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To investigate the relationship between acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and ingested doses of selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
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There were no differences between the non-steroid and steroid groups with regard to VAS at rest and during activity, or range of motion, at any postoperative observation time. The postoperative Knee Society Knee Score in the steroid group improved significantly as compared with that in non-steroid group at the one-month (84.1±13.1 and 65.9±12.1; P < 0.0045), three-month follow-up (90.2±16.3 and 72.5±16.6; P < 0.0027), but after postoperative six-month the Knee Society Knee Score showed no significant difference between the groups. There was no significant difference in consumption of the morphine about daily or total consumption within 72 hours between the two groups. The duration of celecoxib usage in patients in the steroid group was significantly shorter than that in the non-steroid group ((7.2±0.7) compared with (10.5±1.9) weeks; P = 0.012).
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Use of NSAIDs is associated with an increased risk of HF exacerbation among patients with pre-existing HF. The excess risk was approximately 40% for conventional NSAIDs and celecoxib. The highest risk was observed among rofecoxib users.
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Oxaliplatin (OXA) is the common and extremely potent anti-advanced colorectal cancer chemotherapeutic. Accumulating evidence reveals that OXA evokes mechanical and cold hypersensitivity. However, the mechanism underlying these bothersome and dose-limiting adverse effects is poorly understood. It is well known that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) as well as phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling mediate the neuropathic pain. But it is still unclear whether COX-2 or PI3K/Akt signaling participates in the regulation of OXA-induced hypersensitivity, as well as the linkage between COX-2 and PI3K/Akt signaling in mediating OXA-induced hypersensitivity. In this paper, we investigated the anti-nociceptive effect of celecoxib, an inhibitor of COX-2, on the OXA-induced neuropathic pain. We found that OXA increased the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and Akt2 in the lumbar 4-5 (L4-5) dorsal root ganglion (DRG). And the administration of celecoxib alleviates the OXA-induced hypersensitivity and suppresses the COX-2 and PI3K/Akt2 signaling. Our findings showed that COX-2 and PI3K/Akt2 signaling in DRG contributed to the OXA-induced neuropathic pain. In addition, celecoxib enhanced the OXA-induced mortality of the human colon cancer cell line HCT-116. Thus, celecoxib might play a dual role in colorectal cancer treatment: alleviating OXA-induced neuropathic pain and facilitating the anti-tumor effects of OXA through their synergistic role.
The expression of COX-2, IL-1alpha, IL-6, IL-8, IL-11, and TNF-alpha, as well as PGE(2) production increased in the presence of IL-17A, whereas COX-1 expression did not change. Celecoxib blocked the stimulatory effect of IL-17A on the expression of COX-2, IL-1alpha, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-11 as well as PGE(2) production, whereas it did not block TNF-alpha expression. Cycloheximide pretreatment suppressed the expression of IL-17-induced inflammatory cytokines. The expression of IL-1alpha, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-11 increased by the addition of PGE(2), whereas TNF-alpha expression was not affected.
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Since 1998, two selective inhibitors of COX-2 have been approved in many countries for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and acute pain. These new drugs have a significantly reduced gastrointestinal toxicity when compared with non-selective COX inhibitors. However, the results of two large clinical trials conducted in patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis have recently raised some concerns regarding the cardiovascular safety of these new drugs. The purpose of this paper is to review the potential mechanisms whereby selective COX-2 inhibitors could increase the cardiovascular risk of patients and to analyse the data indicating that this clinical risk indeed exists. The authors' analysis shows that even though there are pathophysiological mechanisms which could explain why selective COX-2 inhibition might increase the cardiovascular risk in patients, the actual level of evidence demonstrating that the risk is indeed increased is weak. Because of the importance of the issue, additional studies must be conducted with this class of agents. Meanwhile, it is crucial to emphasise that neither selective COX-2 inhibitors nor conventional NSAIDs replace aspirin in patients with a high cardiovascular risk.
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The restricted group had significantly less use of celecoxib, indicating that restriction was effective at reducing celecoxib utilization. Although limitations exist when comparing populations from different health plans, and the underlying causes of serious GI complications are multifactorial, the restricted group had a higher incidence of serious GI complications and higher costs related to serious GI complications and arthritis.
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This meta-analysis supports an increased risk of ischemic stroke with the current use of rofecoxib and diclofenac. Additional studies are required to evaluate most individual NSAIDS, the effect of dose and duration, and the subtypes of stroke.
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Novel tricyclics were synthesized and evaluated in vitro for their COX-1/COX-2 inhibitory activities and their abilities to inhibit cell proliferation in prostate (AT3B-1, PC-3 and LNCaP) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cell lines. A molecular modeling study was carried out to characterize the electronic nature of the central ring systems of the novel tricyclic COX-2 inhibitors.
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The results of this literature review showed an unclear role in CRC prevention of both pharmacological and dietary intervention. Despite several options are available to prevent colon cancer, it is challenging to identify a correct strategy to prevent CRC through pharmacological and dietary intervention due to the long latency of cancer promotion and development. Since some of the drugs investigated may have uncertain individual effects, it can be suggested to potentiate such effects by adding them together.
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The successful pain relief of the patient in this case indicates that treatment of pain that based on mechanism might be worth promoting. According to the etiology of pain, specific drugs or measures should be selected for the individual patient. This approach have certain advantages, such as timely pain relief, reduction of medical cost, and effective improvement of life quality of cancer patients.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression were analyzed by Northern and Western analysis, respectively, to determine the level of enzymes induced by Ras. In vitro assays were used to determine the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and prostaglandins as well as the promoter and enzymatic activation of the rate-limiting enzyme in prostaglandin production (phospholipase A(2) [cPLA(2)]).
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Traumatic heterotopic ossification (HO) is a common clinical condition associated with various orthopedic procedures that involve injury to soft tissues near bone. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the prophylactic effects of NSAID's in the treatment of HO are mediated via inhibition of the COX-2 enzyme. Here we describe a rat model that simulates HO in the human that was used to test the above hypothesis.
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Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a rare genetic disease. Without treatment, FAP patients have a 100% lifetime risk of developing colorectal cancer. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of celecoxib treatment in prolonging the time to FAP-related events and to document the safety profile of the long-term use of celecoxib (≥6 months) in FAP patients. FAP patients receiving celecoxib in routine clinical practice were individually matched with historical/concurrent FAP patients not receiving celecoxib. The study population included patients aged 12 years or older registered in national and regional FAP registries in Denmark, the United States, Spain, and Canada. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize dose and duration among celecoxib treated patients. The primary study endpoints, time-to-next-FAP events, were examined with Kaplan-Meier method. Fifty four celecoxib-treated patients were recruited and a matched control was identified for 13 of these patients. The Kaplan-Meier estimated probability of not having a polypectomy 12 and 60 months post- ileorectal anastomosis in the celecoxib-treated patients (n = 33) was 60.6% and 42.2%, respectively. The estimated probability of not having a polypectomy 6-60 months post-ileal pouch-anal anastomosis the celecoxib-treated patients (n = 24) was 100%. The median total daily dose of celecoxib was 698.9 mg with the majority treated more than 24 months. Five celecoxib-treated patients experienced 6 serious adverse events with one of these events (rash) considered related to celecoxib. Long term celecoxib treatment appeared to be well tolerated in FAP patients with or without FAP-related surgeries.
A new and simple high-performance liquid chromatography assay was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of the above-mentioned drugs in small samples of human plasma (0.25 mL). After protein precipitation with acetonitrile, satisfactory separation was achieved on a Hypersil BDS C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 m) using a mobile phase comprising 20 mmol/L ammonium phosphate buffer (pH = 3) and acetonitrile at a ratio of 35:65, vol/vol; the elution was isocratic at ambient temperature with a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The UV detector was set at 265 nm.
Celecoxib seems safer than rofecoxib and NSAIDs in elderly patients with congestive heart failure. Differences were found among cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors.
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Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a common neuropsychiatric condition. Although a variety of pharmaceutical agents is available for its treatment, psychiatrists have found that many patients cannot tolerate the side effects, do not respond to treatment adequately, and may finally discontinue their treatment. However, augmentation strategies have been shown to have some benefits in the treatment of OCD. These include reducing both the overall cost of treatment and the side effects. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of celecoxib as an adjuvant agent in the treatment of OCD in an 8-week, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. To this end, 25 patients were assigned to a study group and were given fluoxetine 20mg/day plus celecoxib 400mg/day (200mg BID). The control group included 25 patients who were given fluoxetine 20mg/day plus placebo. Both protocols significantly lowered scores on the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale over the trial period. The combination of fluoxetine and celecoxib decreased the symptoms of obsessions and compulsions significantly more than fluoxetine plus placebo. The results of this study suggest that celecoxib can be an effective adjuvant agent in the management of patients with OCD; therefore, anti-inflammatory therapies should be further investigated.
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This investigation demonstrated a functional coupling between cyclooxygenase-1 (cox) and prostaglandin E2/D2 biosynthesis in murine skin repair. Cyclooxygenase-1 expression decreased transiently after excisional wounding, and this was followed by a marked fall in the rate of prostaglandin E2/D2 biosynthesis at the wound site. Expression of cyclooxygenase-1, prostaglandin synthases, and prostaglandin E2/D2 production were colocalized in new tissue at the margin of the wound. Although cyclooxygenase-2 expression was strongly induced in granulation tissue on injury, this isoform did not contribute to high prostaglandin E2/D2 concentrations in wounds. Accordingly, wound tissue from SC-560-treated mice (selective cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitor) and diclofenac-treated mice (nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibitor), but not celecoxib-treated mice (selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor), and wound tissue from cyclooxygenase-1-deficient animals exhibited a severe loss of prostaglandin E2/D2 at the wound site, and this change was associated with an impairment in the normal wound morphology. Topically administered prostaglandin E2 (dinoprostone) was able to restore normal wound repair to diclofenac-treated mice. In contrast to the presence of an injury-induced cyclooxygenase-2, these data constitute strong evidence that cyclooxygenase-1-coupled prostaglandin E2/D2 biosynthesis has a central role in skin repair.
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The novel cyclooxygenase- (COX)-2 inhibitor celecoxib is an effective treatment for the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Conventional treatment for these debilitating conditions routinely involves the use of conventional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are nonspecific inhibitors of COX-1 and COX-2. Numerous studies suggest that inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis by NSAIDs is deleterious to kidney function, particularly in high-risk patients. As celecoxib inhibits COX-2 and spares COX-1 at therapeutic doses, we hypothesized that it may offer an improved renal safety profile in patients at risk for NSAID-induced renal toxicity. This article represents a post hoc analysis of the renal safety of celecoxib, using the safety database generated during its clinical development program. This analysis includes data from more than 50 clinical studies involving more than 13,000 subjects. Most subjects were enrolled in randomized, controlled trials (of up to 12 weeks' duration); however, more than 5000 subjects received celecoxib for as long as 2 years in a long-term, open-label study at as much as twice the maximum recommended dosage. The overall incidence of renal adverse events after celecoxib was greater than that after placebo but similar to that after NSAIDs. The most common events reported after celecoxib, namely, peripheral edema (2.1%), hypertension (0.8%), and exacerbation of preexisting hypertension (0.6%), were not time- or dose-related. Peripheral edema was not associated with increased weight or blood pressure. Furthermore, there was no evidence of drug-drug interactions between celecoxib and concomitant angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, or diuretics. We conclude that celecoxib is well tolerated by patients who may be at risk for NSAID-induced renal toxicity, such as the elderly and those with hypertension or preexisting chronic heart disease.
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From relevant reports, 114 randomized double-blind clinical trials were included.
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HPV16(+/-) mice presented higher CD8(+) T cell infiltration than HPV16(-/-) animals (P<0.001). Older HPV16(+/-) animals showed epidermal dysplasia and increased percentages of CD8(+)CD107a(+) T cells compared with younger animals with hyperplasia (P<0.001), validating this model for testing the effects of celecoxib on CD8(+) T cells. CXB-treated HPV16(+/-) mice showed higher percentages of CD8(+)CD107a(+) T cells compared with untreated HPV16(+/-) animals (P<0.01), but no differences were observed concerning the progression of epidermal lesions.