Bactroban is used to treat certain skin infections such as impetigo and furuncle. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Mupirocin.
Bactroban is an antibiotic ointment that is effective in treating impetigo, and other skin infections that bacteria causes. It is important to note that this ointment will not work on fungal infections or infections caused by viruses.
Bactroban consists of 2 medications: sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. The first inhibits synthesis of dihydrofolic acid (the substance important for human and bacterial metabolism) while the last blocks next stage of its biochemical cycle: formation of tetrahydrofolic acid which occurs only in microorganisms.
This medication is effective against streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci, bacillus dysentery, typhoid fever, E. coli, Proteus, and ineffective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, spirochetes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bactrim is applied in treatment of pneumonia and other diseases of respiratory, gastrointestinal systems, urogenital systems caused by bacterial infections which develop after surgery and others.
Bactroban is an antibacterial. It works by stopping the production of essential proteins needed by the bacteria to survive.
Bactroban is also known as Mupirocin, Centany.
Generic name of Bactroban is Mupirocin.
Follow the directions for using this medicine provided by your doctor. Use Bactroban exactly as directed.
Bactroban should be applied directly to the skin.
This ointment is normally applied to the skin 3 times per day, normally for 1 to 2 weeks.
Before you apply the ointment, ensure that the affected area is clean and dry.
Apply a thin film of the ointment to the affected area. After applying the ointment, you may use a gauze to cover the affected area.
Wash your hands immediately after using Bactroban.
If you overdose Bactroban and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of overdose: dizziness, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, stomach pain, headache, yellowing of your skin or eyes, blood in your urine, fainting.
Store at a room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away the after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Bactroban are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Bactroban if you are allergic to Bactroban components.
It is not known whether Bactroban will harm an unborn baby. Do not use this medicine without your doctor's advice if you are pregnant or breast-feeding.
Do not take Bactroban if you suffer from asthma or have severe kidney or liver disorders.
Do not take Bactroban if you have anemia caused by folic acid deficiency.
Bactroban should be used with extreme caution in children younger than 5 years old; safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.
Do not drink alcohol or use medicines that may cause drowsiness (e.g., sleep aids, muscle relaxers) while you are using Bactroban; it may add to their effects. Ask your pharmacist if you have questions about which medicines may cause drowsiness.
Do not use Bactroban on large areas of broken or damaged skin, especially if you suffer from reduced kidney function.
Avoid exposure to sunlight or getting tanned.
Do not stop taking Bactroban suddenly.
Mupirocin was used in haemodialysis patients in an attempt to eradicate nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and to prevent infection caused by this microorganism. The effectiveness of calcium mupirocin as a 2% nasal ointment OB2 (16 patients for 104 patient-months) was compared to that of placebo (18 patients for 147 patient-months) in a double-blind study. Mupirocin or placebo were applied in both anterior nares thrice daily for 2 weeks and subsequently three times weekly for a total of 9 months. During therapy, S. aureus was recovered from only 6% of the nasal cultures in the mupirocin group compared to 58% in the placebo group (P less than or equal to 0.01). Only one S. aureus infection was documented in the mupirocin group compared to six in the placebo group (P less than or equal to 0.05). The S. aureus strain causing the single infection in the mupirocin group was of a different phage type to that of the original nasal strain. In contrast, at least four of the six strains causing infection in the placebo group were of similar phage type to the original nasal strain. All S. aureus isolates remained mupirocin sensitive (MIC less than or equal to 1 mg/l). In conclusion, mupirocin nasal ointment was effective in eradicating nasal carriage of S. aureus and in preventing S. aureus infections in patients on haemodialysis.
The resistant phenotype of OS-MRSA resembles the phenotypes of historically early MRSA clones. The nature of genetic determinants responsible for the heterogeneous phenotypes of OS-MRSA remains to be determined.
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Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-producing Staphylococcus aureus results in leukocyte destruction and tissue necrosis (Pediatric Dermatology 2007;24:401). It can be associated with a spectrum of clinical manifestations that range from localized staphylococcal skin infections to sometimes severe necrotizing pneumonia (Clin Infect Dis 1999;29:1128). We report a case of four siblings, three brothers whose atopic dermatitis was complicated by cutaneous lesions and furunculosis, while their 21-month-old sister had a fatal PVL positive staphylococcal pneumonia.
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Forty hospitalized patients with two anterior nares cultures positive for MRSA within a 7-day period.
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The long-term efficacy (55 months) of eradication of nasal carriage of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by mupirocin was assessed for MRSA infections in a gastroenterology unit receiving patients for long hospital stays. In total, 2242 patients were included in the study; 92% had been hospitalized in another hospital before admission to the study department, 64% had chronic liver diseases (LD), 25% had miscellaneous medical conditions and 11% were admitted following gastroenterological surgery. Three consecutive periods were considered in the analysis. Nasal carriage at admission was similar in all three periods (10.9 vs 7.5 vs 8.6% in Periods 1, 2 and 3, respectively), while acquired nasal carriage decreased in the whole population (14.3 vs 16.2 vs 10.2% in Periods 1, 2 and 3, respectively, P=0.006) and in LD patients (15.8 vs 18.7 vs 11.9% in Periods 1, 2 and 3, respectively, P=0.018). The incidence of MRSA infections (N per total number of hospitalization-days) was 1.41 per 1000 in the year before initiation of eradication, 1.40 in Period 1, 0.74 in Period 2 and 0.59 in Period 3 (P=0.022). The incidence of MRSA infections among patients was 7.0% in Period 1, 3.7% in Period 2 and 3.1% in Period 3 in LD patients (P=0.0062). The corresponding figures were 5.5, 3.0 and 2.4% for the whole population (P=0.0024). The mortality caused by MRSA was 0.31, 0.19 and 0.13% (P=0.035) in Periods 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The numbers of resistant strains among those acquired during hospitalization were 12 in Period 1, four in Period 2 and six in Period 3. Long-term intranasal mupirocin treatment in MRSA carrier patients with long hospital stay is associated with a decrease in acquired carriage and MRSA infections, while resistance of the strains to mupirocin does not increase provided that colonized patients are only treated once.
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S. aureus nasal carriage was prospectively sought in 70 consecutive liver transplant candidates. Mupirocin two times per day for 5 days was administered to the carriers. Follow-up nasal cultures to document decolonization were performed 5 days after the final application of mupirocin. The primary endpoint was the development of S. aureus infections.
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The management of recurrent furunculosis is difficult, and often disappointing. We present the case of a 23-year-old female patient suffering from recurrent furunculosis. The furunculosis persisted after treatment with mupirocin nasal ointment, chlorhexidine soap and instructions for washing clothes, towels and bed sheets for a period of 7 days. Treatment with low-dose clindamycin for three months ultimately proved successful. We propose a structural approach for recurrent furunculosis in which extensive history-taking is followed by appropriate tests. Before prescribing an oral antibiotic (preferably low-dose clindamycin or a macrolide for 3 months), the patient should use an antimicrobial nasal ointment and soap and follow hygienic instructions as mentioned above. Members of the household who also have signs of the infection should be treated. Hygienic education is an essential component of treatment. We believe that this approach will lead to a treatment that is more effective and efficient.
A possible route of MRSA transmission was elucidated by molecular typing. MRSA appears to have been transferred from our adult facility to our pediatric facility by a rotating HCW. Spa typing allowed comparison of our institution's MRSA strains with previously characterized outbreak clones.
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Structural damage to polyurethane PD (peritoneal dialysis) catheters in patients using mupirocin ointment is widely appreciated, but damage to silicon rubber PD catheters is less well described. Ten catheters (6.6%) out of 152 were found to have structural alterations such as opacification, ballooning, thinning, and rupture. The duration of PD in these 10 patients ranged from 23 months to 80 months (mean duration 51.1 months). The frequency of mupirocin application varied from daily (2 cases) to 2-3 times per week (7 cases). In eight catheters opacification occurred at the exit site whereas one catheter showed opacification midway between the exit site and the titanium adaptor. One catheter showed opacification, ballooning, and thinning at the exit site ruptured in the form of two slit-like openings. In conclusion, various structural changes such as opacification, ballooning or thinning were seen in 6.6% of silicon rubber PD catheters in patients using mupirocin at the exit site. Although the mechanism remains elusive, mupirocin or the antiseptic solution alone or in combination may be contributory. We believe that this is an under-reported complication and encourage other health care givers to incorporate a search for such changes during clinic visits.
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A total of 1150 patients admitted to the hospital were found to be infected or colonized with MRSA. Of the 1150 patients, 268 were prescribed decolonization treatment. 104 out of 268 patients (39 %) were successfully decolonized. There was no significant success after two decolonization failures. MRSA infection rate among the successes and failures were 0.0 and 4.3 %, respectively [P = 0.04].
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Two hospital staff, women aged 20 and 22 years, were inadvertently found to be positive for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Both had been in a hospital outside of the Netherlands, but due to the long period of time that had elapsed since then, they did not fall under the standard protocol for MRSA screening. After the usual wash procedure with chlorhexidine and mupirocin nasal ointment treatment, they remained positive for MRSA in the throat culture. Both patients still had their pharyngeal tonsils and were suffering from throat complaints. After systemic treatment with two antibiotics, they both became MRSA-free. Throat carriership of MRSA might be a reason why MRSA eradication fails in the case of apparently healthy healthcare workers. The addition of a throat culture to the screening of healthcare workers would therefore be useful.
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Topical treatment of burn wounds is essential as reduced blood supply in the burned tissues restricts the effect of systemic antibiotics. On the burn surface, microorganisms exist within a complex structure termed a biofilm, which enhances bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents significantly. Since bacteria differ in their ability to develop biofilms, the susceptibility of these biofilms to topically applied antibiotics varies, making it essential to identify which topical antibiotics efficiently disrupt or prevent biofilms produced by these pathogens. Yet, a simple in vitro assay to compare the susceptibility of biofilms produced by burn wound isolates to different topical antibiotics has not been reported.
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This study initially involved the isolation of a number of bifidobacteria from either the lumen or the epithelium of a porcine cecum. A total of 160 isolates were selected at random on MRS plates containing cysteine hydrochloride (0.5 g/liter) and mupirocin (50 mg/liter). All were identified as bifidobacteria based on fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase activity. Following genomic digestion with the restriction enzyme XbaI and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), the isolates produced 15 distinct macro-restriction patterns. Several of the PFGE patterns differed by only 1, 2, or 3 DNA fragments and were grouped as related patterns into seven PFGE types, termed A through G. The related patterns appeared to show genomic plasticity within the isolates arising from chromosomal mutations or possibly horizontal transfer of plasmids. The relative frequency of each PFGE type was maintained within each cecal sample, with PFGE type E representing approximately 50% of the isolates. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR, cell morphology, whole-cell protein profiling, 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing, and DNA-DNA hybridization were used to determine if the seven apparently unrelated PFGE types represented genetically distinct isolates. Four groups were identified: PFGE types A, C/D/G, B/E, and F, and these appeared to represent Bifidobacterium minimum, Bifidobacterium pseudolongum subsp. pseudolongum, and Bifidobacterium pseudolongum subsp. globosum and two new species, respectively. The data demonstrate the presence of considerable genomic diversity within a relatively simple bifidobacteria population, consisting of 15 distinct strains representing four groups, which was maintained throughout the porcine cecal contents and epithelial layer.
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The aim of the trial was to study the efficacy and safety of the ointment containing mupirocin 2% and betamethasone dipropionate 0.05% in the treatment of infected dermatoses. Patients having either primary infection complicated by dermatoses or dermatoses infected secondarily were included in their study. From the analysis of 59 patients, it was noted that this ointment was found to be safe and very effective by dermatologist in the treatment of infected dermatoses in 94.9% of the patients. Similarly 89.8% of the patients reported more than 70% improvement in their symptoms after 7 days of treatment. No adverse effects were reported during the treatment period by any of the patients except worsening of skin lesions by one patient.
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Health care workers with stable S. aureus nasal carriage.
The biological properties of SB 205952, a nitrofuryl oxazole derivative of monic acid, differ from those of the closely related antibacterial agent mupirocin. Compared with mupirocin, SB 205952 has increased antimicrobial potency, an extended spectrum including mupirocin-resistant staphylococci, and rapid bactericidal activity. SB 205952, like mupirocin, is a potent inhibitor of bacterial isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (IRS) in mupirocin-susceptible organisms but does not inhibit IRS from mupirocin-resistant staphylococci, indicating that SB 205952 has more than one mechanism of action. SB 205952 rapidly inhibits protein, RNA, and DNA syntheses in mupirocin-susceptible and mupirocin-resistant staphylococci. In each case, the effect on RNA synthesis is relaxed by treatment with chloramphenicol, indicating that inhibition of RNA synthesis is probably a secondary consequence of stringent control. It is proposed that SB 205952 possesses one or more mechanisms of action in addition to IRS inhibition, probably mediated by its nitrofuryl component.
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