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Patients who noticed worsening of their skin disease after using topical corticosteroid preparations were patch tested both with the commercial preparation and the corticosteroid itself. Between 1987 and 1989, 10 cases of contact dermatitis due to topical corticosteroids were detected in this way. The corticosteroids wee amcinonide (2 patients), hydrocortisone butyrate, clobetasol propionate (2), betamethasone valerate (2), prednicarbate and fluocortolone (2). Patch tests with the commercial preparations and the corticosteroids themselves elicited reactions almost identical in time course and severity. Individual sensitivity seems to be more important for test results than test conditions. 9 of the 10 patients underwent further patch testing with a corticosteroid series. In 2 patients, a true cross-reaction between budesonide and hydrocortisone butyrate was found. All 9 patients showed further sensitivities to other corticosteroids. Most of the cross or concomitant reactions could be categorized into recently defined corticosteroid classes. To improve our understanding of corticosteroid sensitization, and to help the patient avoid reactions to other topical corticosteroids, a corticosteroid series should be patch tested in every case of corticosteroid sensitivity.
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The objective of this randomized open-label clinical trial was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of pimecrolimus in comparison with a potent corticosteroid (betamethasone 17-valerate) in the treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis.
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The treatment of pyoderma gangraenosum (PG) is still a therapeutic challenge. Although several drugs such as corticosteroids, dapsone, clofazimine, azathioprine, tacrolimus and cyclosporine A have been shown to be effective in this disease, side-effects of these agents limit their systemic use in seriously ill patients. In recent years, topical treatment of the disease has gained attention. Several reports show an improvement of cutaneous lesions of PG following topical treatment. These earlier reports as well as our own observations suggest that topical therapeutic regimens can be a useful and safe alternative to systemic immunosuppressive therapy in the treatment of PG. We give a review about these topically used drugs and the mechanisms probably involved.
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are highly effective compounds widely used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases; however, they offer distinct adverse effects such as skin thinning in response to long-term topical treatment. Nevertheless it is difficult to deduce the safety of a newly synthesized compound from its structural formula. Efficient assay systems that measure beneficial and adverse effects are needed. In the present study the applicability of a three-dimensional full-thickness skin model (FTSM) is tested to display GC-induced effects regarding anti-inflammation and atrophy. It is shown that topical application of a commercial GC ointment suppresses the ultraviolet (UV)B induced induction of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. Addition of purified betamethasone-17-valerate, prednicarbate and clobetasol-17-propionate to the culture medium for 14 days caused a reduction in the number of epidermal cell-layers corresponding to the atrophic risk found in vivo. Similarly, repeated topical application of five GC creams induced epidermal thinning. Evidence is given that the inhibitory effect on keratinocyte proliferation contributes to this effect. Furthermore, dermal thinning was monitored by measuring type I collagen synthesis; a decreased collagen synthesis similar to the in vivo situation is shown. The present study demonstrates the versatility of this FTSM in the validation of effectiveness and safety of GCs.
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The present study evaluated the environmental risks to common carp (Cyprinus carpio) posed by glucocorticoids present in sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent. To gather information on the seasonal variations in glucocorticoid concentration, the authors sampled the effluent of a Japanese STP every other week for 12 mo. Six of 9 selected glucocorticoids were detected in the effluent, with clobetasol propionate and betamethasone 17-valerate detected at the highest concentrations and frequencies. The present study's results indicated that effluent glucocorticoid concentration may depend on water temperature, which is closely related to the removal efficiency of the STP or to seasonal variations in the public's use of glucocorticoids. In a separate experiment, to clarify whether glucocorticoids in environmental water increase susceptibility to bacterial infection in fish, the authors examined the responses to bacterial infection (Aeromonas veronii) of common carp exposed to clobetasol propionate. Clobetasol propionate exposure did not affect bacterial infection-associated mortality. In fish infected with A. veronii but not exposed to clobetasol propionate, head kidney weight and number of leukocytes in the head kidney were significantly increased (p < 0.05), whereas these effects were not observed in infected fish exposed to clobetasol. This suggests that clobetasol propionate alleviated bacterial infection-associated inflammation. Together, these results indicate that susceptibility to bacterial infection in common carp is not affected by exposure to glucocorticoids at environmentally relevant concentrations.
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This article describes the results of an EECDRG multicentre study on contact allergy to corticosteroids. A total of 7238 patients were investigated: 6238 in 13 centres in the course of 1993, and 1000 patients in 1 centre in 1993 and 1994. The 5 corticosteroids tested were budesonide 0.1% pet., betamethasone-17-valerate 1% pet., clobetasol-17-propionate 1% pet., hydrocortisone-17-butyrate 1% eth., and tixocortol-21-pivalate 1% pet.; 189 (2.6%) gave a positive patchtest reaction (+, ++, + + +) to at least 1 of the corticosteroids. The data regarding the corticosteroid-sensitive patients, as well as the patchtest results, were recorded on a standardized form.
This study suggests that betamethasone valerate 0.12% foam is an effective and well-tolerated short-term treatment of stasis dermatitis, but that higher potency steroids may be needed to achieve better efficacy. Furthermore, these results are the first to suggest that the application of effective topical anti-inflammatory therapy can lead to improvement in HRQL.
Topical corticosteroid and calcineurin inhibitor have similar therapeutic benefits in atopic dermatitis (AD), but the differences in therapeutic mechanisms of action of these agents against AD symptoms are not fully understood.
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After 4 weeks of treatment, the 3 active compounds and the vehicle resulted in a significant decrease in mean M-PASI score (86.4% for 0.1% betamethasone, 62.4% for 0.005% calcipotriol, 39.7% for 1% pimecrolimus, and 21.1% for vehicle). The 0.1% betamethasone was significantly more effective than 1% pimecrolimus during the study period (P<.05). No significant difference was found between 0.005% calcipotriol and 0.1% betamethasone and between 0.005% calcipotriol and 1% pimecrolimus. The visual analog scale score for pruritus decreased by 78% for 0.1% betamethasone, 57% for 0.005% calcipotriol, 35% for 1% pimecrolimus, and 43% for the vehicle, again demonstrating a clear advantage for the corticosteroid (P<.05).
A bioassay for the evaluation of certain adverse effects of various corticosteroids was performed. Twenty-eight daily topical applications of corticosteroids to young rats produced reduction in body-weight gain, atrophy of the skin as determined by double skin-fold thickness micrometer measurement, and mild to severe telangiectasia. This animal model demonstrates corticosteroid-induced skin atrophy and telangiectasia and the correlation of the degree of atrophy and telangiectasia to body-weight change. Nine corticosteroids were evaluated by this method and are listed in terms of increasing severity of side-effects as follows: 1.0% hydrocortisone cream, 0.1% betamethasone valerate cream, 0.025% betamethasone benzoate cream, 0.05% flurandrenolide cream, 0.05% fluocinonide cream, 0.1% dexamethasone cream, and 0.03% flumethasone pivalate cream. Triamcinolone acetonide cream, 0.5%, and 0.2% fluocinolone acetonide cream resulted in death of the animals prior to completion of 28 days of topical application.
To determine the efficacy of topical garlic gel in the treatment of alopecia areata.
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A total of 70 boys 1 to 12 years old with phimosis were randomly assigned to receive topical application of either betamethasone valerate 0.06% (a highly potent steroid) or clobetasone butyrate 0.05% (a moderately potent steroid). Parents of the boys were instructed to retract the foreskin gently without causing pain, and to apply the topical steroids over the stenotic opening of the prepuce twice daily for 4 weeks, then for another 4 weeks if no improvement was achieved. Retractibility of the prepuce was graded from 0 to 5. Response to treatment was arbitrarily defined as improvement in the retractibility score of more than 2 points.
A review is given of the methods used to estimate the atrophogenicity of corticosteroids after topical use. An experiment was performed in human volunteers in which measurement of mean epidermal thickness showed that the adverse effect of betamethasone 17-valerate exceeded that of placebo, hydrocortisone 17-butyrate ranking in between. To evaluate the atrophy caused by corticosteroid on dermis the radiological technique of Black was further modified and adapted. With this method clobetasol proprionate proved to give significantly more atrophy compared with a placebo. The atrophy disappeared 2 months after treatment was stopped.
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Betamethasone valerate aerosol given in doses of 100 mug into each nostril twice daily was compared with a placebo in a double-blind, cross-over trial involving thirty patients with seasonal rhinitis. Patients recorded symptoms of eye irritation and watering, sneezing, rhinorrhoea, and nasal blockage, on a diary card. Analysis of the symptom scores showed that nasal symptoms were significantly better on betamethasone valerate than on placebo (P less than 0.01) and that nasal blockage in particular was improved (P less than 0.001). The patients' preference was significantly in favour of the active compound (p less than 0.02) and no side-effects were noted. It is concluded that betamethasone valerate offers a safe and effective form of treatment for seasonal rhinitis.
Topical corticosteroids are used extensively to treat inflammatory skin diseases. Long-term use, however, may be associated with adverse effects such as skin atrophy. New steroids have been developed with the objective of increasing efficacy and reducing the incidence of adverse effects. Mometasone furoate (MMF) is one of these new derivatives. The aim of our study was to compare the effects of MMF and betamethasone-17-valerate (BM-17-valerate) on collagen synthesis in human skin in vivo. Fifteen healthy male volunteers applied MMF, BM-17-valerate and vehicle for 1 week to different areas of abdominal skin. Suction blisters were raised on these areas, and a control site, and procollagen propeptide (PICP, PINP, PIIINP) levels in the suction blister fluid were measured by radioimmunoassay. Skin thickness was measured ultrasonically by Dermascan A at the end of the treatment period. The levels of the three propeptides in suction blister fluid were reduced to similar extent by MMF and BM-17-valerate. The 1-week treatment period had no detectable influence on skin thickness. We conclude that MMF and BM-17-valerate decrease collagen synthesis to the same extent in human skin in vivo.
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Male Hartley guinea pigs were used.
Our results show that betamethasone-17-valerate may modulate the response in ICD. In this human model of ICD we could not confirm the efficacy of cipamfylline. Clinical studies are needed before the effect of PDE-4 inhibitors in ICD can be refuted with certainty.
We found 12 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
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Experiments were conducted to: (a) compare the bioavailability of betamethasone benzoate in a quick-break aerosol foam and semisolid dosage forms, (b) compare the activity of betamethasone benzoate, betamethasone valerate, clobetasol propionate, triamcinolone acetonide, desonide, flumethasoid reservoir formation in skin, and (d) assess the effect of a natural moisturizer. Efficacy was determined by a graded response 6-hr occluded vasoconstriction test with subsequent reocclusion for reservoir demonstration. Moisturizer effect was assessed by a nonoccluded vasoconstriction test using "plain" and sodium 2-pyrrolidone-5-carboxylate-containing concentrates on arms pretreated with water or moisturizer. The activities of betamethasone benzoate concentrate, collapsed foam, ointment, and gel were similar and significantly better than the activity of the cream. Clobetasol propionate was significantly better than the other medicated concentrates, which were equivalent. Steroid-induced blanching decreased in the presence of a moisturizer.