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Gastric pH was measured for 24 h in 26 control subjects, 26 gastro-oesophageal reflux disease subjects at baseline and the same 26 gastro-oesophageal reflux disease subjects during treatment with a proton-pump inhibitor. Histograms were constructed using the 21 600 values generated from each recording and bins of 0.25 pH units.
In the per-protocol analysis (PP) eradication rates were 89.7 and 72% for the 7- and 14-day groups (p = 0.159). In the intention to-treat analysis (ITT) eradication rates were 86.7 and 62.1% in the 7- and 14-day groups, respectively (p = 0.06). None of the strains was resistant to Am, and 4 strains were resistant to Cla: 3 (11.1%) in the 14-day group and 1 (4%) in the 7-day group. Neither strain-specific antibiotic resistance nor host CYP2C19 status influenced eradication rates.
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Rabeprazole 10 and 20 mg were well tolerated in these children and adolescents with GERD. The results of the pharmacokinetic analyses of single and multiple oral doses indicated no apparent accumulation of rabeprazole or its thioether metabolite with the 10-mg dose. There was, however, a suggestion of accumulation with multiple dosing of rabeprazole 20 mg, which requires confirmation in larger studies.
Voriconazole (VRC) is widely used as prophylaxis and in the treatment of invasive fungal disease (IFD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We retrospectively examined the results of VRC therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in allogeneic HCT recipients. A total of 474 samples were obtained from 59 adult patients who received VRC during the first 100 days following HCT between 2009 and 2014 in our institute. Seventeen patients received VRC for prophylaxis of IFD, and 42 received VRC for the empirical or preemptive therapy for IFD. A total of 299 samples (63 %) were obtained during the administration of the intravenous form of VRC. The median VRC daily dose based on the actual body weight was 6.68 mg/kg/day (range, 1.92-10.41 mg/kg/day). The median VRC trough level was 0.99 mg/l (range, <0.09-5.45 mg/l). The multivariate analysis using a logistic regression model demonstrated significantly higher VRC trough levels (≥1.0 mg/l) in males (P < 0.001), empirical or preemptive therapy (P = 0.002), VRC daily dose based on the actual body weight ≥7 mg/kg/day (P < 0.001), and concomitant use of lansoprazole as compared to rabeprazole (P < 0.001). The concomitant use of calcineurin inhibitors and corticosteroids had no effects on VRC trough levels in multivariate analysis. These data suggest that lansoprazole and rabeprazole have different effects on the plasma VRC trough levels in the allogeneic HCT recipients.
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The 14-day tetracycline- and furazolidone-containing quadruple regimen can achieve a relatively high eradication rate as rescue treatment. Some side effects including fever may occur during the treatment.
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The findings of several studies suggest that proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) suppress gastric acid more effectively in Helicobacter pylori-infected (Hp +) than in non-infected (Hp -) patients, but there has been no evaluation of the short-term clinical response.
This 10-day sequential treatment regimen achieves high eradication rates in peptic ulcer disease and non-ulcer dyspepsia.
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A cross-over study was performed in 12 H. pylori (-), healthy subjects (6 men; mean age: 26 years). A single oral dose of the following agents was received with a wash-out period between each study: a glass of water (200 ml), antacid, ranitidine, omeprazole, esomeprazole, and rabeprazole. Gastric pH was recorded for 6 h after drug intake.
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Antimicrobial effects of these medicines were evaluated through detection of MICs for 3 H. pylori strains isolated from different countries.
Rikkunshito combined with standard-dose RPZ therapy may be a useful new strategy for PPI-refractory GERD patients.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of rikkunshito (RKT), a traditional Japanese medicine, combined with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) in patients with PPI-refractory non-erosive reflux disease (NERD).
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Actively sensitized guinea-pigs were challenged with aerosol antigen (ovalbumin, OVA) and cough reflex sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin was measured 24 h later. The PPIs (omeprazole and rabeprazole) or the histamine H(2) blocker cimetidine were administered intraperitoneally 1 h before OVA challenge and before measuring cough reflex sensitivity, then bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was immediately collected. The pH of the fluid obtained by bronchial washing was determined after examining the effect of rabeprazole on the cough response to capsaicin.
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Three standardised, randomised, two-way crossover studies were performed in a total of 108 Helicobacter pylori-negative healthy subjects. Intragastric pH was monitored on day 5 of once-daily oral dosing. The percentage of time of a 24-hour period with intragastric pH >4 and 24-hour median pH were measured on day 5.
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Acid suppression plus two antibiotics is considered the reference anti-Helicobacter pylori treatment. Reported eradication rates are around 65-80%. Human Lactobacillus acidophilus shows an in vitro inhibitory effect on the attachment of H. pylori to gastric epithelial cell lines. Culture supernatant of this bacillus seems to decrease the in vitro viability of H. pylori.
Economic models provide a useful framework to evaluate PPIs in realistic clinical scenarios. Our findings show that rabeprazole is cost-effective for the treatment of GORD.
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Scant data exist on the normal range of serum gastrin in infants. In phase I and III trials of rabeprazole in gastroesophageal reflux disease, we studied serum gastrin levels in infants 1 to 11 months old, and assessed normal ranges and the effect of acid-suppressive drugs.
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Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 (CYP2C19) genotype is regarded as a useful tool to predict area under the blood concentration-time curve (AUC) of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). In our results, however, CYP2C19 genotypes had no influence on AUC of all PPIs during fluvoxamine treatment. These findings suggest that CYP2C19 genotyping is not always a good indicator for estimating AUC of PPIs. Limited sampling strategies (LSS) were developed to estimate AUC simply and accurately. It is important to minimize the number of blood samples because of patient's acceptance. This article reviewed the usefulness of LSS for estimating AUC of three PPIs (omeprazole: OPZ, lansoprazole: LPZ and rabeprazole: RPZ). The best prediction formulas in each PPI were AUC(OPZ)=9.24 x C(6h)+2638.03, AUC(LPZ)=12.32 x C(6h)+3276.09 and AUC(RPZ)=1.39 x C(3h)+7.17 x C(6h)+344.14, respectively. In order to optimize the sampling strategy of LPZ, we tried to establish LSS for LPZ using a time point within 3 hours through the property of pharmacokinetics of its enantiomers. The best prediction formula using the fewest sampling points (one point) was AUC(racemic LPZ)=6.5 x C(3h) of (R)-LPZ+13.7 x C(3h) of (S)-LPZ-9917.3 x G1-14387.2×G2+7103.6 (G1: homozygous extensive metabolizer is 1 and the other genotypes are 0; G2: heterozygous extensive metabolizer is 1 and the other genotypes are 0). Those strategies, plasma concentration monitoring at one or two time-points, might be more suitable for AUC estimation than reference to CYP2C19 genotypes, particularly in the case of coadministration of CYP mediators.
Upper abdominal symptoms were reported by 96/100 LPR patients: 89 responded positively to at least one of the questions about acid reflux-related symptoms and 89 to at least one of those about dysmotility-like symptoms. There was poor correlation between positive rates to FSSG upper abdominal symptom questions and the frequency of reported laryngopharyngeal symptoms. There were significant reductions in the frequency of acid reflux-related symptoms, dysmotility-like symptoms, and laryngopharyngeal symptoms after acidsuppression therapy. The LPR symptom score decreased to less than half the pretreatment score in 25 subjects (therapeutic response group). The pretreatment frequency of dysmotility-like symptoms seemed to be higher in the nonresponse group than in the response group, although the difference was not significant. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the pretreatment frequency of acid reflux-related symptoms.
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Consecutive patients with chronic laryngitis were enrolled. The frequency and severity of reflux and laryngeal symptoms were scored. All the patients underwent laryngoscopy, esophagogastroduodenoscopy and 24-h multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring before receiving rabeprazole 10 mg b.i.d. for 3 months. Mild typical reflux symptoms (heartburn or regurgitation) occurring ≥ 2 days/week or moderate/severe symptoms occurring ≥ 1 day/week were defined as troublesome reflux symptoms.