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Urinary incontinence (UI) is more prevalent in the elderly populations with dementia than without dementia, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Urinary incontinence may complicate AD morbidity and mortality. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and annual incidence and determine the risk possibility of UI, which is the main type of incontinence in patients with AD in Taiwan.
A combined therapeutic approach of donepezil and psychosocial intervention can have a positive effect, even for severe patients through the introduction of rehabilitation and decreasing accidental falls. However, these findings require replication in a larger cohort.
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The tolerability and safety of donepezil HCI in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) were examined in an integrated analysis of phase II/III placebo-controlled trials. Patients with mild to moderately severe AD (n=1,920) were randomised to receive donepezil (n=1,291) or placebo (n=629). Adverse events, physical examinations and clinical laboratory tests were assessed. A high completion rate (79%) was achieved in these trials. Of the 1,291 patients receiving donepezil only, 142 (11%) withdrew because of an adverse event compared with 43 of the 629 (7%) placebo patients. The most common adverse events included nausea, diarrhoea, headache, insomnia, dizziness, rhinitis, vomiting, asthenia/fatigue and anorexia. Donepezil had no clinically significant effect on any laboratory evaluations and was not associated with hepatotoxicity. These results demonstrate that donepezil is well tolerated and has a favourable safety profile at clinically effective, once-daily doses of 5 mg and 10 mg.
This was a double blind, randomised and placebo controlled, crossover study in which 14 patients with PD and cognitive impairment received donepezil (5 or 10 mg per day) or matching placebo during two sequential periods lasting 10 weeks each. The primary outcome measures were the mini mental state examination (MMSE) score, the clinician's interview based impression of change plus caregiver input (CIBIC+) score, and the motor subscale of the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS).
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Current Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapy is based on the administration of the drugs donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine and memantine. Until disease-modifying therapies become available, further research is needed to develop new drug delivery strategies to ensure ease of administration and treatment persistence.
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the commonest cause of dementia. Cholinesterase inhibitors, such as donepezil, are the drug class with the best evidence of efficacy, licensed for mild to moderate AD, while the glutamate antagonist memantine has been widely prescribed, often in the later stages of AD. Memantine is licensed for moderate to severe dementia in AD but is not recommended by the England and Wales National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. However, there is little evidence to guide clinicians as to what to prescribe as AD advances; in particular, what to do as the condition progresses from moderate to severe. Options include continuing cholinesterase inhibitors irrespective of decline, adding memantine to cholinesterase inhibitors, or prescribing memantine instead of cholinesterase inhibitors. The aim of this trial is to establish the most effective drug option for people with AD who are progressing from moderate to severe dementia despite treatment with donepezil.
At 6-month follow-up, 56 of 96 patients (58.3%) were evaluated as responders and 40 patients (41.7%) as nonresponders to donepezil treatment. A significantly higher frequency of patients with genotypes CYP2D6*1/*10 and *10/*10 were found in responders than in nonresponders (P < 0.05). Besides, patients with CYP2D6*1/*10 and *10/*10 genotypes had higher Cp of donepezil and improved cognition scores than those with CYP2D6*1/*1 genotype (P < 0.05). However, the frequency of APOE [Latin Small Letter Open E]4 carriers and noncarriers showed no difference between the 2 groups (P > 0.05).
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Although the etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains elusive, a number of toxins including elevated salsolinol, an endogenous metabolite of dopamine may contribute to its pathology. It was reported recently that nicotine may have protective effects against salsolinol-induced toxicity in human neuroblastoma derived SH-SY5Y cells and that these effects of nicotine are mediated by nicotinic receptors. Donepezil (Aricept) is a reversible non-competitive acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that is approved for use in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. The increase in acetylcholine concentrations is believed to be the major contributory factor in donepezil's therapeutic efficacy. However, cholinesterase inhibitors may also directly interact with nicotinic receptors and possess neuroprotective properties. In this study, we sought to determine whether donepezil may have protective effects against salsolinol-induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells and whether the combination of donepezil and nicotine may result in additive protection. Moreover, it was of interest to elucidate the role of nicotinic receptors as well as cell cycle and apoptosis in mechanism of action of these compounds. SH-SY5Y cells were exposed to 0.6 mM salsolinol with and without various drug pretreatments for 48 h. Nicotine (50 muM) resulted in approximately 54% protection and donepezil (5 muM) resulted in approximately 40% protection, and the combination of the two resulted in an additive (approximately 93%) protection against salsolinol-induced toxicity. Salsolinol caused an arrest of the cells in G(1)-phase of cell cycle and an increase in apoptotic indices that were blocked by the combination of donepezil and nicotine. Mecamylamine, a non-selective nicotinic receptor antagonist completely blocked the effects of nicotine and partially attenuated the effects of donepezil. A combination of atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist and mecamylamine completely blocked the effects of donepezil, indicating involvement of both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in donepezil's actions. The findings suggest a therapeutic potential for the combination of donepezil and nicotine in PD.
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Donepezil (DNZ) is a centrally acting reversible acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor. The main therapeutic use of donepezil is in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The present research work pertains to the preparation of transdermal patches of donepezil with the objective to improve its patient compliance, therapeutic efficacy and to reduce the frequency of dosing and side effects as well as to avoid its extensive first pass metabolism. The recent patents on Rivastigmine (WO2013150542A2), Xanomeline (US5980933A) and Propentofylline (CA2255580A1) helped in selecting the drug and polymers.
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Acetaminophen (APAP) is widely used as an analgesic and antipyretic agent, but it may induce acute liver injury at high doses. Alzheimer's disease patients, while treated with acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI), may take APAP when they suffer from cold or pain. It is generally recognized that inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity may also result in liver injury. To clarify whether AChEI could deteriorate or attenuate APAP hepatotoxicity, the effects of AChEI on APAP hepatotoxicity were investigated. Male C57BL/6J mice were administrated with the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) blocker atropine (Atr), or classic α7 nicotine acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA) 1 hour before administration of AChEIs-donepezil (4 mg/kg), rivastigmine (2 mg/kg), huperzine A (0.2 mg/kg), or neostigmine (0.15 mg/kg)-followed by APAP (300 mg/kg). Eight hours later, the mice were euthanized for histopathologic examination and biochemical assay. The results demonstrated that the tested AChEIs, excluding neostigmine, could attenuate APAP-induced liver injury, accompanied by reduced reactive oxygen species formation, adenosine triphosphate and cytochrome C loss, c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2) phosphorylation, and cytokines. However, Atr or MLA significantly weakened the protective effect of AChEI by affecting mitochondrial function or JNK2 phosphorylation and inflammation response. These results suggest that central mAChR and α7nAChR, which are activated by accumulated acetylcholine resulting from AChEI, were responsible for the protective effect of AChEIs on APAP-induced liver injury. This indicates that Alzheimer's patients treated with AChEI could take APAP, as AChEI is unlikely to deteriorate the hepatotoxicity of APAP.
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Dementia is characterised by chronic, global, non-reversible deterioration in memory, executive function, and personality. Speech and motor function may also be impaired.
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A total of 12,237 cases of donepezil and 6975 cases of rivastigmine were submitted to the BNHI for prior authorization; among them, 72.6% of donepezil and 66.5% of rivastigmine cases received authorization. Among the thousands of cases denied prior authorization, 124 appealed to the DMC for dispute resolution. The result of the majority of the appeals (111 [89.5%]) was to uphold the BNHI denial decision. Most of the appeals were denied because of the lack of appropriate exclusion of other possible causes of dementia.
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Treatment with memantine was well tolerated and reduced agitation/aggression, irritability, and appetite eating disturbances in patients who were agitated at baseline and delazed its emergence in those who were free of agitation at baseline.
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All cholinesterase inhibitors reduced cognitive deficits with the following optimal daily doses: galantamine 1.25 mg kg(-1), rivastigmine 0.5 mg kg(-1) and donepezil 0.3 mg kg(-1). Higher dosages often did not exert beneficial effects in accordance with inverted U-shaped dose-response curves described for cholinomimetics. Symptomatic efficacy of memantine on cognition was mild, with significant amelioration manifesting during probe trial.
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The most commonly used model of Down syndrome, the Ts65Dn (TS) mouse, is trisomic for most of the region of MMU16 that is homologous to HSA21. This mouse shares many phenotypic characteristics with people with Down syndrome including behavioral and cognitive alterations. The objective of this study was to analyze the ability of two drugs that improve cognition in different experimental models, the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil and the non-competitive GABA(A) antagonist pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), to improve the cognitive deficits found in TS mice. The drugs were administered p.o. to TS and CO mice for 8 weeks and a behavioral characterization was performed. Sensorimotor abilities, including vision, hearing, strength and motor coordination, as well as locomotor activity in the home cage, were not modified by any chronic treatment in TS and CO mice. TS mice showed altered equilibrium in the aluminium rod, and this effect was larger under PTZ treatment. This result may indicate a potential adverse effect of PTZ in Ts65Dn mice. Learning and memory were evaluated in TS and CO mice after both treatments in the Morris water maze. Donepezil administration did not modify learning and memory in animals of any genotype. On the other hand, PTZ administration rescued TS performance in the Morris water maze.
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The present study evaluated the differences in treatment outcomes and brain perfusion changes among 3 types of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AchEIs, i.e. donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine).
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Progressive language impairment is among the primary components of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Because expressive and receptive language help to maintain emotional connections to caregivers and support the management of AD patients' functional needs, language plays a critical role in patients' emotional and physical health. Using data from a large prospective clinical trial comparing two doses of donepezil in patients with moderate to severe AD, we performed a post hoc analysis to determine whether a higher dose of donepezil was associated with greater benefits in language function.
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Discontinuation of donepezil and olanzapine, aggressive intravenous hydration, intravenous dantrolene, and bromocriptine via a nasogastric tube. The patient was also administered intravenous antibiotics for aspiration pneumonia, and carbidopa-levodopa for residual parkinsonian features.
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Central cholinergic system is involved in regulation of memory and disturbances in these results in memory loss. Previously, we examined the effect of okadaic acid, OKA (200ng, i.c.v.) on memory impairment and mitochondrial dysfunction in rats. In the present study, we investigated effect of OKA (i.c.v) on cholinergic function by observing acetylcholine level (ACh), acetylcholinestrase (AChE) activity, and mRNA expression of acetylcholinestrase and α7nicotinic receptor (α7-nAChR) as a cholinergic markers in brain areas (cerebellum, striatum cortex and hippocampus). In present work OKA, caused a significant decrease in acetylcholine level, acetylcholinestrase activity and mRNA expression of acetylcholinestrase and α7-nicotinic receptor in rat but these changes were mainly observed in cortex and hippocampus. Further, histopathological study by cresyl violet staining showed neuronal loss in cortex and hippocampus after OKA administration indicating neurotoxicity. Pretreatment with anti-dementic drugs donepezil (AChE inhibitor; 5mg/kg, p.o) and memantine (NMDA receptor antagonist; 10mg/kg, p.o) daily for 13 day prevented cholinergic dysfunction and neuronal loss in cortex and hippocampus of OKA treated rat. Daily per se treatment for 13 day with donepezil decreased acetylcholinestrase activity and increased mRNA expression of acetylcholinestrase and α7-nicotinic receptor. Whereas, per se treatment with memantine daily for 13 day did not affect acetylcholinestrase activity, mRNA expression of acetylcholinestrase and α7-nicotinic receptor. Findings of this work shows that OKA (i.c.v.), apart from memory impairment and mitochondrial dysfunction, as our previous study showed, also induced cholinergic dysfunction and neuronal loss, which can be addressed by antidementic drugs like donepezil and memantine.
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Donepezil (Aricept), a long-acting cholinesterase inhibitor, is widely used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease to improve cognition and memory. Many drugs within the class of cognition-enhancing agents, both currently approved medications and those under development, have clinical indications narrowly relegated to Alzheimer's disease. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the efficacy attributed to donepezil in its ability to improve delayed matching accuracy by monkeys was independent of age. Male and female rhesus monkeys (n = 17) ranging from 9to 29 yr of age were administered donepezil (10, 25, 50, and 100 microg/kg, im) during 4 discrete test days. Donepezil treatment improved average task accuracy, but intersubject variability prohibited statistical significance. When animals were considered individually, the most effective dose of donepezil was associated with a highly significant increase in group task performance that was consistent with enhanced recall during testing. The variability associated with the dose-response analysis was attributable primarily to subject age, such that older monkeys required higher doses of donepezil. Yet at doses that were effective in all subjects, there was no relationship between age and the improvement in task accuracy. Likewise, there was no association between baseline task proficiency and improvement in task accuracy.
In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect and potential mechanisms of leonurine on chronic cerebral hypoperfusion both in vitro and in vivo.
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Donepezil (E-2020) is a reversible, noncompetitive, piperidine-type cholinesterase inhibitor. It is selective for acetylcholinesterase rather than butyrylcholinesterase. Donepezil 5 and 10 mg/day significantly improved cognition and global clinical function compared with placebo in well designed short term trials (14 to 30 weeks) in 161 to 818 patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. Beneficial effects on cognition were observed from week 3 of treatment. Donepezil 10 mg/day significantly delayed the deterioration in activities of daily living (ADL) [by 55 weeks] compared with placebo in a retrospective analysis of 1 trial, and in the largest trial significantly improved patients' abilities to perform complex tasks. However, no significant improvement in function was observed with donepezil 5 mg/day in another trial. In the 2 trials of longest duration donepezil (5 and 10 mg) significantly delayed symptomatic progression of the disease. While there was no evidence for a positive effect of donepezil on patients' quality of life, there are no validated measures of this parameter specific to patients with Alzheimer's disease. Donepezil (5 and 10 mg) significantly reduced caregiver burden. Long term efficacy data suggest that improvements in cognition, global function or ADL are maintained for about 21 to 81 weeks with donepezil (10 mg/day in most patients). Donepezil is generally well tolerated with the majority of adverse events being mild and transient. Predictably, most events were cholinergic in nature and generally related to the gastrointestinal and nervous systems. The incidence of these events was significantly higher with donepezil 10 mg than with placebo in short term clinical trials; however, this may have been due to the 7-day dose increase schedule used in these studies and can be minimised by increasing the dose after a longer (6-week) period. The incidence of serious adverse events was generally similar between donepezil 5 and 10 mg (4 to 10%) and placebo (5 to 9%) in short term trials. 26% of patients receiving donepezil (5 and 10 mg) reported serious events over a 98-week period in a long term trial. Importantly, there was no evidence of hepatotoxicity with this drug. Conclusions. Donepezil (5 and 10 mg) is an agent with a simple once-daily dosage schedule which improves cognition and global clinical function in the short (up to 24 weeks) and long term (up to about 1 year) in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. Improvements in ADL were also observed with donepezil 10 mg/day. Adverse events associated with donepezil are mainly cholinergic. Donepezil has been extensively studied and should be considered as a first-line treatment in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease.
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The single variable statistical profiles of 58 individual protein biomarker concentrations of the DTAD patient group differed from those of the normal and/or the disease control groups. Multivariate linear discriminant analysis of blood serum concentrations of the 58 proteins distinguished drug treated Alzheimer's disease (DTAD) patients from drug treated Parkinson's disease (DTPD) patients and age matched normal controls (collectively not-DTAD, DTAD Sensitivity 87.2%, Not-DTAD Specificity 87.2). Moreover, when the patients and controls were stratified into carriers or non-carriers of Alzheimer's high risk Apolipoprotein E 4 allele and/or the Apolipoprotein E4 protein, the DTAD, DTPD and control Apo E4 (+) profiles were more divergent from one another than the corresponding Apo E4 (-) profiles. Multivariate stepwise linear discriminant analysis selected 17 of the 58 biomarkers as optimal and complimentary for distinguishing Apo E4 (+) DTAD patients from Apo E4 (+) DTPD and Apo E4 (+) controls (collectively Apo E4 (+) not-DTAD, DTAD Sensitivity 100%, not-DTAD Specificity 100%) and 22 of the 58 biomarkers for distinguishing Apo E4 (-) DTAD patients from Apo E4 (-) DTPD and Apo E4 (-) controls (collectively Apo E4 (-) not-DTAD, DTAD Sensitivity 94.4%, not- DTAD Specificity 94.4%). Only 6 of the selected proteins were common to both the Apo E4 (+) and the Apo E4 (-) discriminant functions. Recombining of the results of Apo E4 (+) and Apo E4 (-) discriminations provided overall sensitivity for total DTAD of 97.4% and specificity for total not-DTAD of 95.7%.
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Almost half of the Australian veteran patients who initiated anticholinesterases treatment discontinued (ceased or switched) therapy within 6 months. However, one-third of those who ceased therapy reinitiated it during the study period.
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Cross-sectional study using the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey (NNHS).
We used standard methodological procedures recommended by The Cochrane Collaboration.
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Safety analyses comprised examination of the incidence, severity, and timing of treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) and their relationship to treatment initiation; changes in weight, electrocardiogram, vital signs, and laboratory parameters; and the incidence of premature study discontinuation. The analysis population (n = 1434) included all randomized patients who took at least 1 dose of study drug and had a postbaseline safety assessment. To further examine the effect of transition from a lower to a higher donepezil dose, a pooled analysis of safety data from 2 phase 3 trials of donepezil 5 mg/d and 10 mg/d was also performed.