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Benicar (Olmesartan)

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Benicar is used for treating high blood pressure, alone or with other medicines. It may also be used for other conditions.

Other names for this medication:

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Lasix, Norvasc, Toprol, Hyzaar, Teveten, Edarbi, Cozaar, Atacand, Micardis


Also known as:  Olmesartan.


Benicar is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. It works by inhibiting the action of a chemical transmitter (angiotensin II) and allowing the blood vessels to dilate (widen) and the kidneys to eliminate extra sodium and fluids. These actions combine to help lower blood pressure.

Generic name of Benicar is Olmesartan.

Benicar is also known as Olmesartan, Olmetec, Olmezest, Olmecip.

Brand name of Benicar is Benicar.


Take Benicar orally with or without food.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Benicar suddenly.


If you overdose Benicar and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store your medicine at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children and in a container that small children cannot open.

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Benicar if you are allergic to Benicar components.

Do not take Benicar if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Avoid alcohol.

Avoid machine driving.

Patients who take medicine for high blood pressure often feel tired or run down for a few weeks after starting treatment.

Be careful if you use salt substitute or a product that has potassium in it.

Do not stop taking Benicar suddenly.

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The 3-in-1 study was separated into 2 stages. Stage 1 is a four-period crossover study. 28 healthy subjects were equally randomized into four groups. Each group received the four following regimens in a sequence as Latin square (4 × 4) design: A: olmesartan medoxomil; B: HCTZ; C: test drug (new combined formulation); D: reference drugs (co-administration of separate tablets). In stage 2, half of 28 subjects were daily dosed with regimen C for 7 days. Blood and urine samples were obtained to receive pharmacokinetics of olmesartan and HCTZ, which were analyzed using the BE evaluation method. Tolerability was also assessed.

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These results suggest that the AII receptors exert opposing effects on the plasma cholesterol level; that is, AT1R increases plasma cholesterol while AT2R decreases it. Fructose feeding may selectively augment the action of AT1R and thereby enhance the increase in plasma cholesterol levels in response to AII infusion.

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Retrospective analysis of data from 12 phase I-III trials in the US, Europe and Japan.

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Hydrolysis plays an important role in metabolic activation of prodrugs. In the current study, species and in vitro system differences in hepatic and extrahepatic hydrolysis were investigated for 11 prodrugs. Ten prodrugs in the data set are predominantly hydrolyzed by carboxylesterases (CES), whereas olmesartan medoxomil is also metabolized by carboxymethylenebutenolidase (CMBL) and paraoxonase. Metabolic stabilities were assessed in cryopreserved hepatocytes, liver S9 (LS9), intestinal S9 (IS9), kidney S9 (KS9), and plasma from human, monkey, dog, and rat. Of all the preclinical species investigated, monkey intrinsic hydrolysis clearance obtained in hepatocytes (CLint,hepatocytes) were the most comparable to human hepatocyte data. Perindopril and candesartan cilexetil showed the lowest and highest CLint,hepatocytes, respectively, regardless of the species investigated. Scaled intrinsic hydrolysis clearance obtained in LS9 were generally higher than CLint,hepatocytes in all species investigated, with the exception of dog. In the case of human and dog intestinal S9, hydrolysis intrinsic clearance could not be obtained for CES1 substrates, but hydrolysis for CES2 and CMBL substrates was detected in IS9 and KS9 from all species. Pronounced species differences were observed in plasma; hydrolysis of CES substrates was only evident in rat. Predictability of human hepatic intrinsic clearance (CLint,h) was assessed for eight CES1 substrates using hepatocytes and LS9; extrahepatic hydrolysis was not considered due to high stability of these prodrugs in intestinal and kidney S9. On average, predicted oral CLint,h from hepatocyte data represented 20% of the observed value; the underprediction was pronounced for high-clearance prodrugs, consistent with the predictability of cytochrome P450/conjugation clearance from this system. Prediction bias was less apparent with LS9, in particular for high-clearance prodrugs, highlighting the application of this in vitro system for investigation of prodrugs.

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Poor aqueous solubility and unfavourable de-esterification of olmesartan medoxomil (a selective angiotensin II receptor blocker), results in low oral bioavailability of less than 26%. Improvement of oral bioavailability with prolonged pharmacodynamics activity of olmesartan in Wistar rats had been approached by nanoemulsification strategy in our previous article [Colloid Surface B, 115, 2014: 286]. In continuation to that work, we herewith report the biodistribution behaviour and 28-day repeated dose sub-chronic toxicity of olmesartan medoxomil nanoemulsion in Wistar rats following oral administration. The levels of olmesartan in collected biological samples were estimated using our validated LC-MS/MS technique. Our biodistribution study showed significantly higher brain concentrations of olmesartan (0.290 ± 0.089 μg/mL, 0.333 ± 0.071 μg/mL and 0.217 ± 0.062 μg/mL at 0.5, 2.0 and 8.0 h post dosing, respectively) when administered orally as nanoemulsion formulation as compared to the aqueous suspension. In addition, the olmesartan nanoemulsion was found to be safe and non-toxic, as it neither produced any lethality nor remarkable haematological, biochemical and structural adverse effects as observed during the 28-days sub-chronic toxicity studies in experimental Wistar rats. It is herewith envisaged that the developed nanoemulsion formulation approach for the delivery of olmesartan medoxomil via oral route can further be explored in memory dysfunction and brain ischemia, for better brain penetration and improved clinical application in stroke patients.

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Studies were randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled and dose-finding (2.5-80 mg), with treatment duration of 6-52 weeks.

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This was a prospective, parallel group, partially randomised, double-blind study set in 463 centres in nine European countries. 2306 male and female adult patients aged 18-75 years with mild to moderate essential hypertension (sitting diastolic BP [DBP] > or =90mm Hg and <110mm Hg) were enrolled. All enrolled patients received open-label olmesartan medoxomil 20mg once daily for 8 weeks. At the end of this period, patients whose BP had not normalised (sitting DBP > or =90mm Hg) were randomised to receive olmesartan medoxomil monotherapy (40mg once daily, n = 302) or olmesartan medoxomil (20mg once daily)/hydrochlorothiazide (12.5mg once daily) combination therapy (n = 325) for 4 weeks. The main outcome measure was change in mean sitting DBP during randomised treatment.

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Hypertension is an increasingly prevalent cardiovascular risk factor associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Lowering blood pressure (BP) to recommended levels reduces the risk of hypertension-associated cardiovascular events. Despite current treatment options and recommendations, the BP of many patients remains suboptimally controlled. There is a need for more effective management in patients not achieving BP goals on current monotherapy or combination therapy. Regimens combining three or more antihypertensive agents have been shown to increase the proportion of patients achieving BP goals. Recent data suggest that the combination of olmesartan medoxomil, amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide is a rational treatment option offering safe and effective BP reductions and goal attainment in a greater proportion of patients compared with dual-combination regimens. As the understanding of the importance of BP control grows, treatment options that enable patients to achieve BP goals quickly and safely will become increasingly important in hypertension management.

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Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARB) are a frequently used class of antihypertensive drug. The ARB losartan is known to decrease the serum uric acid (SUA) level. However, there are very few clinical data comparing the effects of other ARBs on SUA level under the conditions of clinical practice. This study evaluated and compared the long-term effects of monotherapy with five ARBs on SUA level in Japanese hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).

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Patient demographics were similar but mean baseline SeBP was higher in the OM study (163.8/101.6 mmHg) than in the VAL studies (152.8/99.3 and 156.7/99.1 mmHg), possibly suggesting that the OM study included a more difficult-to-treat patient population. AML/ARB combinations consistently produced greater mean SeBP reductions than monotherapy. Least squares (LS) mean SeDBP reductions were 19.4 mmHg (AML/OM 10/40 mg; placebo-corrected: 15.9 mmHg) and 18.6 mmHg (AML/VAL 10/320 mg; placebo-corrected: 9.8 mmHg). LS mean SeSBP reductions were 28.5 mmHg (AML/OM 10/40 mg; placebo-corrected: 25.7 mmHg) and 28.4 mmHg (AML/VAL 10/320 mg; placebo-corrected: 15.5 mmHg).

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Participants received dual-combination treatment for 4 weeks or placebo for 2 weeks. Participants receiving placebo switched to dual-combination treatment from week 2 to week 4. At week 4, participants switched to triple-combination treatment or continued on dual-combination treatment until week 12.

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Treatment with OM/AM/HCTZ achieved superior (SBP) ABPM reductions compared with mono, dual or triple drug therapy, resulting in all patients achieving systolic ABPM goal without ABPM documented hypotension.

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The evaluation of the antihypertensive effect of multiple antihypertensive drugs using data from an observational study requires adjustment for time-dependent confounders. Marginal structural models (MSMs) have been proposed to address this type of confounding through inverse probability weighting. Generally, the probabilities are estimated using logistic regression models that assume linearity between the logistic link and the predictors, but the linearity might be inaccurate. In this article, we proposed MSMs to assess the blood pressure-lowering effects of combination therapy with olmesartan medoxomil (OLM) plus calcium channel blockers (CCB) (OLM+CCB) in an observational study of OLM, and extended estimation methods of the probabilities for the MSMs using generalized additive models (GAMs). The estimation using GAMs was suggested to improve the balance of the distributions of confounder values between the therapy groups in the pseudo-population. We obtained estimated changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) for OLM+CCB combination therapy after 12 wk compared with OLM monotherapy of -4.3 mmHg (95% confidence interval (CI): -7.7 and -0.9 mmHg) and -2.9 mmHg (95% CI: -5.1 and -0.7 mmHg), respectively. The estimated target BP (SBP<140 mmHg and DBP<90 mmHg) achievement rates for OLM+CCB combination therapy and OLM monotherapy were 62.0 and 46.7%, respectively. The results of the MSMs were closer to those in the randomized controlled trial, such as the combination of OLM and amlodipine besylate in controlling high blood pressure study, than those of conventional methods. The proposed MSMs provided useful information to evaluate the effects of combination therapy of antihypertensive drugs in the context of an observational study.

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The objective of the present study was to analyze the cost-effectiveness of lifetime antihypertensive therapy with angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) monotherapy, calcium channel blocker (CCB) monotherapy, or ARB plus CCB (ARB+CCB) combination therapy in Japan. Based on the results of large-scale clinical trials and epidemiological data, we constructed a Markov model for patients with essential hypertension. Our Markov model comprised coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and progression of diabetic nephropathy submodels. Based on this model, analysis of the prognosis of each patient was repeatedly conducted by Monte Carlo simulation. The three treatment strategies were compared in hypothetical 55-year-old patients with systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 160 mmHg in the absence and presence of comorbid diabetes. Olmesartan medoxomil 20 mg/d was the ARB and azelnidipine 16 mg/d the CCB in our model. On-treatment SBP was assumed to be 125, 140, and 140 mmHg in the ARB+CCB, ARB alone, and CCB alone groups, respectively. Costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were discounted by 3%/year. The ARB+CCB group was the most cost-effective both in male and female patients with or without diabetes. In conclusion, ARB plus CCB combination therapy may be a more cost-effective lifetime antihypertensive strategy than monotherapy with either agent alone.

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These data suggest that combination of the two drugs, independent of the hemodynamic effect, may improve left ventricular phenotypic change, collagen accumulation and diastolic function.

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Animals treated with a combination of the two drugs had hemodynamics, heart weights and dimensions similar to the other treated animals. However, the combination of the two drugs suppressed ANP, BNP and other gene expressions related to contractile proteins of fetal type and collagens more effectively than ACE inhibitor or ARB alone.

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Olmesartan medoxomil is a new angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) indicated for the treatment of hypertension. Olmesartan medoxomil is a pro-drug that is converted to the active metabolite olmesartan. Olmesartan does not undergo further metabolism and does not interact with cytochrome P450 enzymes. Olmesartan is a potent ARB with high selectivity for the type 1 (AT(1)) receptor subtype and shows insurmountable antagonism against the AT(1) receptor in vascular tissues. This antagonistic mode, which could be attributed to tight binding of this drug to the receptor, would underlie the potent and persistent action of olmesartan medoxomil in vivo. In fact, oral administration of olmesartan medoxomil produces a potent and long-lasting antihypertensive action without inducing tachycardia. The preventive effects of olmesartan medoxomil on end-organ damage in the kidney, heart, and blood vessels have been demonstrated in various animal models. In clinical studies, olmesartan medoxomil is shown to be well tolerated and have an excellent safety profile that is comparable to that of placebo. Head-to-head comparisons with other ARBs (losartan, valsartan, irbesartan, and candesartan cilexetil) conducted in the United States and Europe have revealed that olmesartan medoxomil is superior to these other ARBs in lowering blood pressure. These facts suggest that olmesartan medoxomil would be beneficial for the treatment of hypertension and other end-organ diseases.

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Drugs that block the renin-angiotensin system represent one of the most significant therapeutic interventions available for the treatment of hypertension. The angiotensin II receptor antagonists (AIIRAs), also known as sartans, are one such class of drugs that block the effects of angiotensin II by antagonizing the angiotensin II type 1 receptor. Olmesartan is the newest member of this class.

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In human fibroblasts, HGF significantly increased the production of matrix metalloprotease-1 (MMP-1) and urokinase plasminogen activator, whereas HGF also significantly attenuated the reduction of MMP-1 activity induced by Ang II. In contrast, HGF significantly decreased transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta mRNA stimulated by Ang II, whereas HGF also decreased basal TGF-beta protein level without affecting growth. Similarly, in rat cardiac fibroblasts, HGF inhibited the expression and production of TGF-beta, whereas HGF upregulated its specific receptor, c-met. Conversely, in vivo experiments revealed that administration of temocapril and CS-866 to cardiomyopathic hamsters resulted in a significant decrease in fibrotic area and increase in cardiac HGF concentration and mRNA (P<0.01), whereas cardiac concentration and mRNA of HGF were significantly decreased in cardiomyopathic hamsters. In contrast, mRNA expression of collagen III was markedly decreased by treatment with temocapril and CS-866.

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This study investigated the relative bioavailability and fasting pharmacokinetic properties of olmesartan after single doses of a 20-mg test tablet, a 20-mg test capsule, and a commercially available 20-mg reference tablet in healthy Chinese male volunteers. The study was conducted to satisfy Chinese State Food and Drug Administration regulatory requirements for approval of a generic formulation of olmesartan medoxomil.

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buy benicar 2015-04-26

During the process development for multigram-scale synthesis of olmesartan medoxomil (OM), two principal regioisomeric process-related impurities were observed along with the final active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). The impurities were identified as N-1- and N-2-(5-methyl-2-oxo-1,3-dioxolen-4-yl)methyl derivatives of OM. Both compounds, of which N-2 isomer of olmesartan dimedoxomil is a novel impurity of OM, were synthesized and fully characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared spectroscopy (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and high-resolution mass spectrometry/electrospray ionization (HRMS/ESI). Their ¹H, (13)C and (15)N nuclear magnetic resonance signals were fully assigned. The molecular structures of N-triphenylmethylolmesartan ethyl (N-tritylolmesartan ethyl) and N-tritylolmesartan medoxomil, the key intermediates in OM synthesis, were solved and refined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD). The SCXRD study revealed that N-tritylated intermediates of OM exist exclusively as one of the two possible regioisomers. In molecular structures of these regioisomers, the trityl substituent is attached to the N-2 nitrogen atom of the tetrazole ring, and not to the N-1 nitrogen, as has been widely reported up to the present. This finding indicates that the reported structural formula of N-tritylolmesartan ethyl and N-tritylolmesartan medoxomil, as well as their systematic chemical names, must be revised. The careful analysis of literature benicar buy spectroscopic data for other sartan intermediates and their analogs with 5-(biphenyl-2-yl)tetrazole moiety showed that they also exist exclusively as N-2-trityl regioisomers.

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The current study suggests that angiotensin receptor blockers, alone or in combination with statin therapy, may not be suitable for management of clinical benicar buy AVS.

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Treatment with the combination of olmesartan medoxomil and amlodipine besylate Voltaren 75mg Dosage led to a significant reduction in atherosclerotic lesion size in ApoE(-/-) mice (olmesartan medoxomil/amlodipine besylate: 122,277±6,795 μm(2), number [n]=14; versus control: 177,502±10,814 μm(2), n=9; P<0.001). Treatment with amlodipine besylate (n=5) alone did not reach significance. However, a trend toward a decrease in lesion size in the amlodipine besylate-treated animals could be observed. In the histological analysis of atherosclerotic lesion composition, significantly thicker fibrous caps were found in treatment with amlodipine besylate (amlodipine: 5.12±0.26 μm, n=6; versus control: 3.98±0.18 μm, n=10; P<0.01). Furthermore, all sections revealed morphological signs of calcification, but no difference could be detected. Treatment with the combination of olmesartan medoxomil and amlodipine besylate showed no effect on lesion composition. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays of nuclear extracts demonstrated reduced activity of the transcription factor NF-κB when treated with olmesartan medoxomil, amlodipine besylate, or their combination, as compared to controls.

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Recent studies have indicated that both endothelin (ET) and angiotensin (Ang) II stimulate oxidative stress, which contributes to the development of hypertension. Here, we examined the effects of Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor blockade on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in ET-dependent hypertension. Chronic ET-1 infusion (2.5 pmol/kg/min, i.v., n=7) into rats for 14 days increased systolic blood pressure from 113+/-1 to 141+/-2 mmHg. ET-1-infused rats showed greater plasma renin activity (8.1+/-0.8 Ang I Purchase Nolvadex Uk /ml/h), and greater Ang I (122+/-28 fmol/ml) and Ang II levels (94+/-13 fmol/ml) than vehicle (0.9% NaCl)-infused rats (3.1+/-0.6 Ang I/ml/h, 45+/-8 and 47+/-7 fmol/ml, respectively, n=6). Angiotensin converting enzyme and AT1 receptor expression in aortic tissues were similar between the vehicle- and ET-1-infused rats. Vascular superoxide anion (O2-) production and plasma thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels were greater in ET-1-infused rats (27+/-1 counts per minutes [CPM]/mg dry tissue weight and 8.9+/-0.8 micromol/l, respectively) than vehicle-infused rats (16+/-1 CPM/mg and 5.1+/-0.1 micromol/l, respectively). The ET-1-induced hypertension was prevented by simultaneous treatment with a new AT1 receptor antagonist, olmesartan (0.01% in chow, 117+/-5 mmHg, n =7), or hydralazine (15 mg/kg/day in drinking water, 118+/-4 mmHg, n=6). Olmesartan prevented ET-1-induced increases in vascular O2- production (15+/-1 CPM/mg) and plasma TBARS (5.0+/-0.1 micromol/l). Vascular O2- production and plasma TBARS were also decreased by hydralazine (21+/-1 CPM/mg and 7.0+/-0.3 micromol/l, respectively), but these levels were significantly higher than in vehicle-infused rats. These data suggest that ET-dependent hypertension is associated with augmentation of Ang II levels and ROS formation. The combined effects of the elevations in circulating ET-1 and Ang II, as well as the associated ROS production, may contribute to the development of hypertension induced by chronic ET-1 infusion.

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Previously we found that cadmium chloride (CdCl2) exposure substantially elevates hypertension and potentiates cataract formation. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of olmesartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker against cataractogenesis in Prandin Drug the CdCl2-induced hypertensive animal model.

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Patients with hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, or chronic kidney disease (CKD) usually require two Celexa Pill Identifier or more antihypertensive agents to achieve blood pressure (BP) goals.

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Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Effective control of elevated blood pressure (BP) has been shown to reduce this risk. Early studies of risk reduction assumed that the mechanism by which BP was lowered had little impact on the benefit obtained. Recent evidence, however, suggests that agents that inhibit the renin-angiotensin system may be particularly beneficial. The results of the recent Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) trial suggest that angiotensin-converting enzyme Prograf Mg (ACE) inhibitors have a greater impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than would be anticipated from their antihypertensive effects alone. Angiotensin receptor blockers, the other major class of antihypertensive drugs that inhibit the renin-angiotensin system, have not been widely tested in outcomes trials, but early results suggest that they are beneficial for controlling target organ damage that is related to hypertension. Furthermore, unlike ACE inhibitors, these agents have a side-effect profile that is similar to that of placebo. Based on their efficacy in controlling hypertension and their wider health benefits, together with minimal side effects, angiotensin II (A II) receptor blockers should be considered as first-line agents for the treatment of hypertension, particularly in patients with other cardiovascular risk factors. Preliminary evidence suggests that olmesartan, an A II receptor blocker currently being evaluated for approval for clinical use, may provide antihypertensive efficacy that is superior to other members of the class.

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The development of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) has resulted in effective oral treatment for hypertension. One of the most recent members of this therapeutic class is olmesartan medoxomil (OM). The active metabolite, olmesartan, produces insurmountable AT1 receptor blockade and dose-dependently reduces BP. In both experimental and clinical studies, ARBs have been shown to exert renoprotective effects in addition to antihypertensive activity. In an SHR model of hypertensive renal injury, OM (3.0 and 10.0 mg/kg/day) dose-dependently reduced BP but also reduced urinary protein excretion by 65% and 75%, respectively (P < 0.05). Similar doses of OM, in a DOCA-salt Symmetrel User Reviews hypertensive rat model, did not affect BP but reduced urinary protein excretion by 26% and 39% when compared to control hypertensive animals (P < 0.05). Hypertension is a major pathophysiological determinant of progressive arterial damage that can accelerate the development of diabetic nephropathy. At doses of 0.6 and 6.0 mg/kg/day, OM significantly reduces hypertension associated with type 2 diabetes. These doses of OM reduced BP and dose-dependently reduced proteinuria 31% and 76%, respectively, in hypertensive ZDF rats (P < 0.01). OM also reduced renocortical and renomedulla injury by 19% and 50% at doses of 0.6 and 6.0 mg/kg/day. The glomerular sclerosis index (GSI) was also reduced by 25% and 37% (P < 0.05). Thus, OM improves both functional and morphologic damage associated with diabetic nephropathy. These studies demonstrate that OM, a potent ARB, dose-dependently reduces BP and also provides a dose-related nephroprotective effect in animal models of diabetes. These studies show that the antihypertensive affect of OM is renoprotective but suggest that these renal benefits may also occur independently from a reduction in BP. A further evaluation of the effects of OM in diabetes is warranted.

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The transport capacity of any membrane depends on its surface area and permeability. In addition, peritoneal capillaries are probably barriers to solute transport. Although no decisive use of antihypertensive drugs has been reported in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients with hypertension, those drugs are known to have various effects on vessels. In the present study, we used a charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera in renovascular hypertensive dogs with mild renal insufficiency to investigate the effects of various antihypertensive drugs on the peritoneal capillaries. Renovascular hypertension was induced in the dogs by placing silver clips on both renal arteries to create 90% occlusion. After confirmation of elevation of blood pressure (usually 20 days after the operation), each dog's abdomen was opened while the animal was under general anesthesia. Using a CCD camera, the diameters of the small arteries of the peritoneum were measured after 3 days' oral administration of a placebo (n = 5); or of 8 mg CS866, a selective angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (n = 5); or of 10 mg benazepril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (n = 5); or of 10 mg amlodipine, a calcium antagonist (n = 5). In dogs receiving CS866, blood pressure decreased to 128 +/- 6 mmHg from 160 +/- 6 mmHg (p < 0.01). A similar decrease in blood pressure was Indocin Max Dosage observed with the use of the other drugs. The diameter of the small vessels increased by 28% +/- 6% in dogs receiving CS866 and by 24% +/- 5% in dogs receiving benazepril, as compared with 3% +/- 3% in dogs receiving the calcium antagonist. These data clearly demonstrate that blockade of the renin-angiotensin system produces an increase in solute clearance in hypertensive dogs with mild renal insufficiency and that such blockade may be applicable as therapy for hypertensive patients on CAPD.

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For patients who did not achieve adequate BP control after initial treatment with olmesartan medoxomil Accutane Yellow Pill 20 mg/day, olmesartan medoxomil dose titration (to 40 mg/day) or addition of hydrochlorothiazide (12.5 mg/day) elicited a sitting DBP response in the majority of patients who had failed to respond to low-dose monotherapy, and normalisation of sitting DBP in approximately 50% of patients. Both these strategies represent effective and well tolerated treatment options in patients who show an inadequate response to low-dose monotherapy with olmesartan medoxomil.

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After the initiation of a relatively low dose of ACE-I in acute MI, increasing the dose of ACE-I or adding ARB may equally improve survival and LV remodeling in the setting of an equal hypotensive effect. Further study with a longer treatment protocol is required to determine Accutane Prescription Cost whether the several favorable effects on LV function elicited only by the high-dose ACE-I treatment provide further beneficial effects on survival and LV remodeling compared with the combination therapy.

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After eight weeks, treatment with olmesartan induced a significant reduction in ABPM in patients [(9 ± 3)/(11 ± 3) mmHg(1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa)], which is similar with the reduction by Olmetec [(9 ± 4)/(9 ± 5) mmHg], P > 0.05. This situation holds for BPV with the standard deviations of 24 h, systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure of pre-treatment and pro-treatment were (10 ± 2)/(11 ± 3) mmHg vs (10 ± 3)/(12 ± 2) mmHg in olmesartan group, and (10 ± 3)/(11 ± 3) mmHg vs (12 ± 3)/(12 ± 4) mmHg in Olmetec group. (3) There is no difference in the rate of adverse event between olmesartan (10.42%) and Olmetec (8.33%) treatment (P > 0.05).

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Patients with hypertension may require a combination of > or =2 antihypertensive agents to achieve blood pressure (BP) control.

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Unlike antiarrhythmic drugs, the safety and beneficial effects of angiotensin II receptor blockade (ARB) in patients with structural heart disease is well established. The clinical efficacy of ARBs to prevent atrial fibrillation (AF) so far only has been shown in patients with structural heart disease. Here, we report the primary outcome of the Angiotensin II-Antagonist in Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation (ANTIPAF) trial, which investigated the effect of olmesartan medoxomil compared with placebo on AF burden in patients with paroxysmal AF without structural heart disease.

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These results suggest that the AT1 receptor is, at least partly, responsible for hyperpermeability in the OIR rat retina via a mechanism independent of HIF-1 and VEGF expression.

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This was a preliminary, prospective, observational, open-label study. Sixty-eight type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension (systolic BP [SBP]≥140 mmHg or diastolic BP [DBP]≥90 mmHg) received olmesartan medoxomil 10–20 mg/day for 24 weeks. Plasma levels of BNP, as well as several clinical parameters of glycaemic control and lipid metabolism, were compared before and after 24 weeks of treatment. Another group consisting of 22 age- and body mass index-matched subjects not treated with olmesartan medoxomil was observed for reference purposes.

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The mean reduction in blood pressure from baseline to week 8 (end of treatment) was significantly greater with olmesartan medoxomil than with valsartan for all ABPM times analyzed (24 hours, daytime, night-time, and last 2 and 4 hours of monitoring). Statistical significance was reached for comparisons of olmesartan medoxomil with losartan potassium for a majority of times analyzed and with irbesartan for SBP in the last 4 hours of monitoring. Goal rates for accepted critical ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) values of <130/80 mm Hg for mean 24-hour ABP, <135/85 mm Hg for mean daytime ABP, and <120/75 mm Hg for mean night-time ABP were significantly greater for patients receiving olmesartan medoxomil than for those receiving losartan potassium or valsartan. Goal rates were numerically superior, but not statistically significant, to those achieved with irbesartan. Compared with losartan potassium or valsartan recipients, a significantly higher percentage of patients treated with olmesartan medoxomil achieved the 24-hour ABP goal of <130/85 mm Hg. The last 2 and 4 hours of ABPM indicated that olmesartan medoxomil maintained larger mean decreases in blood pressure through the morning surge.

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The aim of this study was to present the results of a prespecified analysis of key secondary endpoints from a 12-week, open-label, single-arm study evaluating the efficacy and safety of olmesartan medoxomil plus hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes.

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The objectives of this study were to identify the factors influencing antihypertensive response to the angiotensin receptor blocker, olmesartan medoxomil, or the calcium channel blocker, azelnidipine, and to discuss the possibility of utilizing them as predictors for drug selection prior to therapy. A two-way crossover study of olmesartan medoxomil and azelnidipine was conducted in 29 patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension. The 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure measurements (ABPM) and plasma drug concentrations were obtained on the first and at the end of each treatment period, and were analyzed using population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling approach. The population PK/PD models considering circadian variations in baseline blood pressure well described the observed plasma drug concentrations and 24-hour ABPM profiles. Pre-treatment plasma renin activity (PRA) was identified as a significant covariate on the maximum drug effect (E(max)) of olmesartan, whereas azelnidpine E(max) was independent of patient background characteristics investigated. No patient was found to have a high E(max) to one agent who also had a high E(max) to the other. In conclusion, the effects of olmesartan medoxomil and azelnidipine were modestly correlated with pharmacokinetic profiles, and the pre-treatment PRA level could be a useful determinant of responsiveness in selecting olmesartan medoxomil and azelnidipine.

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Administering high doses of olmesartan in patients with non-diabetic proteinuric nephropathy results in significant reductions in proteinuria. This decrease was independent of blood pressure control and other confounding factors. RAS polymorphisms may modulate the antiproteinuric response to treatment with ARBs.

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The findings demonstrate that olmesartan potentially inhibits the risk of cataract formation in the hypertensive state via restoration of lenticular oxidative stress, ATPase function, and ionic contents in the eye lenses. The results suggest that angiotensin II receptor blockers play an important role to prevent cataract formation in several pathogenic conditions like hypertension, diabetes, and oxidative stress.

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Study participants eligible for randomization (N = 2492) were ≥18 years of age with mean seated blood pressure (SeBP) ≥140/100 mmHg or ≥160/90 mmHg (off antihypertensive medication).

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In an open, three-way crossover, phase I trial, 18 healthy adults entered three randomly ordered, seven-day treatment periods. The three treatments comprised once daily administration of (1) olmesartan 20 mg, (2) olmesartan 20 mg plus glibenclamide 3.5 mg, or (3) glibenclamide 3.5 mg.

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The Multicentre Olmesartan atherosclerosis Regression Evaluation (MORE) study was a double-blind trial in patients with hypertension at increased cardiovascular risk with carotid wall thickening and a defined atherosclerotic plaque that used non-invasive 2- and 3-dimensionaL (D) ultrasound (US), to compare the effects of a 2-year treatment based on either olmesartan medoxomil or atenolol on common carotid (CC) intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque volume (PV).

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Although chronic cardiac dysfunction is known to progressively exacerbate renal injury, a condition known as type 2 cardiorenal syndrome (CRS), the mechanism responsible is largely unknown. The present study was undertaken to clarify the mechanism of renal injury in rats with both unilateral nephrectomy (NX) and surgically induced myocardial infarction (MI), corresponding to a model of type 2 CRS. Compared with a control group, rats with both MI and NX (MI+NX) exhibited progressive proteinuria during the experimental period (34 wk after MI surgery), whereas proteinuria was not observed in rats with MI alone and was moderate in rats with NX alone. The proteinuria in rats with MI+NX was associated with renal lesions such as glomerulosclerosis and infiltration of mononuclear cells and upregulation of the renal proinflammatory and -fibrotic cytokine and angiotensin II type 1a receptor (AT1aR) genes. In contrast, plasma renin activity was lowered in rats with MI+NX. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the increased AT1R protein was present mainly in renal interstitial mononuclear cells. Olmesartan medoxomil, an AT1R blocker, markedly reduced the proteinuria and infiltration of mononuclear cells, whereas spironolactone, a mineralocorticoid receptor blocker, did not. The present findings demonstrate the pathogenetic role of renal interstitial AT1R signaling in a model of type 2 CRS, providing evidence that AT1R blockade can be a useful therapeutic option for this syndrome.

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The safety and efficacy of an amlodipine/olmesartan medoxomil (OM)-based titration regimen was assessed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension. After a 2- to 3-week placebo run-in period, 207 patients received amlodipine 5 mg and were uptitrated to amlodipine/OM 5/20, 5/40, and 10/40 mg and then amlodipine/OM 10/40 mg plus hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 and 25 mg in a step-wise manner at 3-week intervals if the seated blood pressure (BP) remained ≥120/70 mm Hg. The primary end point was the change from baseline in the mean 24-hour ambulatory systolic BP after 12 weeks of treatment. The baseline mean ± SD seated cuff systolic/diastolic BP was 158.8 ± 13.1/89.1 ± 10.1 mm Hg and the mean ± SD 24-hour ambulatory systolic/diastolic BP was 144.4 ± 11.7/81.6 ± 9.8 mm Hg. At week 12, the change from baseline in the mean ± SEM 24-hour ambulatory systolic/diastolic BP was -19.9 ± 0.8/-11.2 ± 0.5 mm Hg (p<0.0001 vs baseline), and 70% of patients had achieved a 24-hour ambulatory BP target of <130/80 mm Hg. At the end of 18 weeks of active treatment in patients uptitrated to amlodipine/OM 10/40 mg plus hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg, the change from baseline in the mean ± SEM seated BP was -28.0 ± 1.5/-13.7 ± 1.0 mm Hg (p<0.0001 vs baseline), with 62% of patients reaching the guideline-recommended seated BP goal of <130/80 mm Hg. Drug-related treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 19.3% of patients. The most frequent events were peripheral edema (6%), dizziness (3%), and hypotension (2%). In conclusion, this amlodipine/OM-based titration regimen was well tolerated and effectively lowered BP throughout the 24-hour dosing interval in patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes.

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Guanylyl cyclase (GC)-A, a natriuretic peptide receptor, lowers blood pressure and inhibits the growth of cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts. Angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1A (AT1A), an Ang II receptor, regulates cardiovascular homeostasis oppositely. Disruption of GC-A induces cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, suggesting that GC-A protects the heart from abnormal remodeling. We investigated whether GC-A interacts with AT1A signaling in the heart by target deletion and pharmacological blockade or stimulation of AT1A in mice.

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We report on a case of fetal toxicity due to maternal treatment with olmesartan medoxomil. At 29 weeks' gestation, oligohydramnios was found, although the fetus had normal kidneys on ultrasound evaluation. Withdrawal of olmesartan medoxomil, maternal rehydration, and a single dose of furosemide reversed the renal impairment. After term delivery, the neonate was confirmed to have normal renal function. The case suggested that fetal renal impairment due to olmesartan medoxomil may be reversible.

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Olmesartan medoxomil (1 mg/kg/day), amlodipine besylate (1.5 mg/kg/day), and the combination of both was added to chow and was fed to apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice at 25 weeks of age. Mice were sacrificed after 25 weeks of drug administration and perfused with formalin. Innominate arteries were dissected out and paraffin embedded. Serial sections were generated, and lesion sizes and their composition - such as minimal thickness of the fibrous cap, size of the necrotic core, and presence of calcification - were analyzed. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays were used to detect DNA-binding activity of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in aortic tissue.

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Azilsartan medoxomil is a safe and effective ARB with a unique pharmacologic profile versus other agents, including slowed angiotensin II type 1 receptor dissociation rates and improved receptor specificity. Studies have shown azilsartan medoxomil 80 mg once daily to reduce BP to a greater extent than valsartan and olmesartan, with similar safety and tolerability.

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The pathophysiological role of oxidative stress (OxSt) in hypertension and target organ damage is recognized. Angiotensin II (Ang II) induces OxSt via NAD(P)H oxidase activation and production of proinflammatory cytokines/growth factors leading to cardiovascular-renal remodeling. Ang II stimulates the RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK) pathway, which is deeply involved in the development of cardiovascular-renal remodeling via OxSt induction. Olmesartan, an Ang II type 1 receptor blocker, possesses antioxidant and activating nitric oxide system-related effects, which we have shown in terms of p22(phox) reduction, heme oxygenase-1 and calcitonin gene-related peptide increase. This study evaluates in 15 untreated hypertensive patients the effect of olmesartan treatment on p63RhoGEF, key in Ang II-induced ROCK activation, and MYPT-1 phosphorylation, a marker of ROCK activity.

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BP-CRUSH (Blood Pressure Control in All Subgroups With Hypertension) was a phase IV, prospective, open-label, multicenter, single-arm, dose-titration study (N = 999). The present subgroup analysis reports the efficacy/safety of up to 20 weeks of treatment with amlodipine (AML)/olmesartan medoxomil (OM) ± hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in obese and non-obese patients with hypertension uncontrolled on antihypertensive monotherapy.