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Compared with RSG or GLIM monotherapy, the RSG/GLIM FDC improved glycaemic control with no significant increased risk of hypoglycaemia. RSG/GLIM FDC provides an effective and well-tolerated treatment option for drug-naive individuals with T2DM.
The combination was non-inferior to separately co-administered tablets and the safety profile was consistent with the known profiles of glimepiride and atorvastatin. The observed increase in hypoglycaemia on the combination cannot be explained, but may be attributable to non-systematic collectiof glucose readings and may have been influenced by reporting bias in this open-label trial.
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The primary endpoint was not significantly different between albiglutide and all comparators (58 events vs 58 events; hazard ratio [HR] 1·00, 95% CI 0·68-1·49, p=0·0019 for non-inferiority). Major adverse cardiovascular event alone was also not significantly different (52 events vs 53; HR, 0·99; 95% CI, 0·65-1·49). When albiglutide was compared separately with placebo or active comparators, we noted no significant differences. We detected no significant differences in the other secondary endpoints. More patients had atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter in the albiglutide group (35 [1·4%] of 2524 patients; 8·6 events per 1000 patient-years) than in the all-comparators group (16 [0·6%] of 2583 patients; 3·4 events per 1000 patient-years).
We identified a sharp increase in the number of subjects with severe hypoglycemia presenting to an emergency room since 2006. The clinical characteristics of these subjects did not change markedly during the study period. Nationwide studies are warranted to further clarify this epidemic of severe hypoglycemia.
Seven hundred forty-six patients with type 2 diabetes who participated in the LEAD-3 trial, and three hypothetical cohorts of 5000 patients each that were based on the baseline characteristics of the patients in the LEAD-3 trial. The patients in the LEAD-3 trial were randomly assigned to monotherapy with liraglutide 1.2 mg/day (251 patients), liraglutide 1.8 mg/day (247 patients), or glimepiride 8 mg/day (248 patients).
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Mean HbA(1c) achieved at 9 months was significantly higher in group A: 8.9% versus 8.3% and 8.4% in groups B and C, respectively (P < 0.001). There was no difference in the mild hypoglycaemic event rate, 0.36 versus 0.48 versus 0.53 events per patient month, in groups A, B and C, respectively. Severe hypoglycaemic events, requiring help from others, did not occur throughout the study. The mean weight gain and insulin dose were comparable in all three groups.
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Nested case-control study.
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The aim of this study was to assess the potential beneficial effects of gliclazide and other sulphonylureas on ischemia-induced retinal neovascularization. To produce an animal model of oxygen-induced ischemic retinopathy, 7-day-old (P7) mice were exposed to a 75% oxygen environment for 5 days. On their return to ambient air at P12, these mice were then treated with gliclazide, glibenclamide, glimepiride, or N-acetylcysteine. Gliclazide, but not glibenclamide or glimepiride, markedly suppresses retinal neovascularization. N-Acetylcysteine, however, only moderately suppresses retinal neovascularization. The number of neovascular nuclei in the retinal cross sections decreased by 29% in the gliclazide-treated mice (P<0.05 vs control). The induction of VEGF mRNA expression at P13 is significantly suppressed in the gliclazide group, relative to the control group (-44%, P<0.05). The VEGF protein expression levels at P15 were also suppressed in the gliclazide group (-43%, P<0.01). The 8-isoprostane production levels at P15 were suppressed in both the gliclazide group (-20%, P<0.05) and the N-acetylcysteine-treated group (-31%, P<0.01). Gliclazide inhibits ischemia-induced retinal neovascularization, and this is likely to be mediated in part through the downregulation of VEGF and the suppression of oxidative stress.
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This 26-week, single-blind, active-controlled, multinational study randomized 285 subjects to receive glimepiride (1-8 mg once daily) or metformin (500-1000 mg twice daily) for 24 weeks. The primary end point was mean change in A1C from baseline to week 24. Safety was assessed by incidence of hypoglycemia and other adverse events.
To evaluate the effect of sulfonylurea (glimepiride)-based oral antidiabetic agents on testosterone levels in middle-aged men with type 2 diabetes.
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In the patients treated with glimepiride or glibenclamide, we found no significant differences in the distribution of the Ser1369Ala genotype between patients with or without severe hypoglycemia (p = 0.26). Moreover, the Ala1369 minor allele tended to be less frequent in the hypoglycemic group (31 vs 43%; OR: 1.65; 95% CI: 0.92-2.96; p = 0.09).
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We investigated the effects of a high-fat diet (HFD) and the subsequent treatment of metformin (met) and glimepiride (glim), which are widely prescribed for type 2 diabetes, on cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation using Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX) immunohistochemistry, respectively. Animals were fed low-fat diet (LFD) or HFD for 8 weeks. After 5 weeks of the HFD treatment, met alone or met + glim was administered orally once a day for 3 weeks. Body weight and food intake were much higher in the HFD + vehicle-treated group than the LFD-treated group. The administration of met or met + glim to the HFD-treated group resulted in a decrease in weight gain and food intake. Ki67-immunoreactive ((+)) nuclei, DCX(+) neuroblasts and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels were markedly decreased in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the HFD + vehicle-treated group compared to the LFD-treated group. The administration of met or met + glim to the HFD-treated group prevented the reduction of Ki67(+) nuclei, DCX(+) neuroblasts, BDNF levels in the DG. The intraventricular injection of K252a (a BDNF receptor blocker) to the HFD-treated group treated met or met + glim distinctively lowered the reduction of cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation induced by HFD. These results suggest that a HFD significantly reduces cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation by reducing BDNF levels and these effects are ameliorated by treatment with met or met + glim.
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In a randomized, 2-phase crossover study, 10 healthy volunteers were treated for 2 days with 600 mg oral gemfibrozil or placebo twice daily. On day 3, they received a single dose of 600 mg gemfibrozil or placebo and 1 hour later a single dose of 0.5 mg glimepiride orally. Plasma glimepiride, serum insulin, and blood glucose concentrations were measured up to 12 hours.
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Maximum solubility and in vitro dissolution were observed with Batch SD4. No significant enhancement of dissolution characteristics were observed in the corresponding physical mixture PM4. Low viscosity with comparable swelling characteristics as compared to GK of modified form of gum karaya may lead to improvement in dissolution behavior of solid dispersion batches. Also, the conversion of crystalline form of drug to amorphous form may be a responsible factor, which was further confirmed by DSC, FTIR studies, and X-RD studies. SEM photographs of batch SD4 revealed porous nature of particle surface.
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Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are implicated in diabetic complications. However, their role in beta-cell dysfunction is less clear. In this study we examined the effects of AGEs on islet function in mice and in isolated islets. AGE-BSA or BSA was administered ip to normal mice twice a day for 2 wk. We showed that AGE-BSA-treated mice exhibited significantly higher glucose levels and lower insulin levels in response to glucose challenge than did BSA-treated mice, although there were no significant differences in insulin sensitivity and islet morphology between two groups. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by islets of the AGE-BSA-treated mice or AGE-BSA-treated normal islets was significantly lower than that by islets isolated from the BSA-treated mice or BSA-treated normal islets. Furthermore, AGE treatment of islet beta-cells inhibited ATP production, and glimepiride, a sulfonylurea derivative, restored glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Further investigation indicated that AGEs inhibited cytochrome c oxidase activity by inducing the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Blocking the formation of nitric oxide with an iNOS selective inhibitor aminoguanidine reversed the inhibitory effects of AGEs on ATP production and insulin secretion. We conclude that AGEs inhibit cytochrome c oxidase and ATP production, leading to the impairment of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through iNOS-dependent nitric oxide production.
This new retrospective study design used data from physicians in a restricted manner (retrolective). Data from case report forms from 520 patients from 91 randomly selected centres were assessed and covariance analysis performed.
Sulfonylurea (SU) derivatives exert their hypoglycemic effect by blockade of adenosine-5'-triphosphate-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels in the beta-cell of the pancreas. Interestingly, KATP channels also occur in the cardiovascular system, where they are thought to play an important role in cardioprotective mechanisms against ischemia. We have recently shown that the classical second generation SU-derivative glibenclamide is able to block vascular KATP channels in man, whereas the newly developed second generation derivative glimepiride was devoid of this property. The aim of this study was to determine whether the first generation SU derivative tolbutamide has KATP channel blocking properties in humans. In a group of 12 healthy male non-smoking volunteers, we investigated whether therapeutic concentrations of tolbutamide were able to inhibit the forearm vasodilation in response to the infusion of the KATP channel opening drug diazoxide into the brachial artery. Changes in forearm blood flow were recorded by venous occlusion mercury-in-silastic strain-gauge plethysmography. Diazoxide alone increased the forearm blood flow ratio dose-dependently by ultimately 691 +/- 198%. A second diazoxide infusion in the presence of tolbutamide revealed a comparable vasodilator response with a percentage increase in forearm blood flow ratio of ultimately 542 +/- 111%. This response did not differ from the vasodilator response to diazoxide alone. The present study shows that therapeutic concentrations of tolbutamide are not able to attenuate the vasodilation caused by the KATP channel opener diazoxide in man. When compared with published data on second generation SU derivatives, tolbutamide shows an intermediate position between glibenclamide (with significant blockade of vascular KATP channels) versus glimepiride (with no blockade at all). It remains to be determined whether these acute effects of SU derivatives on pharmacological opening of forearm vascular KATP channels can be extrapolated to the chronic effects of these drugs on ischemia-mediated opening of myocardial KATP channels during treatment of NIDDM patients.
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Mathematic simulation using the validated Center for Outcomes Research (CORE) Diabetes Model, calibrated to baseline patient characteristics from a short-term, randomized, controlled trial of liraglutide and glimepiride monotherapies (Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes [LEAD]-3 trial) and using data from long-term outcomes studies.
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A 62-year-old woman had been found unconscious on her bed. She had to be resuscitated several times in the ambulance on the way to hospital. On admission her pupils were dilated and fixed, the cardiovascular system was unstable. Her rectal temperature was 28 degrees C. She was a diabetic being treated with metformin and glimepiride and was in incipient renal failure (serum creatinine 1.5 mg/dl). She was also in heart failure due to coronary heart disease and was in a debilitated state.
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The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of glimepiride and repaglinide on atherosclerosis via interfering with the inflammatory and oxidative pathways.
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Hemoglobin A1c is the main treatment target for patients with type 2 diabetes. It has also been shown recently that postprandial glucose and daily glucose fluctuations affect the progression of diabetic complications and atherosclerotic damages.
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Janssen Research & Development, LLC.
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Nateglinide, a D-phenylalanine derivative, belongs to a new group of insulinotropic agents with rapid onset and short duration of action. These agents have been developed to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia associated with pharmacological control and to decrease the likelihood of pancreatic beta-cell exhaustion. Nateglinide mediates the release of insulin from beta-cells by binding to the sulphonylurea receptors, which leads to the closure of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels. Increasing evidence from receptor binding, mechanistic and in vitro and in vivo insulin studies indicate unique pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties with nateglinide that are distinct from those of sulphonylureas. The time required by nateglinide to close beta-cell K(ATP) channels is comparable to that of glyburide but threefold and fivefold faster than repaglinide and glimepiride, respectively. Furthermore, its effects are rapidly reversed with an off-rate at the K(ATP) channel twice as fast as that of glyburide and glimepiride and five times faster than repaglinide. This results in a rapid and short insulin response characteristic of the physiological pattern of post-mealtime insulin release. Internalisation into beta-cells is not required for the action of nateglinide. Given that the kinetic profile of the agent is associated with selective enhancement of early-phase insulin secretion, nateglinide is expected to minimise post-meal hyperglycaemia with minimal propensity for hypoglycaemia.
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Patient compliance and treatment satisfaction with once-daily glimepiride were significantly better than with glibenclamide 2 to 3 times daily.
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Total datasets were available from 161 patients (age 62.5 +/- 8.1 years, mean +/- standard deviation; 58 women, 103 men). The median initial parameter concentrations were: relaxin, 27.4 pg/ml (range 0.4 - 380 pg/ml); fibrinogen, 3.0 g/l (range 1.1 - 7.9 g/l); platelets, 217,000/microl (range 51,000 - 547 000/microl). The data were analyzed according to the increase or decrease of each parameter after therapy compared with baseline. There was a significant correlation of relaxin variation with fibrinogen variation, seen particularly in the female subgroup (p < 0.05). The correlation was independent of the antidiabetic medication.
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Forty-eight 5-week-old male ApoE (-/-) mice were fed a western diet for 20 weeks and divided into four groups: control (saline, 154 mmol/l NaCl), glimepiride 0.1 mg/kg, empagliflozin 1 mg/kg and empagliflozin 3 mg/kg (n = 12/group). Plaque size and composition in the aortic arch/valve areas and cardiovascular risk variables in the blood and tissues were evaluated. Insulin resistance was estimated by HOMA and adiponectin levels. Body composition was determined using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.
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The single-tablet combination of vildagliptin and metformin addresses key defects of type 2 diabetes for improved glycemic control. By inhibiting the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) enzyme, vildagliptin raises the levels of the active incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide. This leads to increased synthesis and release of insulin from the pancreatic beta cells and decreased release of glucagon from the pancreatic alpha cells. The combination tablet also contains metformin, which addresses insulin resistance. The complementary mechanisms of action of the two agents in combination have been shown to provide additive and sustained reductions in hemoglobin A(1c) compared with metformin monotherapy. In active-controlled trials, the vildagliptin-metformin combination has been shown to produce equivalent reductions in hemoglobin A(1c) to pioglitazone-metformin and glimepiride-metformin combinations, without significant risk of hypoglycemia and without causing weight gain. In clinical trials, the overall incidence of any adverse event was similar in patients randomized to vildagliptin plus metformin and placebo plus metformin. Available data support the use of vildagliptin in combination with metformin as a promising second-line treatment for the management of type 2 diabetes and this is reflected in the latest UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence draft guideline for consultation on new agents for blood glucose control in type 2 diabetes.
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Eight patients withdrew from the study (three in the pioglitazone group, two in the metformin group, and three in the glimepiride group). The rate of reduction of HbA(1c) was fastest in patients receiving glimepiride and slowest in patients receiving pioglitazone. Although there were no significant differences among the three groups in HbA(1c) levels at the end of the study, patients taking pioglitazone had relatively lower FPG and 1,5AG levels than patients taking the other two drugs. These results suggest that pioglitazone acts predominantly on nocturnal metabolism rather than at mealtimes. FFA were reduced significantly in those taking pioglitazone (542.2 microEq/l vs. 237.3 microEq/l; P < 0.01) before a decrease in HbA(1c) was apparent. The change in FFA levels correlated with the change in HbA(1c) (r = 0.409, P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in other lipid parameters among the groups.
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) affects over 10% of the world's population. Hyperglycemia is the main feature for the diagnosis of this disease. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an established model organism for the study of various metabolic diseases. In this paper, hyperglycemic zebrafish, when immersed in a 111 mM glucose solution for 14 days, developed increased glycation of proteins from the eyes, decreased mRNA levels of insulin receptors in the muscle, and a reversion of high blood glucose level after treatment with anti-diabetic drugs (glimepiride and metformin) even after 7 days of glucose withdrawal. Additionally, hyperglycemic zebrafish developed an impaired response to exogenous insulin, which was recovered after 7 days of glucose withdrawal. These data suggest that the exposure of adult zebrafish to high glucose concentration is able to induce persistent metabolic changes probably underlined by a hyperinsulinemic state and impaired peripheral glucose metabolism.
Literature screening, meta-analysis and indirect comparison were used to compare efficacy and safety between dapagliflozin and glimepiride. Direct medication costs and medical expenditure on treating diabetes related comorbidities were calculated based on published and local sources and reported in 2015 Chinese Renminbi (RMB). A discount rate of 3% was applied to both costs and health effects. The Cardiff model, an economic model designed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of comparator therapies in diabetes, was used to generate outputs including macrovascular and microvascular complications, diabetes-specific mortality, costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) over a time horizon of 40 years from the health provider perspective. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to assess uncertainty in the model results.
Sulphonylureas are widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Based on laboratory findings, we determined the clinical significance of potential CYP2C9-mediated drug-drug interactions in hospitalized patients receiving glibenclamide, glimepiride or glipizide, all of which are metabolized by CYP2C9, together with a CYP2C9 inhibitor.
Rosiglitazone demonstrated its nephro- and neuroprotective effects in normoalbuminuric patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus by the end of the follow-up period and these effects were beyond glycemic control. Urinary beta2- and a1-microglobulin are significant biomarkers for incipient diabetic nephropathy and diabetic cerebral microangiopathy. These biomarkers showed that proximal tubule dysfunction may develop before the stage of microalbuminuria.
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Added to metformin, albiglutide was well tolerated; produced superior reductions in HbA1c and FPG at week 104 compared with placebo, sitagliptin, and glimepiride; and resulted in weight loss compared with glimepiride.
Glimepiride, a sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent, is metabolized by cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) which is known to have genetic polymorphisms. To examine the effects of CYP2C9 genetic polymorphisms on the safety and efficacy of glimepiride in patients with type 2 diabetes, the responses to the glimepiride were measured in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients with the different CYP2C9 genotype. The reduction in the HbA(1c) was significantly larger (P<0.05) among the CYP2C9*1/*3 subjects than among the CYP2C9*1/*1 subjects. The long-term observations of 2 patients with a CYP2C9*1/*3 suggested that subjects with a CYP2C9*1/*3 respond well to glimepiride during the initial phase of treatment, but 1 patient have shown the weight gain over the long-term treatment. The pharmacokinetic study showed that the area under the concentration-time curve for glimepiride in the CYP2C9*1/*3 subjects was approximately 2.5-fold higher than that of the CYP2C9*1/*1 subjects. The intrinsic clearance of glimepiride by the CYP2C9*3 enzyme was lower than that by the CYP2C9*1 enzyme. These results suggested that the lower hydroxylation activity of glimepiride in the subject with type 2 diabetes and CYP2C9*1/*3 led to a marked elevation in the plasma concentrations of glimepiride and a stronger pharmacological effect of glimepiride.
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To compare initiation of insulin therapy by adding once-daily insulin glargine to oral antidiabetic agents (OADs) with switching patients to premixed 30% regular, 70% human neutral protamine hagedorn insulin (70/30) without OADs.
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To assess the efficacy and safety of a 24-week treatment with sitagliptin, a highly selective once-daily oral dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, in patients with type 2 diabetes who had inadequate glycaemic control [glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) >or=7.5% and
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We included 5100 patients (liraglutide n=3173, comparator n=1927). Mean (SD) CKD-EPI eGFR was 81.2 (20.6) ml/min/1.73m(2) for liraglutide and 81.6 (20.3) ml/min/1.73m(2) for comparator. For liraglutide, BW changed -1.9 (95% CI (-2.0; -1.8)) kg, for comparator BW changed 0.2 (95% CI (0.03; 0.3)) kg. Using regression modelling, a 10% BW decrease yielded no change in creatinine, MDRD eGFR or CKD-EPI eGFR for both liraglutide and comparator, but was associated with a 10.2% (-11.3%; -9.1%) decrease in CG eGFR for liraglutide, and a 10.6% (-12.0%; -9.1%) decrease for comparator.