)Gal into rat tail vein. Some level of ApoA-I was detected in the serum of the injected rats. Also, the human apoA-I-containing plasmid was found to be captured specifically by the rat liver cells and transported into the cell nuclei, where it can persist as an episome-like structure for at least a week. After repeated injections of DNA--poly(L-Lys)Gal complexes, the level of human ApoA-I in rat serum increases, probably, due to accumulation of functional human apoA-I gene in the liver cell nuclei. The data seem to be useful for the development of non-viral approaches to gene therapy of cardiovascular diseases.
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Gene transfer into vascular smooth muscle cells (vsmcs) holds promise for studying the pathogenesis of arterial disorders. However, a potential limitation of vectors with heterologous promoters is organ toxicity resulting from unrestricted transgene expression. Vascular smooth muscle cell-specific gene expression could increase the safety of vectors for vascular diseases.
We have developed a toolkit for creating fusion proteins with customized N- and C-term modules from Gateway entry clones encoding ORFs of interest. Importantly, our method allows entry clones obtained from ORFeome collections to be used without prior modifications. Using this technology, any existing Gateway destination expression vector with its model-specific properties could be easily adapted for expressing fusion proteins.