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In vitro studies on the activity of cefprozil have been conducted in Europe and North America. Against gram-negative bacilli, cefprozil and cefaclor are at least two to four times more active than cephalexin. Cefixime is more active against these organisms. Against gram-positive cocci, cefprozil is at least two to four times more active than cefaclor and cephalexin; cefixime has limited gram-positive activity, and is particularly inactive against staphylococci (MIC90 32 mg/l). Cefprozil is highly active against Streptococcus pneumoniae (unlike cefixime). Those strains of this genus that display intermediate resistance to pneumococci are more susceptible to cefprozil than cefaclor. Neisseria species and Moraxella catarrhalis are susceptible to cefprozil (MIC90 0.06 and 1 mg/l). beta-lactamase-producing strains of Haemophilus influenzae appear to be susceptible to cefprozil, as the reported MIC90 is 2-4 mg/l. Enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and those strains of the Enterobacteriaceae that commonly possess a chromosomal cephalosporinase (e.g., Providencia, Morganella and Enterobacter) are generally considered to be resistant to cefprozil as well as to other oral cephalosporins. Cefprozil appears to display enhanced stability to the commonly encountered Tem-1 and SHV-1 plasmid-mediated beta-lactamases, as found in Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and the Enterobacteriaceae. Cefprozil is rapidly absorbed, reaching a maximum concentration 0.9 to 1.2 h post-dose. Following oral doses of 250 and 500 mg, the Cmax is 6.2 and 10.0 mg/l respectively. Serum half-lives are generally reported as between 1.2 and 1.4 h, and urine recovery is high, 57-70%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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Decreased patient acceptance and higher incidence of adverse events had a negative impact on the cost of treatment. Amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefprozil, erythromycin/sulfisoxazole and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were found to be associated with decreased patient acceptance compared with cefixime. Cefixime also had the lowest number of adverse events of any of the drugs used. Amoxicillin had the lowest total cost for a single course of treatment, exclusive of costs of recurrence, which were examined in a previous study.
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Cefixime is a new orally active third-generation cephalosporin with a broad spectrum of activity against a variety of both gram-positive and -negative bacteria including many beta-lactamase-producing strains of streptococci, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and the majority of the Enterobacteriaceae. Activity of cefixime against Staphylococcus aureus, enterococci, Listeria monocytogenes, and Pseudomonas spp. is poor. The relatively long elimination half-life of cefixime (approximately 3.0 h) has made possible once- to twice-daily administration with the potential added benefit of improved patient compliance. Clinical trials indicate that cefixime is at least as effective as standard agents in the treatment of genitourinary and upper respiratory tract infections. The incidence of resistant organisms reported during clinical trials with cefixime was low. Adverse reactions observed during clinical trials were relatively uncommon and generally mild and transient in nature. The most significant adverse reactions reported were diarrhea and stool changes occurring in up to 20 percent of patients.
Escherichia coli O157:H7 was detected from carcasses before and after washing during slaughtering operations, and one O157 isolate was positive for verotoxins.
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Twenty-five patients were identified. The median length of treatment was 15.8 (range 3-62) months. Ten (40%) patients had pouchitis with co-existing prepouch ileitis. The median frequency of defecation was 7 (range 4-11)/24 h, the median clinical Pouch Disease Activity Index (PDAI) was 0 (range 0-1) and the CQGOL score was 0.7 (range 0.5-1.0). Of those who relapsed, three (50%) patients had achieved mucosal healing following the induction of remission. Failure of mucosal healing did not predict a reduced time to relapse (P = 0.18). Prepouch ileitis was associated with an increased risk of developing antibiotic resistance (P = 0.023). Treatment of this with alternating antibiotic combination therapy was successful in all cases.
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This is the first report to present comprehensive surveillance data from GISP and summarize gonococcal susceptibility over time, as well as underscore the history and public health implications of emerging cephalosporin resistance. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns vary by geographic region within the United States and by sex of sex partner. Because dual therapy with ceftriaxone plus azithromycin is the only recommended gonorrhea treatment, increases in azithromycin and cephalosporin MICs are cause for concern that resistance to these antimicrobial agents might be emerging. It is unclear whether increases in the percentage of isolates with Azi-RS mark the beginning of a trend. The percentage of isolates with elevated cefixime MICs increased during 2009-2010, then decreased during 2012-2013 after treatment recommendations were changed in 2010 to recommend dual therapy (with a cephalosporin and a second antibiotic) and a higher dosage of ceftriaxone. Subsequently, the treatment recommendations were changed again in 2012 to no longer recommend cefixime as part of first-line therapy (leaving ceftriaxone-based dual therapy as the only recommended therapy). Despite the MIC decrease (i.e., trend of improved cefixime susceptibility) during 2012-2013, the increase in the number of strains with Cfx-RS in 2014 underscores the potential threat of cephalosporin-resistant N. gonorrhoeae.
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These results suggest that children with acute pyelonephritis can be treated effectively with oral cefixime or with short courses (2-4 days) of IV therapy followed by oral therapy. If IV therapy is chosen, single daily dosing with aminoglycosides is safe and effective. Trials are required to determine the optimal total duration of therapy and if other oral antibiotics can be used in the initial treatment of acute pyelonephritis.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of STEC strains in lettuce samples. Since lettuce is used as a raw vegetable in salads, the rates of infections caused by this vegetable are high.
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Those patients in the Area who took AB during the periods under study.
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Community-acquired infections, such as AOM, LRTI and UTI, caused by susceptible pathogens, can be treated with cefixime, as a good choice for a successful clinical response.
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Cefixime was not more effective than topical polymyxin-bacitracin in either the eradication of conjunctival colonization with respiratory pathogens or the prevention of AOM in children with acute bacterial conjunctivitis.
Salmonella species are a rare cause of urinary tract infections in children. They have been associated with a higher incidence of structural abnormalities or immunosuppressive status. We report the case of an 11-year-old girl with urinary tract infection (UTI) secondary to Salmonella typhi and associated with urolithiasis. A review of the subject is then discussed.
Of 380 patients enrolled, 124 in the grepafloxacin group and 131 in the cefixime group were evaluated for microbiological response. Cervical gonococcal infections were eradicated in 99% of patients in both treatment groups, with only one persistent infection in each group. All pharyngeal (n = 15) and rectal (n = 32) gonococcal infections treated with grepafloxacin were cured, whereas 5 of 16 (31%) pharyngeal and 1 of 38 (3%) rectal infections failed to respond to cefixime. Although a third (123 of 386) of N. gonorrhoeae pretreatment isolates were resistant to penicillin or tetracycline, this had no impact on cure rates. Both drugs were well tolerated, with vaginitis being the most common treatment-related adverse event in each group.
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Ongoing observation of organisms and their antibiotic resistance patterns in patients failing initial therapy of acute otitis media indicate that stability to beta-lactamase remains an essential quality for effective second line therapies. However, when possible tympanocentesis with culture is the ideal method of targeting specific therapy for patients failing multiple consecutive antibiotic regimens.
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Fecal coliform sensitivity analysis can identify effective antibiotic therapies for patients with antibiotic-resistant pouchitis. This targeted antibiotic approach is recommended in all patients who fail to respond to empiric antibiotic treatment or relapse after long-term antibiotic therapy.
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There are increasing reports of emergence of multiple drug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter spp in the world; however there are a few reports in our country. 145 A. baumannii isolates from distinct wards and Children's Medical Center (CMC) in Tehran were studied in order to find the profile of antibiotic resistance among them. 40.6% (59/145) of A. baumannii isolates were identified as MDR. Overall susceptibility rates to cotrimoxazole, chloramphenicole and ciprofloxacin were 23.4%, 16.9% and 20.1%, respectively. Frequency susceptibility rates to amikacin, kanamycin, gentamycin and tobramycin decreased gradually from 81.2%, 50%, 50% and 62.5% in 2002 to 25%, 15.6%, 28.1% and 25% in 2007 respectively. Overall susceptibility rates to cephalosporines cephalotin, ceftazidime, cefteriaxon, ceftizoxime and cefixime were 9.3%, 14.7%, 16.2%, 15.9% and 18%, respectively. Susceptibility to carbapenems was assessed only in 2007. The susceptibility rates of Imipenem and meropenem were shown to be 50% and 46.8%, respectively. Our data indicates that MDR A. baumannii strains are spreading and carbapenem resistance is becoming more common in Iran. Our findings also highlight the importance of clinicians' access to updated susceptibility data regarding A. baumannii in developing countries such as Iran.
Widespread resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to penicillin, tetracycline, and fluoroquinolones has challenged effective treatment and control; recent international case reports of cefixime, ceftriaxone, and azithromycin resistance suggest that the remaining treatment options are now additionally threatened. To explore trends in antimicrobial susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae, we reviewed provincial laboratory data from British Columbia, 2006 to 2011.
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Worldwide, the most important concern in the treatment of sexually transmitted infections is the increase in antimicrobial resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains including resistance to cephalosporins, penicillins, fluoroquinolones or macrolides. To investigate the trends of antimicrobial susceptibility among N. gonorrhoeae strains isolated from male patients with urethritis, a Japanese surveillance committee conducted the second nationwide surveillance study. Urethral discharge was collected from male patients with urethritis at 26 medical facilities from March 2012 to January 2013. Of the 151 specimens, 103 N. gonorrhoeae strains were tested for susceptibility to 20 antimicrobial agents. None of the strains was resistant to ceftriaxone, but the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 90% of ceftriaxone increased to 0.125 μg/ml, and 11 (10.7%) strains were considered less susceptible with an MIC of 0.125 μg/ml. There were 11 strains resistant to cefixime, and the MICs of these strains were 0.5 μg/ml. The distributions of the MICs of fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and tosufloxacin, were bimodal. Sitafloxacin, a fluoroquinolone, showed strong activity against all strains, including strains resistant to other three fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and tosufloxacin. The azithromycin MICs in 2 strains were 1 μg/ml.
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Two treatment regimens for disseminated Lyme borreliosis (mainly neurologic and musculoskeletal manifestations) were compared in a randomized trial. A group of 30 patients received oral cefixime 200 mg combined with probenecid 500 mg three times daily for 100 days. Another group of 30 patients received intravenous ceftriaxone 2 g daily for 14 days followed by oral amoxicillin 500 mg combined with probenecid 500 mg three times daily for 100 days. There was no statistically significant difference in the outcome of infection between the two groups. However, the total number of patients with relapses or no response at all and the number of positive polymerase chain reaction findings after therapy were greater in the cefixime group. The general outcomes of infection in patients with disseminated Lyme borreliosis after 3-4 months of therapy indicate that prolonged courses of antibiotics may be beneficial in this setting, since 90% of the patients showed excellent or good treatment responses.
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There is still a lack of comprehensive study results about resistance of bacterial respiratory pathogens from the east of the Federal Republic of Germany.
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We did whole-genome sequencing of isolates obtained from samples collected from patients attending sexual health services in Brighton, UK, between Jan 1, 2011, and March 9, 2015. We also included isolates from other UK locations, historical isolates from Brighton, and previous data from a US study. Samples from symptomatic patients and asymptomatic sexual health screening underwent nucleic acid amplification testing; positive samples and all samples from symptomatic patients were cultured for N gonorrhoeae, and resulting isolates were whole-genome sequenced. Cefixime susceptibility testing was done in selected isolates by agar incorporation, and we used sequence data to determine multi-antigen sequence types and penA genotypes. We derived a transmission nomogram to determine the plausibility of direct or indirect transmission between any two cases depending on the time between samples: estimated mutation rates, plus diversity noted within patients across anatomical sites and probable transmission pairs, were used to fit a coalescent model to determine the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms expected.
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Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing different antibiotic agents, routes, frequencies or durations of therapy in children aged 0-18 years with proven UTI and acute pyelonephritis were selected.
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Imipenem/cilastatin sodium (IPM/CS) which is a broad-spectrum agent against both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria was used in combination with fosfomycin (FOM) as a second-line chemotherapy for severe infections associated with hematologic disorders. FOM was partnered with IPM because FOM may enhance the bacteriocidal effects of IPM when given as pretreatment to IPM/CS therapy. Fifty two patients were treated with IPM/CS plus FOM. Of them, 41 were evaluated for effectiveness. Eleven patients were not evaluated: 4 were treated with a combination of other regimens such as cefixime, gamma-globulin, G-CSF and a large dose of methyl prednisolone; 2 were given IPM/CS plus FOM as a first choice; 3 were observed to have gastrointestinal side effects such as nausea which led to the discontinuation of the combination therapy; and 2 were thought to be suffering from not infectious but tumor fever. An excellent response was observed in 15 (36.6%) patients and a good response in 10 (24.4%), for a overall efficacy rate of 61.0%. Efficacies was 71.4% (5/7) in patients with sepsis, and 60.0% (9/15) in patients whose peripheral granulocyte count was below 100/microliters before chemotherapy. The elimination rates of Gram-positive and -negative bacteria were 57.1% (4/7) and 75.0% (6/8), respectively. In particular, 75.0% (3/4) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa identified were eliminated. Two patients who suffered from tumor fever, 2 who did not receive chemotherapy before the combination chemotherapy and 3 who did not receive a full course of the combination chemotherapy because of side effects, were included in the final evaluation of safety. Side effects were observed in 18 of 48 patients (37.5%). In 1 patient, skin eruption occurred 3 days after the initiation of the combination chemotherapy. In 17 patients, gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea and vomiting were identified after a few days of IPM/CS plus FOM administration. Degree's of the symptoms were mild, however. Therefore, the treatment was not withdrawn. No abnormal laboratory results such as eosinophilia, liver disfunction or renal disfunction were observed. These results show that IPM/CS plus FOM is effective as a second-line combination chemotherapy for the treatment of severe infections in patients with hematologic disorders.
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The in vitro activity of BAY v 3522 was compared with the activities of cephalexin, cefaclor, cefuroxime, cefixime, and amoxicillin-clavulanate. MICs (in micrograms/ml) of BAY v 3522 were as follows: Staphylococcus spp. (except for oxacillin-resistant strains), 0.13 to 1; Streptococcus spp. (except for some viridans group streptococci), less than or equal to 0.015 to 0.25; Enterococcus faecalis, 2 to 8; other enterococci, 0.5 to greater than 32; beta-lactamase-negative Haemophilus influenzae and Branhamella catarrhalis, 0.13 to 1; beta-lactamase-positive H. influenzae and B. catarrhalis, 0.5 to 4; Pasteurella multocida, 0.06 to 0.25; and members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, 0.5 to greater than 32. Among the cephalosporins, BAY v 3522 was the most active against gram-positive cocci and cefixime was the most active against gram-negative bacilli; BAY v 3522 was similar in activity to amoxicillin-clavulanate against most species.
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The in vitro activity of BAY v 3522, a new orally absorbed cephalosporin, was assessed against 150 clinical isolates each of Haemophilus influenzae and Branhamella catarrhalis. The MIC90S for beta-lactamase-positive and -negative strains of H. influenzae were 8 and 2 micrograms/ml, respectively. For beta-lactamase-positive and -negative strains of B. catarrhalis, the BAY v 3522 MIC90S were 4 and 0.25 micrograms/ml, respectively. In general, BAY v 3522 was less active against H. influenzae than amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and cefixime, equivalent in activity to cefuroxime, and more active than cefaclor. BAY v 3522 had activity most similar to cefuroxime and cefaclor for B. catarrhalis but was less active than amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and cefixime.
Minimum inhibitory concentrations of 13 beta-lactam antibiotics (ampicillin, amoxycillin, amoxycillin/clavulanate, imipenem, cefazolin, cefadroxil, cefaclor, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cefepime, cefpirome, cefpodoxime and cefixime), were determined for 76 strains of beta-lactamase negative Haemophilus influenzae, isolated over a five year period (1985-1990) that gave reduced zones to cefuroxime on disc testing when compared to the control strain H. influenzae NCTC 11931. MIC90 values for all antibiotics (except imipenem) were approximately ten times higher than the MIC90 values for a susceptible control group. Increased resistance was not associated with any particular biotype, although three biotype III strains were highly resistant to imipenem. More than 50% of strains with reduced susceptibility to beta-lactam antibiotics were isolated from patients with chronic respiratory disease. Published data on the sputum concentration of each antibiotic were compared to the MIC90 values obtained for the susceptible and resistant strains.