A modelling approach was used, based on secondary analysis of published data and retrospective application of costs. In the base-case analysis, average case-related expenses of the SHI were applied and LYG were quantified using the average of the difference between the survival rates in the ramipril and placebo groups during the HOPE trial. LYG beyond the trial duration were estimated by the method of declining exponential approximation of life expectancy.
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Based on these results, it is suggested that for the ONTARGET patients, the use of telmisartan instead of ramipril increases costs by 6.3%. These findings suggest that the choice to put patients on telmisartan should be justified based on the patient?s susceptibility to specific adverse events to minimize the cost implications.
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In ischemia, the heart generates and releases kinins as mediators that seem to have cardioprotective actions. Kinin-generating pathways are present in the heart. Kininogen, kininogenases, kinins, and B2 kinin receptors can be measured in cardiac tissue. Kinins are released under conditions of ischemia. In anesthetized rats and dogs with coronary artery ligation and in human patients with myocardial infarction, kinin plasma levels are increased. In isolated rat hearts, the outflow of kinins is enhanced during ischemia but markedly attenuated after deendothelialization, pointing to the coronary vascular endothelium as the main possible source. Kinins administered locally exert beneficial cardiac effects. In isolated rat hearts with ischemia-reperfusion injuries, perfusion with bradykinin (BK) reduces the duration and incidence of ventricular fibrillation, improves cardiodynamics, reduces release of cytosolic enzymes, and preserves energy-rich phosphates and glycogen stores. In anesthetized animals, intracoronary BK is followed by comparable beneficial changes and limits infarct size. Inhibition of breakdown of BK and related peptides induces beneficial cardiac effects. Treatment with ACE inhibitors such as ramipril increases cardiac kinin levels and reduces post-ischemic reperfusion injuries in isolated rat hearts and infarct size in anesthetized animals. The importance of an intact endothelium that continuously generates kinins is supported by observations that basal and ramipril-induced release of kinins and PGI2 is markedly reduced after deendothelialization of isolated hearts. Blockade of B2 kinin receptors increases ischemia-induced effects. Endothelial formation of NO and PGI2 by ACE inhibition is prevented by the specific B2 kinin receptor antagonist icatibant. In isolated hearts, ischemia-reperfusion injuries deteriorate with icatibant, which also abolishes the cardioprotective effects of ACE inhibitors and of exogenous BK. Infarct size reduction by ACE inhibitors and by BK in anesthetized animals is reversed by icatibant. Kinins contribute to the cardioprotective effects associated with ischemic preconditioning because preconditioning or BK-induced antiarrhythmic and infarct size-limiting effects are attenuated by icatibant. In conclusion, kinins may act as mediators of endogenous cardioprotective mechanisms. Kinins are generated and released during ischemia, with subsequent formation of PGI2 and NO probably derived mainly from the coronary vascular endothelium. Their cardioprotective profile resembles that of ACE inhibitors.
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The data obtained will supplement previous results from randomized controlled trials to document the potential value of utilizing azilsartan medoxomil in comparison to ACE-inhibitor treatment for target BP achievement in clinical practice.
Clinic and ambulatory BP, urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) and plasma aldosterone were measured.
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On the basis of recent evidence that the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene promoter contains functional binding sites for the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and that COX-2 is expressed in a regulated fashion in the kidney, this study aimed to assess the effect of immunosuppressants on COX-2 expression in the kidney. Therefore, Wistar-Kyoto rats were treated with cyclosporine A (CsA; 15 mg/kg per day) or tacrolimus (5 mg/kg per day) for 7 d each. Both drugs markedly lowered COX-2 expression while COX-1 expression remained unaltered. Furthermore, CsA blunted the increase of renocortical COX-2 expression in response to low salt intake or a combination of low-salt diet with the ACE inhibitor ramipril (10 mg/kg per day), which strongly stimulates renocortical COX-2 expression. At the same time, calcineurin inhibitors moderately enhanced basal as well as stimulated renin secretion and renin gene expression. These findings suggest that inhibition of calcineurin could be a crucial determinant for the regulated expression of COX-2 in the kidney. Inhibition of COX-2 expression may therefore at least in part account for the well-known adverse effects of immunosuppressants in the kidney. Moreover, our data suggest that the stimulation of the renin system by low salt and by ACE inhibitors is not essentially mediated by COX-2 activity.
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Pharmacological therapy in cases of chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) is usually evaluated by maximal exercise time. To assess the effect of an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, 223 patients with moderate CHF were studied in 24 centres in four Nordic countries in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group design. The study drug was titrated from 1.25 mg to a maximum of 10 mg once daily (o.d) over a period of 4 weeks (mean dose 8 mg). A symptom-limited bicycle exercise test, starting at 30 watts and increasing by 10 watts.min-1, was used to evaluate exercise capacity. Reproducible tests were required at baseline, and the test was repeated after 4, 8 and 12 weeks of treatment. Seven deaths were recorded in the placebo group and one death in the ramipril group. A total of 195 patients completed 12 weeks of treatment (placebo group n = 91, ramipril group n = 104). The groups had similar baseline characteristics. Maximal exercise time was increased by mean (SD) 35 s (9) and 41 s (8) in the placebo and ramipril groups, respectively. The adjusted difference between the groups at 12 weeks was 9 s (12) (ns). A significant decrease in blood pressure and rate-pressure product at rest and at end of exercise was obtained by ramipril as compared with placebo. Significantly fewer patients deteriorated in NYHA class from baseline to 12 weeks of ramipril treatment compared to placebo (P = 0.012). Concomitant medication for CHF increased significantly in the placebo group as compared with ramipril-treated patients (P = 0.003).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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ACE inhibitors may provide some relief of IC symptoms when used in patients with PAD. The greatest functional benefit has been seen with ramipril; it is unknown whether other agents in the class would show similar results. Well-controlled and designed studies with sufficient power and using diverse patient populations are needed.
Patients enrolled in this placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, parallel trial (72 male, 77 female, aged 60 ± 9 years, body mass index 30.4 ± 4.7 kg/m(2), duration of hypertension 9 ± 8 years) were treated with either 30/45 mg PIO (dose titration), 2.5/5 mg RAM, or their combination for 12 weeks. A reduction in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein was observed with PIO (-0.89 ± 1.98 mg/liter; -25%) and PIRA (-0.49 ± 2.11 mg/liter; -16%), while an increase was seen with RAM (0.58 ± 2.13 mg/liter; +20%, p < .05 vs PIO and PIRA). The 24-hour blood pressure profile showed a small increase with both monotherapies but a decrease with PIRA (p < .05 vs PIO). Improvements in biomarkers of chronic systemic inflammation and insulin resistance (IR) were observed in the PIO and PIRA arms only [PIO/RAM/PIRA: homeostasis model of assessment of IR: -0.78 ± 1.39 (-29%)/0.15 ± 1.03 (+5%)/ -1.44 ± 2.83 (-40%); adiponectin: 8.51 ± 5.91 (+104%)/ 0.09 ± 2.63 (+1%)/ 8.86 ± 6.37 mg/liter (+107%); matrix metallo-proteinase-9: -48 ± 127 (-12%)/-1 ± 224 (0%)/-60 ± 210 ng/ml (-13%), p < .05 for RAM vs PIO or PIRA in all cases].
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Cerebral arteriolar pressure, CBF and internal diameter were measured via an open-skull preparation at baseline and during hypotension before and after deactivation (EDTA).
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The 24-hour urine AcSDKP cumulative excretion increased significantly more after 25 mg AVE7688 (919 nmol [95% confidence interval (CI), 803-1052 nmol], P < .05) than after 5 mg AVE7688 (706 nmol [95% CI, 612-813 nmol]) or 10 mg ramipril (511 nmol [95% CI, 440-593 nmol]). The 25-mg dose of AVE7866 significantly and transiently (4 to 8 hours after drug intake) increased urinary ANP (2.02 +/- 1.05 ng/h, P < .05), whereas 5 mg AVE7688 (1.14 +/- 0.77 ng/h) and 10 mg ramipril (0.93 +/- 0.65 ng/h) had no effect compared with placebo (0.80 +/- 0.37 ng/h). In the low-salt panel the rise in plasma active renin concentration achieved 24 hours after dosing by 25 mg AVE7688 (247 pg/mL [95% CI, 157-389 pg/mL], P < .05) was significantly higher than that achieved by 5 mg AVE7688 (129 pg/mL [95% CI, 75-221 pg/mL]) or 10 mg ramipril (113 pg/mL [95% CI, 67-193 pg/mL]), which did not differ. In the high-salt panel group the effects of 25 mg AVE7688 on renin release did not significantly differ from those after administration of the combination of 150 mg irbesartan plus 10 mg ramipril or 300 mg irbesartan alone. All of these active drugs similarly decreased blood pressure compared with placebo.
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The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the 24-h antihypertensive efficacy of different treatments using the smoothness index.
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The aim of this study was to compare the effects of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition, angiotensin II (AII) AT1-receptor blockade, and dihydropyridine calcium antagonism on hypertrophy and on vascular albumin permeability in kidney, heart, and mesenteric artery in a model combining genetic hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus was induced by streptozotocin in 8-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats. The animals were randomized to receive no treatment, the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor ramipril, the AII AT1-receptor blocker valsartan, or the dihydropyridine calcium antagonist lacidipine for 3 weeks. Vascular albumin permeability was measured as the tissue content of intravenously injected Evans blue dye (EB) in kidney, heart, and mesenteric artery and the tissue/plasma EB ratio was calculated. Systolic blood pressure was reduced by all three antihypertensive regimens. Glycemic control was similar in all diabetic groups. Kidney hypertrophy was not affected by any of the antihypertensive drugs. Hypertrophy of the mesenteric artery was enhanced by lacidipine but was not affected by ramipril or valsartan. Relative heart weight was also increased by lacidipine. Vascular albumin permeability, expressed as EB content in micrograms/gram dry weight or as tissue/plasma EB ratio, was higher in the kidneys of lacidipine-treated rats than in any other group of diabetic rats. There was a positive correlation between kidney weight/body weight and kidney/plasma EB ratio in the diabetic rats. These findings indicate that the dihydropyridine calcium antagonist lacidipine is associated with an unfavorable effect on vascular hypertrophy and on vascular albumin permeability in the kidneys in rats with hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, there seems to be a coupling in the diabetic kidney between hypertrophy and increased vascular albumin permeability.
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ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) improve insulin resistance and prevent type 2 diabetes, possibly mediated by inhibition of bradykinin (BK) degradation. The vasopeptidase inhibitor omapatrilat (OMA) raises BK to a greater extent than ACEIs by dual enzyme inhibition, whereas its insulin-sensitizing effects and mechanisms have not been investigated.
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Although heart failure with a preserved or normal ejection fraction (HFNEF or diastolic heart failure) is common, treatment outcomes on quality of life and cardiac function are lacking. The effect of renin-angiotensin blockade by irbesartan or ramipril in combination with diuretics on quality of life (QoL), regional and global systolic and diastolic function was assessed in HFNEF patients.
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University research unit.
To evaluate whether the protein:creatinine ratio in spot morning urine samples is a reliable indicator of 24 hour urinary protein excretion and predicts the rate of decline of glomerular filtration rate and progression to end stage renal failure in non-diabetic patients with chronic nephropathy.
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Microalbuminuria predicts early mortality and renal disease in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. In insulin-dependent diabetic patients, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition decreases microalbuminuria and retards the progression of renal disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of low dose ramipril on albumin excretion rate (AER) and blood pressure in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients with persistent microalbuminuria (AER > 20 < 200 micrograms/min) and normal blood pressure or mild hypertension. The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of 6 months duration at 14 hospital-based diabetes centers in northeastern Italy. Blood pressure, plasma glucose, and body weight were determined every month; AER, serum creatinine, glycosylated hemoglobin, and plasma lipids at baseline, after 1 month, and at the end of the study. Of 122 non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients randomly allocated in blocks of four to receive either ramipril (1.25 mg/day) or placebo, 108 (54 in the ramipril group and 54 in the placebo group) completed the study. At baseline, age, duration of diabetes, body mass index, and glycosylated hemoglobin were similar in the two groups and remained unchanged throughout the study. In the placebo group, AER rose from a baseline median of 65 micrograms/min (range 53 to 76, 95% confidence Interval) to 72 micrograms/min (57 to 87) and to 83 micrograms/min (62 to 104) after 1 and 6 months, respectively, but fell from 62 micrograms/min (48 to 76) to 45 micrograms/min (33 to 57) and to 53 micrograms/min (38 to 69), respectively, in the ramipril group, a significant difference between the groups (P < .01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
A total of 1,094 participants were randomly assigned. Average age was 55 years, 61% were men, and the mean of the first glomerular filtration rate in the study was 46 mL/min/1.73 m2 (0.76 mL/s). No significant differences in HRQOL were seen between the low- and usual-blood-pressure groups. Reported side effects also were similar between blood-pressure groups. Mean Physical Health Component (PHC) and Mental Health Component (MHC) scores had a significantly smaller decrease in the ramipril than metoprolol group in both the initial period from baseline to year 1 (PHC, 2.08 +/- 0.56; MHC, 1.89 +/- 0.62) and during the first 4 years of follow-up (PHC, 1.60 +/- 0.44; MHC, 1.48 +/- 0.48). The MHC also had a slightly smaller decrease during the first 4 years in the ramipril group than amlodipine group (1.20 +/- 0.61).
To explore the effects and mechanism of ShenQi Compound Recipe on inflammation maker of type 2 diabetes mellitus in GK rats.
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Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) is a physiological downregulator of reactive oxygen species generation and plays an antiatherogenic role in the vascular wall. A common variant in the UCP2 promoter (-866G>A) modulates mRNA expression, with increased expression associated with the A allele. We investigated association of this variant with coronary artery disease (CAD) in two cohorts of type 2 diabetic subjects.
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Inhibitors of bradykinin (BK)-inactivating enzymes protect from myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury after short periods of reperfusion. However, protection after 2 to 3 h of reperfusion does not mean that myocardium remains viable for an extended time. Therefore, we examined the effects of inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ramiprilat), EP24.11 (cFP-F-pAB), and EP24.15 (cFP-AAF-pAB) in a chronic model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. A left descending coronary artery was occluded for 30 min in anesthetized rabbits. Saline, ramiprilat, or endopeptidase inhibitors were given after 27 min of occlusion. The BK(2) receptor antagonist HOE140 was administered in certain experiments. After ischemia, the occlusion was released, and the animal allowed to recover for 3 or 7 days. Surgery was then repeated, and the heart removed for determination of infarct size. In separate experiments, the heart was removed after 2 h of reperfusion for determination of BK tissue levels. Ramiprilat and endopeptidase inhibitors reduced infarct size at 3 and 7 days. Combining inhibitors further reduced infarct size after 3 days. The protective effect of the endopeptidase inhibitors was blocked by HOE140. Infarct sizes at 7 days were larger than at 3 days. The additive effect of multiple inhibitors was absent at 7 days. Ramiprilat and cFP-F-pAB significantly increased tissue BK levels. We conclude that inhibition of BK-inactivating enzymes protects endogenous BK from degradation and provides long-lasting protection from myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. A single treatment at the time of reperfusion does not prevent extension of the infarction between 3 and 7 days.
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In elderly patients with essential arterial hypertension O provides an effective, prolonged and well tolerated BP control, representing a useful option among first-line drug treatments of hypertension in this age group.
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The observed reduction in blood pressure following an overdose of an ACE inhibitor was greater than anticipated based on data from therapeutic doses. We conclude that a blood pressure-lowering dose-response relationship extends to higher ACE inhibitor doses than those conventionally used in clinical practice.
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There were 3,654 people with diabetes. Vitamin E had a neutral effect on the primary study outcome (relative risk = 1.03, 95% CI 0.88-1.21; P = 0.70), on each component of the composite primary outcome, and on all predefined secondary outcomes.
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With the precautions stipulated by the protocol of the ONTARGET trial, hypokalemia and hyperkalemia were infrequent events. Nevertheless, both high and low serum potassium were associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and renal disease.
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A 53 year-old man presented to our metropolitan hospital following a deliberate self-poisoning with 200 mg apixaban, 35 mg ramipril, 105 mg bisoprolol, 280 mg atorvastatin, 6 mg colchicine, 37.4 mg magnesium, 4 × 500 mg paracetamol/9.5 mg codeine/5 mg phenylephrine and alcohol. He developed hypotension that was treated with noradrenaline. His initial and peak apixaban concentration was 1022.6 ng/ml and was associated with only minor bleeding from his femoral central line insertion site, which improved with local compression. Vitamin K 10 mg (at 9 h post-ingestion) and Prothrombinex-VF 2000 units (at 13 h post-ingestion) were also administered without any observed effect on coagulation studies. Apixaban elimination appeared to display first-order kinetics with an elimination half-life of 7.4 h. His plasma apixaban concentration was within the therapeutic dose range 10 h post-ingestion and he recovered uneventfully.
The objective of this study was to compare the antihypertensive efficacy and safety of the angiotensin II antagonist olmesartan medoxomil and the ACE inhibitor ramipril in elderly patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension, grouped according to renal function.
Optimal albuminuria reduction is considered essential to halting chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. Both vitamin D receptor activator (VDRA) treatment and dietary sodium restriction potentiate the efficacy of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS) blockade to reduce albuminuria. The ViRTUE study addresses whether a VDRA in combination with dietary sodium restriction provides further albuminuria reduction in non-diabetic CKD patients on top of RAAS blockade. The ViRTUE study is an investigator-initiated, prospective, multi-centre, randomized, double-blind (paricalcitol versus placebo), placebo-controlled trial targeting stage 1-3 CKD patients with residual albuminuria of >300 mg/day due to non-diabetic glomerular disease, despite angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker use. During run-in, all subjects switched to standardized RAAS blockade (ramipril 10 mg/day) and blood pressure titrated to <140/90 mmHg according to a standardized protocol. Eligible patients are subsequently enrolled and undergo four consecutive study periods in random order of 8 weeks each: (i) paricalcitol (2 µg/day) combined with a liberal sodium diet (∼200 mmol Na(+)/day, i.e. mean sodium intake in the general population), (ii) paricalcitol (2 µg/day) combined with dietary sodium restriction (target: 50 mmol Na(+)/day), (iii) placebo combined with a liberal sodium diet and (iv) placebo combined with dietary sodium restriction. Data are collected at the end of each study period. The primary outcome is 24-h urinary albumin excretion. Secondary study outcomes are blood pressure, renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate), plasma renin activity and, in a sub-population (N = 9), renal haemodynamics (measured glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow). A sample size of 50 patients provides 90% power to detect a 23% reduction in albuminuria, assuming a 25% dropout rate. Further reduction of residual albuminuria by combination of VDRA treatment and sodium restriction during single-agent RAAS-blockade will justify long-term studies on cardiorenal outcomes and safety.
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Coronary artery disease is still the no. 1 killer in the developed countries and must thus be detected and treated at an earlier stage. If coronary artery disease is advanced, patients have to be examined regarding the need for revascularization. For secondary prevention, of course, an optimal change of life style and optimal medical treatment of risk factors is mandatory. Independent of the optimal risk factor modification, all of these patients (according to the rules of evidence-based medicine) should take ASA, statins, beta blockers and ACE-inhibitors, if no contraindications or intolerance are present. Therefore, the problem in secondary prevention is not how to identify these patients, but rather how to fulfill their needs. In our own survey in patients with known coronary artery disease referred for PTCA (including patients with post myocardial infarction previous PTCA or bypass surgery), only 89% were on ASA (or clopidogrel), 51% on lipid lowering drugs (46% on statins), 65% on beta blockers, and only 43% had an ACE-inhibitor (MUNICH data in Figures 1 to 4). The analysis of published literature is also depicted in Figures 1 to 4. Until 1996, patients with known coronary artery disease took ASA in only 26% of the cases but later on it was 77 to 100% (Figure 1). Lipid lowering drugs (especially statins) are prescribed in only 13 to 77% (Figure 2), beta blockers in only 30 to 80% (Figure 3) and ACE-inhibitors in only 10 to 72% (Figure 4). In 2 major studies, a decrease in the rate of intake of these drugs during the follow-up years has been documented. The "ideal tablet" for secondary prevention contains ASA (100 mg), a statin (e.g. for most statins 40 to 80 mg), a beta blocker (e.g. metoprolol 100 mg or bisoprolol 10 mg) and an ACE-inhibitor (e.g. ramipril 10 mg). So this ideal "SPM" ("secondary prevention mix") tablet contains 160 to 300 mg of drugs. In conclusion, the analysis of published data for Europe and the USA shows that--in contrast to the statements of politicians and health care insurance companies--we are not overtreating but rather undertreating our patients regarding medications for secondary prevention.
ZDF rats showed increased renal accumulation of the AGE subtypes 3-deoxyglucosone-imidazolone, pentosidine and CML by about 40, 55 and 55%, respectively compared with heterozygous, non-diabetic control animals at the age of 37 weeks. AVE7688 but not ramipril attenuated the renal accumulation of 3-deoxyglucosone-imidazolone, pentosidine and CML and improved CML clearance in ZDF rats. During glycation reactions in vitro, AVE7688 also demonstrated potent chelating activity and inhibited metal-catalysed formation of pentosidine and CML.
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The epidemiologic component of the model examined the incidence of first and recurrent strokes in the HOPE Study population, assessed at annual increments, for the years 1995 through 1997. An economic decision model was constructed by the application of costs to the epidemiologic foundation. Direct costs for stroke hospitalization and follow-up were calculated based on estimates provided by Samsa et al (1999). The estimated cost of ramipril treatment was based on the average wholesale price for the corresponding year of the analysis. The Samsa index costs are given in 1991 US $; they were converted to study-year US $ using the Consumer Price Index for the corresponding year.