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Cardura (Doxazosin)

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Cardura is a high-quality medication which is taken in treatment of symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia or enlarged prostate, hypertension. Cardura acts by relaxing the blood vessels and muscles of bladder and prostate.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Doxazosin, Tamsulosin, Alfuzosin


Also known as:  Doxazosin.


Cardura is a perfect remedy in struggle against hypertension, symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia or enlarged prostate.

Cardura acts by relaxing the blood vessels and muscles of bladder and prostate.

Cardura is also known as Doxazosin, Carduran, Cascor, Doxadura, Doxacard.

Generic name of Cardura is Doxazosin.

Brand names of Cardura are Cardura, XL Cardura.


Take Cardura tablets orally once a day with or without food in the morning or in the evening, extended-release tablets take once a day with a breakfast.

Do not crush or chew it.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Cardura suddenly.


If you overdose Cardura and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature below 30 degrees C (86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Cardura are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Cardura if you are allergic to Cardura components.

Do not take Cardura if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Be careful using Cardura if you take HIV/AIDS medicines (nelfinavir (such as Viracept), atazanavir (such as Reyataz), indinavir (such as Crixivan), saquinavir (such as Invirase, Fortovase), ritonavir (such as Kaletra, Norvir)); clarithromycin (such as Prevpac, Biaxin); ipratropium (such as Atrovent); nefazodone; telithromycin (such as Ketek); voriconazole (such as Vfend); antihistamines; itraconazole (such as Sporanox); ketoconazole (such as Nizoral); ED medicines (vardenafil (such as Levitra); sildenafil (such as Viagra), tadalafil (such as Cialis); high blood pressure medicines; ulcers, irritable bowel disease medicines, urinary medicines, Parkinson's disease, motion sickness medicines.

It can be dangerous to use Cardura if you suffer from or have a history of prostate cancer, chest pain (angina), intestines narrowing or blockage, liver disease, short bowel syndrome, hypertension.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Cardura suddenly.

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Minoxidil is a potent antihypertensive used as an adjunctive agent in refractory hypertension. It exerts an antihypertensive effect through two mechanisms: selective arterial vasodilation by activation of potassium channels in the vascular smooth muscle and stimulation of carotid and aortic baroreceptors, leading to downstream release of renin and norepinephrine. Although frequently cited in reviews of antihypertensive agents, limited data about the use of minoxidil in neonates are available. We describe an infant girl, born at 35 weeks of gestation, who was diagnosed with idiopathic hypertension after extensive diagnostic evaluation. Adequate blood pressure control was not achieved with captopril, amlodipine, and clonidine. Oliguria secondary to captopril and rapid-onset congestive heart failure due to persistent hypertension led to the introduction of intravenous agents labetalol and nitroprusside. Although adequate blood pressure control was achieved, attempts to transition back to oral agents were unsuccessful, prompting the use of minoxidil as an alternative agent. Although good blood pressure control was achieved, the infant's oral intake plummeted from 210 to 63 ml/kg/day. The anorexia quickly resolved after stopping minoxidil, and she was discharged home at 5 months of age receiving propranolol, amlodipine, and doxazosin. Use of the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale indicated a definite relationship (score of 10) between the patient's development of anorexia and minoxidil therapy. To our knowledge, there have been no previous reports of minoxidil-associated anorexia in preterm or term infants. Clinicians should be aware that anorexia is a possible adverse effect of minoxidil in this patient population when initiating the drug in similar patients.

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The urethral pressure of the anesthetized cat was increased by electric stimulation of the hypogastric nerve. The different effects of Alf or Dox on the arterial blood pressure and urethral pressure between intraduodenal administration (i.d.) and intravenous infusion (i.v.) were compared.

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Benign prostatic hyperplasia is an increasingly prevalent condition affecting > 50% of men > 65 years of age. Although it is a condition that is unlikely to be life threatening, it can significantly affect quality of life with distressing lower urinary tract symptoms. Increasingly, medical therapy is being used as first-line treatment for men with moderate-to-severe lower urinary tract symptoms. Two main pharmacological classes of drugs are used: 5alpha-reductase inhibitors and alpha-1 selective blockers. Both these classes of drugs have shown good tolerability and clinical efficacy. This article examines the potential benefit of the use of combination therapy. In particular, what is the evidence for using doxazosin and finasteride therapy together?

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We conclude that the increase in heart rate caused by urapidil is less pronounced than that with doxazosin, a property that might favour urapidil in the treatment of arterial hypertension. In addition, only doxazosin (but not urapidil) increased the RPP at rest, a finding that might be helpful to explain why this drug was never shown to improve outcome in the treatment of arterial hypertension.

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A 16-week, open, noncomparative, multicenter, prospective study of patients with hypertension (> or = 140/> or = 90 mm Hg). Doxazosin GITS 4 mg/d was added to entry medication and increased to 8 mg/d at Week 4 in cases of inadequate blood pressure (BP) control.

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Systemic and regional hemodynamics (radionuclide-labeled microspheres), left and right ventricular weight, hydroxyproline concentration, and aortic weight were measured at age 35 weeks. Doxazosin reduced arterial pressure and total peripheral resistance without changing left ventricular mass and collagen content, whereas monotherapies with the beta-1 antagonist metoprolol or a subdepressor dose of the ACE inhibitor enalapril were effective in reducing left ventricular mass and hydroxyproline without altering pressure. Doxazosin combined with the same low-dose ACE inhibitor reduced left ventricular mass and hydroxyproline without potentiating the hypotensive effect of doxazosin. By contrast, the combination of beta-1 antagonist with the low-dose ACE inhibitor reduced pressure, unlike either agent alone. Aortic weight index was significantly reduced only by doxazosin whether when used alone or with the ACE inhibitor. Low-dose ACE inhibitor with doxazosin or the beta-1 receptor antagonist as well as doxazosin alone decreased renal vascular resistance.

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A randomized, parallel-controlled, multicenter clinical trial was conducted. From September 2002 to December 2003 906 BPH patients were enrolled into 7 therapeutic groups, including selective-adrenoceptor antagonist (terazosin, doxazosin tamsulosin and naftopidil), 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor (finasteride and epristeride) and natural product (cernilton). International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and Quality of Life (QOL), uroflowmetry, total prostatic volume (TPV) and transitional zone volume and residual urine were used as efficacy criteria.

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A sample pre-concentration method based on the in-line coupling of in-tube solid-phase microextraction and electrophoretic sweeping was developed for the analysis of hydrophobic compounds. The sample pre-concentration and electrophoretic separation processes were simply and sequentially carried out with a (35%-phenyl)-methylpolysiloxane-coated capillary. The developed method was validated and applied to enrich and separate several pharmaceuticals including loratadine, indomethacin, ibuprofen and doxazosin. Several parameters of microextration were investigated such as temperature, pH and eluant. And the concentration of microemulsion that influences separation efficiency and microextraction efficiency were also studied. Central composite design was applied for the optimization of sampling flow rate and sampling time that interact in a very complex way with each other. The precision, sensitivity and recovery of the method were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the maximum enrichment factors for loratadine, indomethacin, ibuprofen and doxazosin in aqueous solutions are 1355, 571, 523 and 318, respectively. In addition, the developed method was applied to determine loratadine in rabbit blood sample.

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Effects of exogenous and endogenous noradrenaline, released by tyramine and lower body negative pressure (LBNP), on vascular post-synaptic alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptors have been compared in healthy volunteers. Intra-arterial (i.a.) infusions of noradrenaline and tyramine into the forearm were given in the presence of saline, of yohimbine and of doxazosin, and changes in forearm blood flow (FBF) were measured. Lower body negative pressure of -40 mmHg was applied without and with a continuous i.a. infusion of yohimbine and of doxazosin, and changes in FBF in both forearms were compared. Forearm blood flow was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography. Noradrenaline and tyramine reduced FBF dose-dependently and to the same extent. Both these vasoconstrictions were significantly reduced by yohimbine (P < 0.001 for both) as well as by doxazosin (P < 0.05 for noradrenaline and P < 0.001 for tyramine). The tyramine-induced vasoconstriction was more effectively reduced by doxazosin, whereas yohimbine reduced the noradrenaline-induced vasoconstriction more effectively. Lower body negative pressure reduced FBF in both forearms to the same extent. Doxazosin effectively inhibited the LBNP induced decrease in FBF (P < 0.05) whereas yohimbine had no effect (P > 0.05). These results are in accordance with a predominant intrasynaptic location of post-synaptic alpha 1-adrenoceptors and a predominant extrasynaptic location of post-synaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptors in human blood vessels.

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The NIH-CPSI initial and sixth-month total scores were 23.1 and 10.7, respectively, in group 1, and 21.9 and 9.2, respectively, in group 2. The initial and sixth-month scores remained stable in group 3 (22.9 and 21.9, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference between two treatment arms with respect to efficiency of treatment (p>0.05). The responses in groups 1 and 2 were found durable at the end of 12 mo.

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Doxazosin mesylate is an alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist that was used to treat hypertension until a major study (ALLHAT; Antihypertensive and Lipid Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial) showed that it increased the risk of progressing to heart failure. Doxazosin is now being used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Noradrenaline acts on alpha1-adrenoceptors to contract the smooth muscle in the prostate and bladder, and by opposing these actions, doxazosin is beneficial in BPH. Doxazosin also increases apoptosis in the prostate. Although the standard preparation is suitable for once-daily dosing in BPH, it has to be titrated through three steps to its final dose. The controlled-release gastrointestinal therapeutic system (GITS) formulation of doxazosin is more convenient to use as it only has to be titrated through one step. In the treatment of BPH, standard doxazosin reduced both obstructive and irritative symptoms and increased peak urinary flow rate. The main side effects with doxazosin are those commonly associated with lowering blood pressure, although doxazosin lowers blood pressure to a lesser extent in normotensives than hypertensives. There is some evidence that in addition to being easier to use, doxazosin GITS may cause less adverse effects than the standard preparations. The benefits of doxazosin and the 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, finasteride, may be additive in BPH especially in men with large prostates. Further trials are necessary in order to determine whether doxazosin GITS is superior to other alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists in BPH.

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To compare the effects of doxazosin on blood pressure when used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in men who are either physiologically or pharmacologically normotensive.

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Alpha1-adrenoceptors mediate contraction of iris dilator smooth muscle and hence pupil dilatation. We compared the ability of i.v. bolus injections of alfuzosin, doxazosin, naftopidil, prazosin, tamsulosin and terazosin to antagonise phenylephrine-induced mydriasis relative to their potency for inhibiting phenylephrine-induced elevations of intraurethral pressure (IUP) in rabbits. Moreover, we compared the ability of these drugs to induce miosis in conscious rabbits in the absence of phenylephrine. All antagonists inhibited the effects of phenylephrine on pupil size and IUP, and the ratio of the respective ED50 values was close to unity in all cases. The doses required to induce statistically significant miosis in the absence of phenylephrine were 30- to 100-fold higher than those inhibiting phenylephrine-induced mydriasis for all antagonists, except for naftopidil. Moreover, the miotic effects of all alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists were fully reversible within 8 h. We conclude that alfuzosin, doxazosin, naftopidil, prazosin, tamsulosin and terazosin inhibit phenylephrine-induced mydriasis in the same dose range as they inhibit elevations in IUP. Higher doses of all antagonists are required to induce miosis in the absence of an exogenous agonist, and such miosis is always reversible within hours.

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Recent data suggest that the bladder urothelium may have a sensory function by way of release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) during stretch, which then acts as a sensory neurotransmitter. Because benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) can give rise to irritative (hypersensory) voiding patterns, we questioned whether the bladder urothelium from patients with BPH released more ATP during in vitro stretch and whether doxazosin, an alpha(1)-adrenoceptor blocker, affects this purinergic mechanism.

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Recent studies and analyses have confirmed that baseline prostate volume is related to progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) as well as to negative outcomes related to BPH, such as acute urinary retention (AUR) and need for surgery, and can also predict response to therapy. Other investigations have determined that prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level has good predictive value for assessing prostate volume. Strong evidence exists that baseline serum PSA level, like baseline prostate volume, predicts future prostate growth. Randomized placebo-controlled finasteride trials have shown that men with larger prostate volumes and higher PSA levels experience a clinically significant response to therapy compared with those with smaller prostate volumes and lower PSA levels. It has also been demonstrated that men with larger prostate glands and higher PSA levels are at increased risk for AUR and BPH-related surgery but that finasteride reduces these risks. Moreover, doxazosin and finasteride, alone and in combination, have been shown to significantly reduce BPH clinical progression.

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Since it is not known for certain which alpha-adrenergic receptors mediate renal vasoconstriction in human essential hypertension, we infused either doxazosin (n = 7) or yohimbine (n = 7) into the renal arteries of hypertensive subjects immediately prior to diagnostic angiography. Both agents caused an increment in renal blood flow as assessed with the xenon-washout technique. Doxazosin increased renal flow from 342 +/- 36 to 360 +/- 55 ml/min per 100 g (0.05 less than p less than 0.10). Yohimbine enhanced flow from 380 +/- 41 to 485 +/- 63 ml/min per 100 g (p less than 0.01). The effect of yohimbine was significantly greater than that of doxazosin. In a control group (n = 7) receiving only saline, no changes in renal blood flow occurred. Doxazosin enhanced renin secretion in the kidney by 10 +/- 4% over levels in controls (0.05 less than p less than 0.10), whereas yohimbine increased renin release by 80 +/- 23% (p less than 0.01). The latter increase was apparently not due to alterations in flow alone, since the arteriovenous gradient for renin also widened. We conclude that in resting conditions, neurogenic vascular tone in the kidney depends mainly upon activation of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors. Moreover, these receptors exert a tonic inhibitory influence on renin release.

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cardura buy online 2017-01-04

In cardura buy a prospective study of 144 consecutive men with BOO at one tertiary urology centre, all had a baseline pressure-flow urodynamic study and were then subdivided into those with BOO or BOO + OAB, based on absence or presence of involuntary detrusor contractions. The Abrams-Griffiths nomogram was used to determine obstructive BOO. After the initial evaluation, all patients were treated with doxazosin 4 mg/day for 3 months. In patients with no symptomatic improvement, tolterodine 2 mg twice daily was added for an additional 3 months.

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Candidate genetic variants (n=78) were genotyped in 39 114 participants from Genetics of Hypertension Associated Treatment study, ancillary to Antihypertensive and Lipid Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial. Antihypertensive and Lipid Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial randomized hypertensive participants (≥55 years) to one of four treatments (amlodipine, chlorthalidone, doxazosin, lisinopril). The primary outcome was fatal CHD or nonfatal myocardial infarction (mean follow-up=4.9 years). A pharmacogenetic panel was derived within each of the four treatment groups. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves estimated the discrimination cardura buy rate between those with and without a CHD event, on the basis of the addition of the genetic panel risk score.

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NA increased mean immunoexpression of both actin and myosin. Enhancement of Rulide Tablet Uses myosin expression was highly significant (P

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Oxidative stress can induce cell mutations or proliferation which then can progress to carcinogenesis or remodeling. The same oxidative stress-mediated mechanism could participate in prostate cell proliferation and remodeling present in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Doxazosin induces prostate epithelial and stromal cell apoptosis through production of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), but cellular Cymbalta Alternative Medication mechanisms are not completely clarified. In 10 prostate samples from BPH untreated patients who underwent TUR, we have assessed the gene and protein expression of: p22(phox) (subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase essential for O(2)(-) production); heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) (induced by oxidative stress and antiapoptotic); TGF-beta (inhibitor of prostatic epithelial and stromal cell growth); the in vitro effect of doxazosin on expression of these markers.

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Adult male Wistar Kyoto rats were subcutaneously infused for 2 weeks with AngII and the alpha 1-adrenoreceptor antagonist doxazosin during the 3rd and the 4th week after balloon injury of the left common carotid artery. Control groups received AngII, 0.9% Is Duricef Generic NaCl, AngII + 50% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO, the solvent of doxazosin), doxazosin or 50% dimethylsulfoxide. Each rat received 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine in a separate osmotic minipump to label DNA-synthesizing SMC. Systolic blood pressures were measured in all groups.

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1. The characteristics of alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes present on rabbit liver membranes were determined by radioligand binding and compared with the characteristics of binding in rat liver. 2. In saturation experiments using rabbit liver, [3H]-prazosin bound to two distinct affinity sites (pKD = 10.3 +/- 0.19 and 8.13 +/- 0.17, Bmax = 11.6 +/- 3.3 and 657.8 +/- 198.0 fmol mg-1 protein, respectively). In studies using rat liver, [3H]-prazosin bound to a single affinity site (pKD = 9.98 +/- 0.27, Bmax = 190.5 +/- 38.5 fmol mg-1 protein). 3. In competition experiments, unlabelled prazosin displaced biphasically the binding of 200 pM [3H]-prazosin to the rabbit liver; the resulting two pK1 values (9.85 +/- 0.08 and 8.01 +/- 0.09) were consistent with the affinity constants obtained in the saturation experiments. Two sites were also recognized by doxazosin (pKI 9.73 +/- 0.78 and 8.12 +/- 0.34), 2-(2,6-dimethoxy phenoxyethyl)-aminomethyl-1,4-benzo-dioxane (WB4101) pKI (9.74 +/- 0.32 and Casodex Generic Form 7.57 +/- 0.34) and 5-methylurapidil (pKI 8.69 +/- 0.27 and 6.75 +/- 0.35), and the population of low affinity sites for the three antagonists was approximately 70%. Two distinct affinity constants (pKI 8.55 +/- 0.09 and 7.90 +/- 0.09) were also calculated for alpha-ethyl-3,4,5-trimethoxy-alpha-(3-((2-(2-methoxyphenoxy) ethyl)-amino)-propyl)-benzeneacetonitrile fumarate (HV723). 4. By contrast, [3H]-prazosin binding sites of rat liver membranes were detected as a single population with a high affinity for prazosin (pKI 10.01 +/- 0.08), and doxazosin (pKI 9.67 +/- 0.20) but with a low affinity for WB4101 (pKI 8.25 +/- 0.09), 5-methylurapidil (pKI 7.22 +/- 0.01) and HV723 (pKI 8.88 +/- 0.05). 5. These results indicate the presence of two distinct alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes in the rabbit liver, but only a single site in rat liver. The pharmacological characteristics of prazosin-high and -low sites in rabbit liver suggest identity with alpha 1A and putative alpha 1L subtypes, respectively. The site in rat liver is of the alpha 1B subtype.

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Mean age of patients was 64.3 years. 3 patients (2.9%), 53 patients (51.0%), and 48 patients (46.1%) fell into the minor, moderate, and severe symptom categories, respectively. The QOLS correlated with IPSS. There was a mean change in symptom scores of +2.3 for the minor symptom category, -8.1 (P < 0.001) for IPSS and -1.7 (P < 0.001) for QOLS in the moderate symptom category, and -24.6 (P < 0.001) for IPSS and -4.0 (P < 0.05) for QOLS in the severe symptom Imitrex Reviews Patients category.

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A prospective clinical and urodynamic study (before and Suprax Prices after treatment) was performed in 65 consecutive male patients with BPH, aged 54-79 years (mean 66.7), to evaluate the results of treatment with doxazosin 4 mg/day during 6 months. Clinical evaluation included patient history and the International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS) and urodynamic evaluation included uroflowmetry with post-void residual data and pressure-flow test. A static urethral pressure profile was associated with the urodynamic voiding study.

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Doxazosin (Cardura-Pfizer) is a alpha 1-adrenoreceptor antagonist. This drug significantly decreases the blood pressure in subjects with hypertension. Despite decreasing blood pressure, doxazosin has a beneficial effect on many disorders observed in subjects with diabetes mellitus. Doxazosin 1) improves the regulation of lipids disturbances, 2) improves tissue sensitivity to insulin, 3) decreases the Mestinon Brand Name frequency of sexual disorders. In this situation Doxazosin is a good choice in the treatment of hypertension in diabetic subjects, in subjects with hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, with left ventricular hypertrophy, in old male subjects with hypertension and benign prostatic hypertrophy.

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ICH S7A and S7B guidelines recommend the use of conscious animals for assessment of non-clinical cardiovascular safety of new chemical entities prior to testing in humans. Protocol design and data analysis techniques can affect the quality of the data produced and can therefore ultimately influence the clinical management of cardiovascular risk. It is therefore essential to have an understanding of the magnitude of changes detectable and the Avelox Maximum Dosage clinical relevance of these changes. This paper describes the utilisation of "super-intervals" to analyse and interpret data obtained from our conscious telemetered dog cardiovascular safety protocol and reports the statistical power achieved to detect changes in various cardiovascular parameters.

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Doxazosin significantly inhibited prostate (PC3) and bladder cancer (HT1376) cell growth. Furthermore, prior incubation of PC3 cells with 5HT Deltasone Drug or 5HT(1B) agonist increased cell viability as compared to treatment with doxazosin alone. These findings may be related to the similarity between subtype 1 serotonin and adrenergic receptors. The effect of alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists on tumour cell growth merits further investigation.

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One-hundred and thirty-five patients with symptomatic urodynamically confirmed obstructive BPH were treated for 12 weeks with either doxazosin (67 patients) or placebo (68 patients) after an initial 2 week baseline evaluation. The main outcome measures were urodynamic Celebrex Drug Class and symptomatic evaluation for efficacy. Blood pressure and adverse events were monitored.

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This study investigated the safety and efficacy of doxazosin treatment in a large population of patients (n = 336) with essential hypertension and assessed the effect of doxazosin on the serum lipid profile and the calculated risk of developing coronary heart disease. Patients were assigned to two groups: those with a baseline diastolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 95 mm Hg (group 1) and those with a baseline diastolic blood pressure less than 95 mm Hg (group 2) that was controlled by previous antihypertensive therapy. Doxazosin treatment (monotherapy in 76.2% of patients) significantly (p less than 0.05) reduced the blood pressure of patients in group 1 (-23/-17 mm Hg) after 10 weeks and maintained the control of blood pressure for patients in group 2. Heart rate was essentially unchanged in both groups. Mean final daily doses of 3.6 and 3.2 mg were achieved in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Treatment with doxazosin improved the severity category of hypertension for 88.4% of patients in group 1; 87.3% of patients were considered a therapy success. Doxazosin had a favorable effect on the serum lipid profile in both groups of patients. The majority of lipid changes achieved statistical significance and resulted in a significant 27% decrease in the calculated risk of developing coronary heart disease. Doxazosin was well tolerated; only 24.1% of patients had side effects that were related or possibly related to treatment. In nine (2.7%) patients the dose of doxazosin was reduced and 26 (7.7%) patients withdrew from doxazosin therapy because of side effects.

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The trial was carried out with a cohort of 40 males who had all suffered their first attack of AUR caused by BPH. Twenty were randomly selected and treated for 7 days with 4 mg of sustained release doxazosin before removing the catheter. The patients not treated that could not spontaneously urinate were also administered 4 mg of doxazosin. Finally, all the patients that still had a catheter due to unsuccessful removal were treated with 8 mg of doxazosin and the percentage of patients responding to treatment was assessed. The predictive value of the response to treatment for age, IPSS, QoL, retained urine volume, prostate volume and the evolution time of the prostratism was determined by means of logistic regression analysis.

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To determine the effects of anti-hypertensive drugs in patients with both raised blood pressure and symptomatic PAD in terms of the rate of cardiovascular events and death, symptoms of claudication and critical leg ischaemia, and progression of atherosclerotic PAD as measured by ankle brachial index (ABI) changes and the need for revascularisation (reconstructive surgery or angioplasty) or amputation.

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We undertook this study to investigate the regulatory mechanism of cardiac gene expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) during development. We measured cardiac mRNAs by Northern blot analysis. In 9-week-old SHR at the very early stage of cardiac hypertrophy, the expression of various cardiac genes related to the regulation of cardiac contraction and relaxation was already significantly changed compared with control Wistar-Kyoto rats, indicating that cardiac molecular changes are responsible for cardiac remodeling or the modulation of cardiac performance in SHR. We gave various types of antihypertensive drugs, at oral doses causing a mild and comparable hypotensive effect, to 27-week-old SHR to examine the effects on the altered cardiac gene expression. Imidapril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, normalized the increased gene expression of atrial natriuretic polypeptide and collagen types I and III and the decreased expression of alpha-myosin heavy chain in SHR heart. Atenolol (a beta 1-blocker) combined with doxazosin did not affect cardiac ANP and alpha-myosin heavy chain expression of SHR but normalized the increased collagen expression. In contrast, despite a hypotensive effect comparable to these two drug treatments, doxazosin (an alpha 1-blocker) alone or manidipine (a calcium antagonist) did not normalize these altered gene expressions of SHR. These results show that the cardiac renin-angiotensin system is involved in the altered cardiac gene expression in SHR. The beta 1- but not alpha 1-adrenergic receptor is also responsible for the increased cardiac collagen expression in SHR.

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We analyzed data from the placebo arm of the MTOPS trial to determine clinical predictors of BPH progression.

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Although doxazosin, but not nifedipine, can partially prevent a decrease in urogenital expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), the mechanisms involved in the regulated expression of NOS are not known. Therefore, we identified differential gene expression profiles in SHRs to elucidate the molecular mechanisms regulating urogenital expression of NOS.

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To determine the incidence of potentially inappropriate prescriptions (PPI) for patients older than 65 years admitted to the cardiology and respiratory medicine units, as well as the main drugs involved and their clinical severity.

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The use of antihypertensive and antidiabetic drugs accounted for most of the drug usage in this study. Use of newer and more expensive agents has further increased drug expenditure. Monitoring drug usage and their correlations with clinical outcomes are warranted.

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1. We have examined the effect of endothelium on the antagonistic action of prazosin, doxazosin, yohimbine and phentolamine against phenylephrine, clonidine and noradrenaline. 2. The action of prazosin against phenylephrine was similar to that earlier reported against noradrenaline, acting as a non-competitive antagonist in the presence of endothelium and as a competitive antagonist in the absence of endothelium. Prazosin also acted as a non-competitive antagonist against clonidine in the absence of endothelium. 3. Doxazosin behaved in a similar way to prazosin against noradrenaline, phenylephrine and clonidine acting as a non-competitive antagonist in the presence of endothelium and as competitive antagonist after removal of endothelium. In contrast, yohimbine and phentolamine acted as competitive antagonists both in the presence and in the absence of endothelium. 4. Analysis of the concentration-response curves for noradrenaline, phenylephrine and clonidine in the presence and in the absence of endothelium showed that the affinity for all three agonists was the same but not the efficacy and the receptor reserve, both of which were lower in the presence than in the absence of endothelium. 5. The rank order of agonist potency in the absence of endothelium was noradrenaline greater than phenylephrine greater than clonidine. The rank order of antagonist potency was prazosin greater than or equal to doxazosin greater than phentolamine greater than yohimbine. 6. The results show that vascular endothelium modulates the contractile response to alpha-adrenoceptor agonists and also modifies the action of the antagonists prazosin and doxazosin but not that of yohimbine and phentolamine. This effect of endothelium was related to a change in agonist efficacy and receptor reserve. These results also suggest that the alpha-adrenoceptors of the isolated aorta of the rat are predominantly, if not exclusively of the alpha 1-subtype.

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In this pilot study, the effect of dosing schedule on the efficacy and safety of the long-acting alpha 1-adrenergic blocker doxazosin (DOX) was evaluated in 48 consecutive, normotensive men (mean age, 61.2 years) with symptoms of prostatism.

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To determine the safety and efficacy of alpha blockade with doxazosin and terazosin in men over the age of 80 years with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

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Benign enlargement of the prostate comprises both hypertrophy and in particular hyperplasia of prostatic stromal and glandular compartments. Alpha adrenergic blockade has been shown to be effective in the management of BPH. Recent investigations have shown that this effect may in part be due to apoptosis.

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The control of high blood pressure (BP) after awakening in the morning (morning hypertension) as determined by home BP (HBP), as well as BP control throughout the day, may prevent diabetic vascular complications. We examined the effect of an alpha-adrenergic blocker (doxazosin) on BP measurements taken by HBP after awakening and during clinic visits (CBP) in 50 patients with type-2 diabetes and morning hypertension. We evaluated the urinary albumin excretion rate as an indicator of nephropathy. Doxazosin was taken orally once at bedtime for 1 to 3 months. The mean (+/- SD) dose was 2.9 +/- 2.1 mg/day (1 to 8 mg/day). The BP was measured monthly at the clinic during the day and at home after awakening in the morning. In this short-term trial (2.8 +/- 0.4 months), the systolic HBP decreased significantly from 164 +/- 17 mmHg before treatment to 146 +/- 19 mmHg after treatment, and the diastolic HBP decreased significantly from 85 +/- 14 mmHg before treatment to 80 +/- 9 mmHg after treatment. The systolic, but not the diastolic CBP, decreased significantly after treatment. There was no significant difference in the systolic or diastolic values between the HBP and the CBP after treatment. The percentage change in the systolic HBP after treatment was three times greater than for the systolic CBP. The median (interquartile) urinary albumin excretion rate decreased significantly (P < 0.001) from 62 (25-203) mg/g creatinine before treatment to 19 (9-76) mg/g creatinine after treatment. On multiple regression analysis, the decrease in the systolic HBP with treatment positively correlated with the reduction in urinary excretion of albumin. The control of morning hypertension reduced the albuminuria found in both untreated and treated hypertensive patients with type-2 diabetes. Bedtime administration of doxazosin appears to be safe and effective in reducing morning hypertension as measured by HBP. This finding also demonstrates that HBP taken in the morning has a stronger predictive power for the albuminuria level than does CBP.

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We performed a prospective data acquisition of IFIS occurrence and grading, and retrospective evaluation of concurrent medications, bulbus length, patient age and gender of all patients undergoing cataract surgery over a 6-month period.

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We studied 404 treated hypertensive patients (mean age, 70.5 +/- 9.5 years), who were allocated to either an active treatment group (doxazosin and atenolol when needed) or a control group. Blood pressure, urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR), and brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) were measured at baseline and after 6 months of treatment.

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To compare the effect of the combined therapy of medication with local hyperthermia with that of the simple local hyperthermia therapy in the treatment of pain symptoms of chronic prostatitis (CP).